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2019年11月14日 07:46:50 | 作者:网上常识 | 来源:新华社
Children love to play with new toys but hate disruption to their routines. These traits persist in adult life: innovation is ily adopted when it is incorporated in new gadgets but innovation that involves doing things differently is resisted.儿童喜欢玩新玩具,但讨厌习惯被打断。这些特性在成年后会一直保持下去:如果把创新融入新玩意中,人们很乐意接受,但涉及改变做事方式的创新,人们就会抵触。Look around a university. At a super#173;ficial level, modern information technology has changed everything. Most activities — communication, scheduling and presentations — are conducted electronically. At a deeper level, nothing at all has changed. The course structures, materials and the methods of pedagogy remain essentially the same.到一所大学四处转转。从表面看,现代信息技术已改变了一切。大多数活动——沟通、排课表和做报告——都是以电子方式完成的。但在更深层次上,一切都没有改变。课程结构、教材和教学法本质上还是老样子。As Richard Nelson, the economist of innovation, has pointed out while American children are much healthier than they once were they are not much better at learning to . Innovation that comes in a pill or injection is easily adopted: innovation that manages a process better is not.正如创新经济学家理查德#8226;纳尔逊(Richard Nelson)所指出的那样,当今的美国儿童比过去的儿童健康得多,但他们学习阅读的能力并不比过去强太多。以药丸或注射形式出现的创新很容易被接受,优化流程的创新则不然。It has always been so. Anaesthetics were developed in the mid-19th century and soon all surgeons were using them. However, when a Viennese physician discovered that the most important thing surgeons could do to keep their patients alive, especially those who were newborn infants, was to wash their hands, the profession resisted the innovation for half a century.情况一直是如此。麻醉剂是19世纪中期开发出来的,不久之后所有外科医生都开始使用麻醉剂。然而,当一位维也纳内科医生发现,要保住病人、尤其是新生儿的性命,外科医生所能做的最重要的事是洗手时,医疗界抵制这项创新的时间长达半个世纪。While doctors would ily experiment with new chemicals, they fought any acknowledgment that their procedures were defective.尽管医生们愿意试验新的化学制剂,但他们竭力拒绝承认自己的治疗程序存在瑕疵。Authors and editors use computers and software to write and compile, and eers are everywhere. Yet any suggestion that these developments imply a different and diminished role for publishers and booksellers is fiercely resisted, both by these businesses and by authors and ers.如今,写手和编辑使用电脑和软件进行写作和编辑,电子阅览器已无处不在。不过,任何人只要提及这些进展意味着出版商和书商的角色被改变和削弱,都会受到这两者以及作者和读者的强烈抵制。Airlines place orders for the latest models but established carriers find it hard to adapt to the market challenges set by low-cost carriers. Their response has been to set up distinct subsidiaries to implement[APE?] the new business model. Yet Delta’s Song was sung only briefly and British Airways’ Go went.航空公司会订购最新型的飞机,但老牌航空公司发现很难针对低价航空公司引发的市场竞争做出调整。它们的对策是设立完全不同的子公司,来执行新的业务模式。不过,达美航空(Delta)的Song只维持了很短时间,而英国航空(British Airways)的Go也已成过去式。Since even babies are more suspicious of new ways of doing things than of new toys, we might seek evolutionary explanations. But why would our ancestors have been more y to hunt new prey, or adopt new tools, than to adapt routines? Perhaps innovations incorporated in physical items are more plainly beneficial than process innovations. It is hard to argue that a smartphone is not an improvement on an instrument with a large rotary dial tethered to a desk.[DO WE FULLY ANSWER THIS QUESTION?]既然就连婴儿对新的做事方式也比对新玩具更怀疑,我们或许可以去寻找进化上的解释。但是,为何相对于调整习惯,我们的祖先更乐于捕捉新猎物或使用新工具呢?或许是,相对于流程创新,融入实物中的创新带来的好处更加一目了然。我们很难主张,相对于被电线固定在桌上、带着很大拨号盘的旧式电话,智能手机不是一种改进。Some gadgets that look like improvements are not: three-dimensional cameras meet a need we do not seem to have, and airships and supersonic passenger jets turned out to be a bust. These blind alleys in product innovation are sufficiently rare that they stand out in business and technological history.有些玩意儿看上去有改进,实际上并无改进:3D立体相机满足的是一项我们似乎并不存在的需求,飞艇和超音速客机后来被明是个失败。这些走进死胡同的产品创新罕见到了能在商业与科技史上占据突出地位。A low-cost airline, however, is not superior to a full-service one but rather the provider of a product better adapted to the needs of modern passengers. Establishing a new routine requires time and practice, and many new routines do not represent improvements; witness the fate of the majority of business re-engineering exercises. While transformational chief executives and management consultants chafe at the resistance they encounter, the problem is not just the lethargy of subordinates and the scale of their personal investment in established processes. It is often well-founded doubt as to whether the “change agents” actually know what they are doing. Political leaders, who seek office by claiming that everything their predecessors are doing is wrong, are even more frequently the advocates of useless process reorganisation.然而,不是说低价航空公司优于全业务航空公司,而是说它们提供了一种更符合现代乘客需求的产品。形成新习惯需要时间和实践,而许多新习惯不代表改进;看一看大多数业务流程改造的命运吧。尽管心向革新的首席执行官和管理顾问对遭遇的抵制感到恼火,但问题不仅仅在于下属们的慵懒懈怠以及他们对既定流程已投入个人努力的大小。人们常常有充分理由怀疑“改革推动者”是否真了解自己在做什么。有些政治领导人宣称前任所做一切都是错的,希望借此上台,他们倡导的流程改革甚至更可能是毫无用处的。So we are right to view such novelties with suspicion. And the behaviour of our children suggests this well-founded scepticism towards those who would re-engineer our routines has become hard wired in human responses.所以,我们以怀疑眼光看待此类奇思异想是正确的。我们的孩子的行为表明,对于那些想要改造我们习惯的人报以正当的怀疑,已经深深地植入了人类的反应心理中了。 /201503/365375BYD, the Chinese electric-car company part-owned by Warren Buffett, is poised to raise up to .9bn through the issue of new shares.沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)持股的中国电动汽车公司比亚迪(BYD)正计划通过发行新股募集至多19亿美元。Trading in the company’s shares in Hong Kong was halted yesterday, and in Shenzhen on Monday, pending the announcement of the deal, which the company described as a private A-share placement. The number of shares and the price would be revealed after the deal was completed, BYD said.比亚迪在深圳和香港上市的股票已分别于周一和周二停牌,等待发布有关A股私募的公告。比亚迪称,新股的数量和价格将在交易达成后对外披露。The company counts among its investors Mr Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway, and has benefited from the frothy share prices seen across China’s tech sector.比亚迪的投资者包括巴菲特的伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway),该公司还获益于中国科技行业全线虚高的股价。The company did not elaborate about what funds from the private placement will be used for, but analysts said timing would enable the group to take advantage of the ramp-up of its share prices. The cash would potentially be used for investment in research and development and gain an edge against rival Tesla, analysts suggested.比亚迪并未阐明此次私募所得将用于何处,但分析师称,此次发行的时机选择将使该集团从股价上涨中受益。分析师表示,募资所得很可能被用于投资研发,以期获得相对于竞争对手特斯拉(Tesla)的优势。BYD’s Shenzhen-listed shares have nearly doubled this year, pacing the overall Shenzhen market, while China’s tech stocks have overall been some of the best performing in the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges.今年以来,比亚迪深圳上市的股价已近乎翻了一番,领跑整个深圳股市,而在上海和深圳的券交易所,科技股总体来说都属于表现最好的一类。BYD started out two decades ago making mobile phone batteries, but has since evolved into the production of electric and hybrid vehicles. The group has outlined plans to take on Tesla in the electric automobile market, where its own advantage is mainly in batteries. High energy, lightweight and efficient batteries are judged to be the most important component of successful electric automobiles.比亚迪20年前以制造手机电池起家,自那以来逐渐涉足电动及混合动力汽车的生产。该集团已宣布计划,要在电动汽车市场与特斯拉一争高下。比亚迪的优势主要在于电池。高能、轻质而高效的电池被认为是任何一款成功电动汽车的最重要组件。 /201505/377490

Charter Communications is near a deal to buy Time Warner Cable for about billion, people with direct knowledge of the talks said on Monday, a takeover that would create a new powerhouse in the rapidly consolidating American cable industry.查特通信公司(Charter Communications)以550亿美元左右的价格收购时代华纳有线(Time Warner Cable)的交易已接近达成,对谈判有直接了解的人士周一表示。此番收购将让正在经历快速整合的美国有线电视行业新增一家强大企业。Under the proposed terms of the deal, Charter will pay about 5 a share in cash and stock. That is roughly 14 percent higher than Time Warner Cable’s closing stock price on Friday — and 47 percent higher than Charter’s original bid for its rival from early last year.按照拟议的交易条件,查特公司将选择现金加股票的付方式,每股收购价约为195美元。该价格比时代华纳有线周五的收盘价高14%,比查特去年初最早的出价高47%。A deal could be announced as soon as Tuesday, though these people, who were not authorized to speak publicly about private negotiations, cautioned that talks were continuing and might still fall apart.双方最快可能在周二公布达成交易的消息,但上述人士并未获得公开谈论秘密谈判的授权,他们提醒说,谈判还在继续,并且仍有可能破裂。The potential acquisition of Time Warner Cable completes a lengthy quest by Charter and its main backer, the billionaire John C. Malone, to break into the top tier of the American broadband industry.查特公司及其大股东亿万富豪约翰·J·马龙(John Malone)长期以来一直寻求跻身美国宽带行业的顶级阵营,收购时代华纳有线将让他们得偿所愿。If completed, the transaction would be the latest in a series of mergers remaking the market for broadband Internet and cable television in the ed States. Just last week, the European telecommunications company Altice agreed to buy Suddenlink for about billion.美国宽带互联网和有线电视市场上最近涌现出一系列重塑格局的并购案,这项交易如果能够达成,便会成为其中最新的一桩。And Charter is also nearing an agreement to acquire another cable operator, Bright House Networks, in a transaction that could also be announced soon.此外,查特公司收购另一家有线电视运营商Bright House Networks的交易也已接近达成,达成交易的消息同样可能很快获得公布。Last year, Mr. Malone tried to penetrate the American broadband industry, but Charter was foiled by its larger rival, Comcast, which bid billion for Time Warner Cable. Comcast, the country’s biggest cable operator, ultimately failed in its effort, with federal antitrust regulators believing that the merger would have been untenable.去年,马龙曾试图进入美国宽带行业,但查特公司在对时代华纳有线的竞价中败给了规模比它大的竞争对手康卡斯特(Comcast),后者的出价是450亿美元。作为美国最大的有线电视运营商,康卡斯特的努力最终功亏一篑,因为联邦反垄断监管机构认为这项并购案不合规。Government regulators are also expected to closely scrutinize a combination of Charter and Time Warner Cable, according to analysts, though as a smaller transaction it may face less opposition.分析人士称,政府监管部门也会对查特公司和时代华纳有线的合并进行严格的审查,尽管规模较小的交易面临的阻力可能少一些。Since the collapse of the Comcast agreement, Charter has worked to win over its onetime reluctant target, focusing on a friendly deal and acknowledging that it would have to pay a much higher price tag.康卡斯特的收购计划泡汤后,为了抱得美人归,查特公司一直在跟一度将它拒之门外的时代华纳有线接触,想要进行友善收购,并且接受了不得不开出高得多的价码的事实。Yet the company may still face competition for Time Warner Cable in the form of Altice, which has ambitions to extend its telecom empire across the Atlantic, beginning with the acquisition of Suddenlink.不过,查特公司可能还要跟Altice竞购时代华纳有线。Altice想要以收购Suddenlink为开端,把自己的电信帝国拓展到大西洋这一边。News of the proposed terms of a Charter deal for Time Warner Cable were reported earlier by Bloomberg News.彭新闻社(Bloomberg News)早些时候已就拟议中的查特公司收购时代华纳有线的交易条款进行过报道。 /201505/377413

The Chinese group BAIC Motor is in talks with Daimler about taking a stake in the German carmaker, Daimler’s chief executive said on Thursday.德国车企戴姆勒(Daimler)首席执行官蔡澈(Dieter Zetsche)周四表示,中国的北京汽车股份有限公司(BAIC Motor)正在与戴姆勒谈判,打算入股后者。Dieter Zetsche said in an interview with Reuters that any stake would have to be structured in such a way as to avoid diluting the interests of existing Daimler shareholders.蔡澈在接受路透社(Reuters)采访时表示,入股方式须避免稀释戴姆勒现有股东的权益。But he added that while the duo were looking at “possible mechanisms” to do this, whether or not “concrete steps” followed the negotiations depended on BAIC.但他补充称,尽管双方正在研究实现这点的“可能机制”,但这场谈判是否会得出“具体措施”取决于北汽股份。Daimler aly has close ties with the Chinese car industry. It has a 10 per cent stake in BAIC, the listed arm of Beijing Automotive Group, as well as a joint venture with BAIC to sell Mercedes-Benz cars in the country.戴姆勒早已与中国汽车业建立了紧密的联系。它持有北汽股份10%的股份,并与后者组建了一家合资公司,在中国市场销售梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)汽车。北汽股份是北汽集团(Beijing Automotive Group)的上市子公司。Mr Zetsche reiterated on Thursday that Daimler had “said from the start” that its stake in BAIC, which it took in 2013, could one day lead to a cross-shareholding.蔡澈周四重申,戴姆勒“从一开始就表示”,它2013年入股北汽股份可能有朝一日会导致两家公司交叉持股。Xu Heyi, BAIC chairman, said at the time that the two companies “will never be able to live apart from each other”, as Daimler opened its first fully fledged engine factory outside Germany.当戴姆勒开设其在德国之外首家成熟的发动机工厂时,北汽集团董事长徐和谊表示,这两家公司从此将谁也离不开谁。Daimler’s largest shareholders are the Kuwait Investment Authority, which has a 6.8 per cent stake, and Renault-Nissan, with which the German company has a cross-shareholding agreement.戴姆勒的最大股东是持股6.8%的科威特投资局(KIA)、以及雷诺-日产(Renault-Nissan),戴姆勒与雷诺-日产之间有交叉持股协议。In the past the German car group has issued new shares to allow big investors — such as Abu Dhabi’s Aabar Investments — to buy into the company.过去,戴姆勒曾发行新股、以使一些大型投资者——比如阿布扎比的阿巴尔投资公司(Aabar Investments)——能够入股该公司。 /201509/398517

Eastern Europe is warning David Cameron against meddling with “sacrosanct” migrant worker rights, as the newly re-elected prime minister prepares to renegotiate Britain’s EU membership terms.新连任的英国首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)准备重新谈判英国的欧盟成员国条款之际,东欧国家警告其不要干预“神圣不可侵犯”的移民劳工权利。While Mr Cameron’s election victory was greeted by positive signals from Brussels, Paris and Berlin, Britain’s traditional allies in the east are preparing for a fight to defend the free movement rights of migrant workers.尽管比利时、法国和德国对大选获胜的卡梅伦释放了积极信号,但英国在东欧地区的传统盟国准备为捍卫移民劳工的自由流动权利而斗争。“They cannot be touched,” Peter Javor#269;ik, Slovakia’s Europe minister, told the Financial Times.“它们不能被触动,”斯洛伐克的欧洲事务部长彼得#8226;亚沃尔奇克(Peter Javor#269;ik)告诉英国《金融时报》。Szabolcs Takács, Hungary’s EU minister, called freedom of movement a “red line”, adding that it was one of the EU’s biggest achievements. “We don’t like it when Hungarian workers are called migrants, they are EU citizens with the freedom to work in other European countries,” he said.匈牙利的欧盟(EU)事务部长绍尔奇#8226;塔卡克斯(Szabolcs Takács)形容自由流动权是一条“红线”,并补充说,那是欧盟最大的成就之一。“我们对匈牙利工人被称为移民感到不满,他们是欧盟公民,拥有到其他欧洲国家工作的自由,”他表示。Meanwhile, Rafa#322; Trzaskowski, Poland’s Europe minister, said: “We are y to sit at the table and talk about what needs to be reformed#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;but when it comes to immigration, our red lines are well known.”同时,波兰的欧洲事务部长拉法乌#8226;恰斯科夫斯基(Rafa#322; Trzaskowski)表示:“我们已经准备好坐上谈判桌,讨论需要改革的事务……但说到移民,我们的红线是众所周知的。”Britain has in the past counted former communist countries in central and eastern Europe as natural allies, but Mr Cameron has hurt relations in recent years by his tough stance on migration.英国曾把中、东欧的前共产党国家视为天然盟友,但近年卡梅伦在移民问题上的强硬立场使英国和这些国家的关系受损。The issue is set to become the biggest flashpoint in Mr Cameron’s pursuit of a “new deal” for Britain, which he will put to an in-out referendum on UK membership of the bloc by 2017.卡梅伦将在2017年就英国是否继续留在欧盟举行全民公投,在他寻求为英国争取“新协议”的过程中,移民问题将成为最大的争论焦点。The British prime minister’s election victory last week was accompanied by signs from leaders in western Europe that they would try to help him reset Britain’s relationship with the EU.上周卡梅伦在选举中获胜后,西欧国家领导人表现出他们愿意帮助他“重启”英国和欧盟关系的迹象。Angela Merkel, German chancellor, described his win as “simply great”, and Fran#231;ois Hollande, French president, called Mr Cameron to invite him to Paris. Jean-Claude Juncker, European Commission president, said: “I stand y to work with you to strike a fair deal for the ed Kingdom in the EU.”德国总理安格拉#8226;默克尔(Angela Merkel)称卡梅伦的胜利“太好了”,而法国总统弗朗索瓦#8226;奥朗德(Fran#231;ois Hollande)则致电邀请卡梅伦访问巴黎。欧盟委员会(European Commission)主席让-克洛德#8226;容克(Jean-Claude Juncker)表示:“我愿与你合作,为英国的欧盟成员国身份达成公平的协议。”Mr Cameron needs to secure a good deal, amid warnings by David Davis, a senior Conservative MP, that 60 or so Tory MPs could vote for a Brexit unless he succeeds.资深保守党议员戴维#8226;戴维斯(David Davis)警告称,卡梅伦需要争取到一项好的协议,否则的话,60名左右的保守党议员将投票持英国退出欧盟。Mr Trzaskowski said that Poland was willing to help but there were limits. “Poland’s strategic interest is to keep Britain in. But it does not mean we will agree to anything. Competition and the internal market are sacrosanct. And so is freedom of movement,” he said.波兰的恰斯科夫斯基表示,波兰愿意帮助英国,但那是有限度的。“波兰的战略利益是让英国留在欧盟。但这并不意味着我们会同意一切。竞争和内部市场是神圣不可侵犯的。自由流动也是。” /201505/374476

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