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2019年09月22日 18:54:27 | 作者:排名诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Microsoft has unveiled its vision of what the home and office of the future will look like - and there are giant screens everywhere.微软展示了未来家庭和办公室的愿景,四处都是大屏幕。The computer giant produced the concept to show off its new #39;Envisioning lab#39; where it hopes customers will come for inspiration.计算机巨头公司设计视频展示理念其新“梦想实验室”,希望客户参与进来启发灵感。The concepts shown off include kitchens that can recognise vegetables and worktops that tell you how to cook them, wall sized screens to play games on and desks that spring into life as giant screens when touched.理念展示包括厨房可识别蔬菜种类,并在操作界面教你如何烹饪美味菜肴,可在屏幕墙上玩游戏,触摸大屏幕时操作台可伸展。#39;The facility encompasses scenarios at home, at work and places in between, and is inspired by our product teams, Microsoft Research and by the trends across the industry.我们产品团队经微软研究中心和本行业趋势生产激发灵感,本设施含家庭、工作两地的情节。#39;I like to think of it as a concept car that allows us to share what it might be like to experience future technologies with visitors, get their feedback, tweak, remix and discuss. It’s all part of advancing the trends we think have the greatest potential.#39;我认为把它当作一个概念车来宣传,允许我们与参观人员分享体验未来技术,从而得到大家的反馈信息、探讨信息。我认为所有这些发展趋势都有最大发展潜力。 /201303/229686Although his 1-year-old smartphone still works perfectly, Li Jijia aly feels the need to replace it.尽管用了一年的智能手机完好无损,李继嘉(音译)已经动了想换新手机的念头。“It has been a year. There are many better ones available now,” said the 21-year-old education major at Central China Normal University. “It’s time to upgrade my phone.”“已经用了一年了,市面上出了很多更强大的手机。”就读于华中师范大学教育学专业、21岁的李继嘉说:“是时候换新手机了”。Li’s impatience is shared by many. Shortly after the season when new gadgets are released, many consumers feel the urge to upgrade their electronic devices, even though the ones they have still work just fine.很多人都像李继嘉一样急切。新品发布季刚过,很多顾客便迫不及待地要更新他们的电子设备,即便旧的仍能正常使用。As consumers obsess over Apple’s newly released products and debate whether the Google tablet is better than the new Amazon Kindle, it might be time to take a step back and ask: “Do we really need the latest upgrades?”当顾客们正痴迷于苹果的新产品,热议着谷歌平板电脑和亚马逊Kindle阅读器哪个更好时,或许我们是时候该退一步好好想想了:“我们真的需要这些最新的电子产品吗?”New psychology新一轮的心理战According to Donald Norman, American author of the book The Design of Everyday Things, “planned obsolescence” is the trick behind the upgrading culture of today’s consumer electronics industry.《设计每天的生活》一书的作者、美国作家唐纳德#8226;诺曼认为,隐藏在当今电子行业不断更新换代文化背后的是“计划性报废”的把戏。The New York Times cited Norman last month, saying that electronics manufactures strategically release new upgrades periodically, both for hardware and software, so that customers on every level feel the need to buy the newest version.上个月《纽约时报》引用诺曼的话说,电子厂商们有计划地定期发布最新的软硬件升级产品,这样一来每个层次的顾客都觉得有必要去购买最新版本。“This is an old-time trick– they’re not inventing anything new,” he said.诺曼表示:“这还是过去的旧把戏——没什么新点子。”Thomas Wensma, a Dutch designer, despises the “planned obsolescence” of companies, as recently reported by UK-based The Guardian.最近英国《卫报》有报道称,来自荷兰的设计师托马斯#8226;文斯玛十分鄙视许多公司采取的“计划性淘汰”策略。Wensma said this is a wasteful system through which companies – many of them producing personal electronics – release shoddy products simply because “they know that, in six months or a year, they’ll put out a new one”.文斯玛说这是一种相当浪费资源的机制。在这样的机制中,包括许多个人电子产品生产商在内的企业们之所以推出劣质货,是因为“他们清楚,一年半载之后,会有新品推出。”But the new psychology of consumers is part of this system, as Wensma conceded to the newspaper: “We now want something new, something pretty, the next shiny thing.”而如今消费者心理的改变也成为该机制的一部分,文斯玛向英国《卫报》透露说:“现在我们都喜欢新奇炫的东西。”Huge profits暴利“It’s to the detriment of the consumer and the environment,” as the New York Times ed Norman. “But perhaps to the betterment of the stockholder.”“这对消费者和环境来说是种伤害”《纽约时报》援引诺曼的话说:“但对股东们而言却是好事一件。”In its most recent fiscal year, Apple’s profit margin was more than 21 percent, reported the Los Angeles Times. At Hewlett-Packard, the world’s biggest PC manufacturer, it was only 7 percent.据《洛杉矶时报》报道称,苹果公司最新年度财务报告显示,其利润率超过21%。而作为全球最大的个人电脑制造商,惠普公司的利润率仅为7%。“Steven Jobs pushed the principle of ‘planned obsolescence’ to new heights,” the newspaper commented on the company’s profits and marketing strategy. “Apple’s annual upgrades of its products generate sales of millions of units as owners of one year’s MacBook or iPhone line up to buy the newest version, even when the changes are incremental.”“史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯将‘计划性淘汰’推向了一个新高度。”《洛杉矶时报》在苹果公司的利润与营销战略时如是说道:“用户们放弃了刚购入一年的苹果笔记本电脑Macbook或iPhone,再次排起长龙去购买最新产品,这样一来苹果公司每年的产品升级都带来了数百万的销量,尽管这些产品升级有时只是量变而非质变。”Peer pressure朋友圈的压力As to Li Jijia, the need for upgrading his smartphone comes mainly from friends and classmates. When the majority of friends are switching to the latest devices, he worries about feeling left out.对于李继嘉来说,换手机的需求主要来源于朋友和同学的压力。因为大部分朋友都换了新的,他担心自己落伍。“Some apps and games require better hardware to run,” said Li. “If you don’t join in, you lose part of the connection to your friends.”“有些应用和游戏需要更好的硬件才能运行,”李继嘉说:“如果你脱离组织,就会跟朋友们格格不入。” /201211/210270The NSA and its British counterpart are tapping popular smartphone apps such as Angry Birds to peek into the tremendous amounts of very personal data those bits of software collect -- including age, location, sex and even sexual preferences, according to new reports from the New York Times and The Guardian.Citing confidential documents provided by whistleblower Edward Snowden, the reports detail efforts to supplement data collection from cell phone carriers and smartphones by tapping into “leaky” apps themselves.“Some apps, the documents state, can share users#39; most sensitive information such as sexual orientation – and one app recorded in the material even sends specific sexual preferences such as whether or not the user may be a swinger,” the Guardian said.That information can come from a user profile, which may contain martial status -- options included ;single,; ;married,; ;divorced,; ;swinger; and more, the report said.Both spy agencies showed a particular interest in Google Maps, which is accurate to within a few yards or better in some locations and would clearly pass along data about a phone owner#39;s whereabouts.《愤怒的小鸟》堪称史上最火的手机应用程序,但也成为“泄露”用户个人数据的源头。综合外国媒体1月27日报道,英美两国情报机构通过“潜伏”于智能手机中流行的应用程序,获取所需的用户个人信息。报道援引美国“监控门”事件揭秘者爱德华?斯诺登最新披露的机密文件称,美国国家安全局(NSA)和英国政府通讯总部(GCHQ)利用“有漏洞”的手机应用程序,例如《愤怒的小鸟》、谷歌地图、脸谱网(Facebook)、推特(Twitter)等,大量收集包括年龄、位置乃至性取向等用户的个人信息。“文件显示,一些手机应用程序可以分享用户最隐秘的信息,比如性取向。还有一款程序,甚至能发送用户是不是乱搞男女关系的人等特殊内容。”英国《卫报》报道称,这些信息来自用户个人资料,其中通常包含婚姻状况,选项包括“单身”、“已婚”、“离异”、“可换偶”等等。“It effectively means that anyone using Google Maps on a smartphone is working in support of a GCHQ system,” s a secret 2008 report by the NSA#39;s sister spy agency, according to the New York Times.More surprising is the wide range of apps that the agencies cull for data, including innocent-seeming apps such as Angry Birds. One document in particular from GCHQ listed what information can be extracted from which apps, citing Android apps but suggesting the same data was available from the iPhone platform.Angry Birds maker Rovio said it had no knowledge of any NSA or GCHQ programs or mechanisms for tapping into its users’ data.During a Monday press conference, White House press secretary Jay Carney stressed that same position.;As the president said in his Jan. 17 speech, to the extent data is collected by the NSA, through whatever means, we are not interested in the communications of people who are not valid foreign intelligence targets and we are not after the information of ordinary Americans,; he said.其中,由于“谷歌地图”能够在一定范围内准确显示并传输用户所处位置,英美两国情报机构对这款手机应用程序兴趣极高。美国《纽约时报》指出,“这实际上意味着,任何在智能手机上使用谷歌地图的人其实都在持英国政府通讯总部的情报搜集系统”。此外,手机上传照片也为情报机构搜集信息提供了丰富的资源。英美两国情报机构可通过挖掘照片元数据,了解用户几乎全部的私隐信息。据悉,英国政府通讯总部内部还存有一份文件,其中清楚列明从哪些手机应用程序中可获取哪些信息,并写道不论智能手机搭载的是安卓还是iOS系统,获取信息都是“可行的”。《愤怒的小鸟》开发商芬兰Rovio公司表示,他们对于情报机构利用该公司出品的游戏搜集用户数据一事毫不知情。而美国白宫发言人卡尼27日回应称,国安局并不针对一般的美国民众,“美国国安局收集情报的对象是有效的外国情报目标,而非一般美国民众,我们不是在追踪普通美国人的信息”。 /201402/274929

They have no name and no leader. But you could call them “techno-hippies”. Somewhere between the cheerful profiteering of Silicon Valley and the libertarianism of online hackers, this loose collection of artists and entrepreneurs is using the profusion of new devices and digital networks to challenge mainstream ideas about capitalism, consumption and the relationship between humans and nature.这群人没有名字,也没有领袖。但你可以把他们称作“技术嬉皮士”。他们介于硅谷兴高采烈的逐利主义和在线黑客的自由主义之间,是一个艺术家和企业家的松散群体,他们正利用层出不穷的新设备和数字网络,挑战有关资本主义、消费以及人类与自然之间关系的主流观念。Last month, they descended on Linz, a pretty city perched on the banks of the Austrian Danube that hosts the annual Ars Electronica festival, a digital media event that has become a magnet for counter-cultural technologists from around the world.上月,他们来到位于奥地利多瑙河沿岸的美丽城市林茨,参加一年一度的电子艺术节(Ars Electronica),这场数字媒体盛会吸引了全球各地的反主流文化技术专家。Colonising Linz’s shopping malls, schools and even the local bishop’s residence, this year’s installations ranged from a cathedral being played with lasers like a giant musical instrument, to hermit crabs scuttling around under the burden of miniature 3D-printed city#173;scapes, to a display of “agriculturally printed” farmland in which algorithms had calculated the optimum planting pattern and ratio of crops to bug-resistant grasses.今年的装置作品占据了林茨的购物中心、学校甚至当地主教的居所,包括一个用激光演奏的大教堂,就像一件巨大的乐器,还有在3D打印的城市高楼微型复制品的压力下四散奔逃的寄居蟹,以及“经过农业印刷”的农田,利用算法计算出最优种植模式和农作物与防虫害青草的比率。“Ars Electronica is an early warning system,” says Hiroshi Ishii, the associate director of MIT’s Media Lab, who was visiting the festival. “It shows we are living in an era when the connectivity of people and machines can contribute to solving societal problems.”“电子艺术节是一个预警系统,”参加此次电子艺术节的麻省理工(MIT)媒体实验室(Media Lab)副主任石井裕(Hiroshi Ishii)表示,“它显示出在我们生活的这个时代,人和机器的互联互通有助于解决社会问题。”Where a typical start-up preaches the values of disruption and convenience, these alternative futurists point to the social or environmental impact. Instead of swooning over the latest high-profile product launch, they find playful ways to ask who controls and benefits from that technology. And with each new proprietary device, they question whether “open source” strategies might be better at empowering individuals to direct their own destinies and create incentives for innovation other than the profit motive.一般的初创企业宣扬颠覆和便利的价值,而这些另类未来主义者指向社会或环境影响。他们没有为最新发布的高调产品尖叫,而是找到好玩的方式提问:谁控制并受益于这种技术。每当有新的专有技术设备问世,他们会提问,“开放源”战略会不会更有利于让个人得以执掌自己的命运,并给创新提供利润动机以外的激励?Their initiatives include “repair cafés” that encourage people to avoid waste by sharing skills to fix defunct electronic objects, and “open source gardens”, where crates full of soil, flowers and plants are left in public spaces to see who takes care of them. Those projects were kicked off by Martin Hollinetz, my host for the festival. Mr Hollinetz, who trained as an engineer and a psychotherapist, runs a chain of so-called “open technology labs” or “Otelos” in rural Austria, which act as a cross between community groups and high-tech research laboratories.他们发起的计划包括“修理咖啡馆”,鼓励人们通过分享修理坏了的电子产品技能来减少垃圾,还有“开放源花园”,在公共场所放置装满土壤、花和植物的大盒,看看谁能照看它们。这些计划是由我在此次电子艺术节的东道主马丁#8226;霍林耐茨(Martin Hollinetz)推出的。他是科班出身的工程师和心理治疗师,他在奥地利乡村地区运行着一个所谓的“开放技术实验室”(被称为Otelos)连锁,它们兼具社区组织和高科技研究实验室的特点。Mr Hollinetz, who lives in a yellow house he and his wife built from reclaimed freight containers previously used to transport refrigerators, took his cues for Otelos from the “maker” movement, a collection of digital do-it-yourselfers who gather in clubs to tinker with high-tech devices such as 3D printers. But he wanted Otelos to be more inclusive than the traditional hacker crowd.霍林耐茨居住在他和他妻子用回收的货运集装箱建造的黄色屋子里,这个集装箱以前用来运输冰箱。他是从“maker”运动中获得建立Otelos的灵感的。这个运动是一个由数字DIY爱好者组成的群体,他们会聚集在俱乐部,摆弄3D打印机等高科技设备。但他希望Otelos成为更具包容性的组织,不仅包括传统的黑客人群。“We wanted to create something like the ‘hackerspaces’ you see in Berlin and Barcelona, but to do it in a way that was more welcoming to people of all ages, to stop the brain drain to cities,” he explains. “We wanted to help show people that they had valuable knowledge to share.”“我们希望创造一些类似于你在柏林和巴塞罗那看到的‘黑客空间’那种组织,但更欢迎各种年龄的阶层,以阻止人才向城市流失,”他解释道,“我们希望帮助展示给人们:他们有宝贵的知识可以分享。”With around 500 active members, Otelo projects to date include the design and fabrication of a plug-and-play microchip for broadcasting community radio, and a special soil-tilling machine to help farmers revive a traditional organic agricultural technique.Otelos项目大约有500名活跃会员,迄今的成果包括设计和制造一种用于播放社区广播的即插即用芯片,以及一种特殊的田地耕作机,帮助农民恢复传统的有机农业方法。Artists and entrepreneurs like Mr Hollinetz are weighing in to a big debate about how technological development should happen. Because making technology can be expensive, innovation tends to come from companies that can generate returns on capital by convincing consumers to buy their products. “There is a real tension in the altruistic or utopian conception of the development of technology on the one hand, and market forces on the other,” says Roland Lamb, the founder and chief executive of London-based music start-up Roli.艺术家和霍林耐茨等企业家正加入一场大规模辩论,焦点是科技发展应如何实现。由于研发技术明可能成本高昂,因此创新往往来自那些通过说消费者购买其产品而获得资本回报的公司。伦敦音乐初创企业Roli创始人和首席执行官罗兰#8226;莱姆(Roland Lamb)表示:“确实存在紧张,一方面是科技发展的利他或乌托邦概念,另一方面是市场力量。”Mr Lamb, who has a degree in comparative philosophy from Harvard, credits eastern thinking with helping him challenge western ideas about identity and discreteness in designing his company’s flagship Seaboard product, a piano that uses soft digital sensors in place of keys to allow a continuum of pressure from the player’s fingers to create changes in sound.莱姆拥有哈佛大学(Harvard)比较哲学学位,他认为,在设计他公司的旗舰产品Seaboard的过程中,东方思维帮助他挑战了西方有关身份以及分离性的观点,该产品是一台钢琴,用软性数字传感器取代钢琴键,利用来自演奏者手指的连续压力,实现声音的变化。There is a certain irony, Mr Lamb notes, in corporations that have encouraged consumers to be reliant on their devices now having to t more carefully as a result.莱姆指出,具有某种讽刺意味的是,那些一直鼓励消费者依赖它们设备的企业,现在不得不更为谨慎地行事。“Phones in particular are beginning to cross a line from being understood as an external object, separate from oneself, to an internal object,” Mr Lamb adds, pointing to the recent outrage over Apple automatically downloading U2’s album Songs of Innocence on to unsuspecting iPhone users. “The very intimacy and closeness of these devices means people want to forget that they have been developed by a company that can push things on to them.”“尤其是,手机正开始从一种被视为与人们脱离的外部产品变成一种内部产品,”莱姆补充称,他谈到,最近人们对苹果(Apple)自动向不知情的iPhone用户下载U2专辑Songs of Innocence感到愤怒,“这些设备与人们的亲密性意味着,人们希望忘记,这些设备是由那些能够将内容强行推给它们的公司开发的。”But do these experimental interventions produce lasting benefits? Tech businesses such as Apple and Google have shown a willingness to use bottom-up approaches to turn themselves into “platforms”, sharing some of the secrets of their technology in exchange for a share of the revenues that developers get from building on top of it.但这些实验性干预会产生持久效益吗?苹果和谷歌(Google)等科技企业显示出愿意利用自下而上的方法把自己变成“平台”,共享一些技术秘密,并从开发者基于这些秘密创造的收入中得到分成。“There’s still the question of who has control, in the end,” says Erkki Huhtamo, a media historian at UCLA. “It’s quite clear that the corporate world is not interested in releasing control for anybody; rather it’s a strategy or lesson they’ve learnt – that it’s wiser to give people leeway in moulding the technology in certain ways.”“最终,仍是一个谁拥有控制权的问题,”加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)媒体历史学家埃尔基#8226;胡塔莫(Erkki Huhtamo)表示,“很明显,企业界对于拱手让出控制权不感兴趣;它们学到了一项战略或者说吸取了一个教训:以某些方式在技术形成方面给人们留出余地是更为明智的做法。”Still, Professor Huhtamo thinks artists and alternative futurists serve a valuable role in helping society adjust to massive technological shifts. He notes that Victorian-era fairground rides helped people come to terms with the mechanical culture of the industrial revolution at a time when many were still terrified of the escalators on the new London Underground. “Artists can help prepare the public for new technological paradigms.”然而,胡塔莫教授认为,在帮助社会适应大规模技术变革方面,艺术家和另类未来主义者发挥着重要作用。他指出,维多利亚时代的露天游乐场帮助人们接受了工业革命的机械文化,当时很多人仍害怕新建伦敦地铁(London Underground)的自动扶梯。“艺术家能够帮助让公众为新的科技范式做好准备。” /201411/343549

According to the Daily Telegraph of September 3, researchers discovered that the love of wanting to keep fit is in your genes and can be passed on from generation to generation.据《每日电讯报》9月3日报道,科学家指出,人们保持健康运动的喜好跟基因有关,并且可以一代一代遗传下来。In the future, people who suffer from laziness could be treated with medicine that targets the genes that specifically promote activity,which may become a breakthrough in the treatment of obesity.这一发现意味着,患有懒惰症的人未来可能可以用针对增进活跃度基因的药物治疗。这可能在与肥胖的战斗中成为一项重要突破。Scientists from the University of California found that on laboratory mice activity levels could be enhanced by selective breeding, which is the process of breeding animals for particular genetic traits.来自加利福尼亚大学的研究人员发现,通过选择育种能增进小鼠的活动水平。选择育种就是为获得特定基因特征繁育动物的过程。 /201009/113223

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