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赣州注射隆鼻收多少钱赣州妇幼保健院脱毛多少钱Georgias history格鲁吉亚的历史Bad location糟糕的位置Despite its unhappy history and dire geography, Georgia is doing well虽然历史坎坷,位置糟糕,格鲁吉亚现在做得不错Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. By Donald Rayfield.《帝国的边缘:格鲁吉亚的历史》。作者:Donald Rayfield。Georgia: A Political History since Independence.《格鲁吉亚:自独立开始的政治历史》。作者:Stephen Jones。TO MOST outsiders Georgian history is a closed book. Indeed for English-speakers there are practically no books at all. Georgia mostly features on the edges of other peoples histories. Xenophon, describing Greek mercenaries attempts to get home in 400, wrote the first description of it. Books about the Soviet Union highlight Georgias role as a rebellious captive and as the birthplace of Josef Stalin, its most infamous son. A flurry of recent accounts describe the brief, disastrous war with Russia in 2008. Now Donald Rayfield of the University of London and Stephen Jones of Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts have written ambitious and comprehensive histories of a complex country.大多数非格鲁吉亚人对格鲁吉亚的历史一无所知。实际上基本没有一本关于格鲁吉亚历史的书籍是用英语写的。大多数情况下,格鲁吉亚只能在别国历史的边边角角里看到。公元前400年,描述希腊雇佣兵为回家而努力的色诺芬第一次提到了格鲁吉亚。关于苏联的史书将格鲁吉亚要么视为叛逆的俘虏,要么视为其最罪名昭著的国民约瑟夫·斯大林的诞生地。最近出版的一系列书描述了格鲁吉亚与俄罗斯在2008年展开的那场灾难性的短暂战争。现在,伦敦大学的Donald Rayfield和马萨诸塞州曼荷莲女子学院的Stephen Jones为读者描绘出这个复杂的国家恢弘而又全面的历史。The authors are among a handful of foreigners to have mastered Georgian. Part of the small and ancient Kartvelian language family, it is related to no others, though some have fancifully claimed a distant cousinhood with Basque. Its roots are as obscure as the origins of those who speak it. Mr Rayfield starts around 1100, with the first mention in an Assyrian source of the “Mushki”. The first Georgian king, Parnavaz, was born in 326.这两名作者是少数几个掌握格鲁吉亚语的外国人。尽管有些人异想天开地宣称格鲁吉亚语和巴斯克语许久之前同系一源,但其实格鲁吉亚语是卡特维利语族的一个古老的小分,和其他语言都不相关。格鲁吉亚语的起源和格鲁吉亚人的起源一样湮灭在历史的尘埃中。Rayfield从公元前1100年左右开始写起,亚叙的史书在那时第一次提到“Mushki”。第一个格鲁吉亚国王Parnavaz诞生于公元前326年。The scope of Georgian history may be a humbling shock for those who thought the country appeared on the map only when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. But the er needs to take a deep breath, for the next 200 pages could be mistaken at times for a stray appendix from J.R.R. Tolkiens “The Lord of the Rings”. The tersely told stories involve hundreds of unknown but like-sounding people and places which appear and disappear in quick succession. The beheadings, castrations, sodomisations, rapes and eye-gougings—a local speciality—that dot the pages are jolting. But a little more in the way of analogies, signposts, interpretation and characterisation would have lightened the mixture.对于那些认为格鲁吉亚在1991年苏联解体时才出现在地图上的人来说,格鲁吉亚历史的源远流长可能是个令人羞愧的发现。但是读者需要深呼吸一下,因为之后的200页有时候会被人误以为是J.R.R.托尔金所著的《指环王》丢失的附录。一个个用词简练的故事里有着成百上千个不知名却听起来都很像的人物和地点,这些名字快速地出现,又快速地消失。在这部分,不时出现的砍头、阉割、、强奸和挖眼情节让人看得触目惊心。如果多点类比、线索、解释和特征描述将会使这部分读起来不那么沉重。The most cheerful pages concern Georgias golden age—around 1212 at the height of Queen Tamars reign. The country has never since been bigger, stronger or safer, stretching 800 miles (1,288km) from what is now Trabzon in Turkey to the shores of the Caspian sea. Georgias fortunes depend on the weakness or goodwill of its much larger neighbours: Russia to the north, Persia to the south-east, Turkey to the west. Mr Rayfields powerful theme is of brief periods of prosperity and security, ended by invasion, conquest, looting and despoliation. Georgians have had to get used to rule by outsiders: they often outwit them. Kremlin rule began with mass murder and ruinous economic planning, but in later decades Georgia was one of the most prosperous and enjoyable places to live in the Soviet Union. It was a similar story in the 19th century under Russian imperial rule.在该书中,读起来最让人心情愉快的部分与格鲁吉亚的黄金时代有关—格鲁吉亚的黄金时代在1212年左右塔玛皇后执政时期达到顶峰。那时的格鲁吉亚的疆域最大、国力最强、局势最稳。其疆域绵延800英里(1288公里),从现在位于土耳其的特拉布宗一直到里海的海岸。只有在那些比格鲁吉亚大得多的邻国处于衰弱时期,或者对格鲁吉亚态度友好时,格鲁吉亚才得以繁荣。这些邻国有北部的俄罗斯,东南部的波斯以及西部的土耳其。在Rayfield宏大的著作中,格鲁吉亚每次短暂的繁荣和稳定后都是列强的侵略和肆意抢劫。格鲁吉亚人不得不习惯于被外国人统治:但他们常常比统治者更聪明。苏联占领格鲁吉亚初期展开大屠杀和毁灭性的计划经济,但在随后的几十年里格鲁吉亚是苏联最繁荣最适宜居住的地方。19世纪格鲁吉亚被俄国君王统治时也是相似的情形。Georgias rulers own penchant for internal divisions and double-dealing has played a big role in prompting the countrys many disasters. So too has the failure of faraway outside powers to reciprocate Georgias pro-Western sentiments. The story of the years 1918-21, when the Georgian Democratic Republic made repeated vain appeals to Britain and other Western powers, before the Bolsheviks invaded, make poignant ing. They echo previous episodes involving Georgian rulers entreaties to the Byzantine empire and Venice—and foretell, perhaps, the let-down that many Georgians felt when nobody came to their aid in 2008.格鲁吉亚的许多灾难都是因为该国统治者喜欢内部斗争和耍两面派造成的。遥远的外部力量没能回应格鲁吉亚亲西方的感情也是因为这些统治者。1918至1921年间,格鲁吉亚民主共和党一次又一次向英国和其他西方列强求助无果,最后被布尔什维克侵略,这个故事读起来让人辛酸。这与该书之前讲到的格鲁吉亚统治者向拜占庭帝王和求助的故事惊人地相似。这个故事也许还预示着2008年因为无人帮忙许多格鲁吉亚人会品尝到失望。Mr Jones deals at book-length with the years covered by Mr Rayfields final chapter. Georgias disastrous rebirth, amid economic collapse and civil war, gave way to a period of sleazy stagnation under Eduard Shevardnadze, who had run the place in Soviet times and then served as Mikhail Gorbachevs foreign minister.Jones的书涵盖的年份和Rayfield的书中最后一章相同。先是格鲁吉亚在经济崩溃和内战后充满灾难的重生,随后就是Eduard Shevardnadze领导下的经济停滞。Eduard Shevardnadze在苏联时期管理格鲁吉亚,后来成为米哈伊尔·戈尔巴乔夫执政时期苏联的外交部长。Amid much useful detail, Mr Jones snipes at the record of Mikheil Saakashvili, who became president after the “Rose Revolution” of 2003. His party narrowly lost the parliamentary election this year. To the surprise of those who saw Putinesque tendencies in his camps authoritarian approach, Mr Saakashvilis party has calmly conceded defeat.Jones的书提供了很多有用的细节。其中的一个是米哈伊尔·萨卡什维利的执政履历。萨卡什维利在2003年的“玫瑰革命”后成为总统。他所在的政党在今年的议会选举中惜败。然而令那些认为该党独裁的统治方式越来越接近普京时,萨卡什维利所在的政党平静地承认了失败。That came too late for either book, which is a pity because it would offset many of Mr Joness criticisms of Georgias failure to meet his perhaps rather unrealistic standards of “virtuous” democracy. Much of the country outside the capital, Tbilisi, is still dfully poor; institutions are imperfect; government pressure on the media and judiciary can be heavy-handed or even nastier. But for a place that was a failed state only 20 years ago the progress is startling, especially given the near- constant pressure, subversion and denigration from Russia.可惜他的竞选失利对于这两本书而言都来地太晚了。如果这发生地再早些,就能推翻Jones对格鲁吉亚没能达到他可能相当不实际的“高尚”民主标准的许多批评。首都第比利斯以外的许多地区仍然极度贫困;各类机构问题百出;政府对媒体和司法的压力很大,有时甚至会采用下流的手段。但对于一个20年前还被认为是“失败国家”的地方来说,特别是考虑到该国几乎一直受到俄罗斯的压迫、暗中破坏和抹黑,其进步还是非常惊人的。Mr Jones skates over the problems caused by Russia and underplays the real achievements of the Saakashvili years. These include bringing the country closer to the West, eliminating petty corruption, for example in the customs service and the traffic police, modernising public services, attracting foreign investment and establishing an open if rough-hewn political system. Georgia is now a country where the opposition has a real chance of winning power, and all sides abide by the constitution. Readers of Mr Rayfields book may feel that in the past 2,500 years Georgians have seldom had so much to be happy about.Jones一笔带过俄罗斯给格鲁吉亚造成的问题,轻描淡写萨卡什维利执政时期取得的成就。这些成就包括使该国与西方关系更紧密,消灭了诸如在海关和交警的基层腐败,使公共务现代化,吸引外商投资,并创建了一个开放的、可能还不健全的政治体系。格鲁吉亚的反对党有可能赢得政权,而且所有各方都遵守宪法。Rayfield的读者们可能觉得在过去的2500年,格鲁吉亚人民从没有像现在一样有这么多值得高兴的事。 /201406/305806赣州做双眼皮 Science and technology科学技术The joys of parenthood身为人父的喜悦Fathers day父亲节Having children really does make a man more content with life有了自己的孩子的确会让男人更热爱自己的生活WILL fatherhood make me happy?当爸爸会让我开心么?That is a question many men have found themselves asking, and the scientific evidence is equivocal.这是一个许多男人都会问自己的问题,然而科学家们对此的措辞却含糊不清。A lot of studies have linked parenthood—particularly fatherhood.许多研究项目将双亲的身份—尤其是父亲,with lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher rates of depression than are found among non-parents.和低满足感与高压抑感联系起来,而且认为那些没有为人父母的人们则要逍遥许多。Biologically speaking, that looks odd.从生物学的角度来说,以上的观点其实很滑稽。Natural selection might be expected to favour the progeny of men who enjoy bringing them up.因为从自然选择的角度来说,大自然会更加青睐那些由开心的父亲抚养大的孩子。On the other hand, the countervailing pressure to have other children, by other women, may leave the man who is aly encumbered by a set of offspring dissatisfied.从另一个角度来看,男人天性受到一种相反的压力,希望和其他女性生育更多的孩子,这种压力可能会让受到现有子女负累的父亲感到不满。To investigate the matter further Sonja Lyubomirsky, a psychologist at the University of California, Riverside, decided both to study the existing literature, and to conduct some experiments of her own.一位来自加州大学的心理学家,索尼娅·柳米尔斯基,为了弄清这件事情,决定在研究现存文献的同时,也亲自组织一些实验。The results, just published in Psychological Science, suggest parenthood in general, and fatherhood in particular, really are blessings, even though the parent in question might sometimes feel they are in disguise.她研究的结果,《心理科学》上刚发表了不久。研究结果显示,总体上来说,为人父母,的确是会受到祝福的,即便那些受访的父母很多时候觉得可能自己在接受调查时伪装了些东西。Dr Lyubomirskys first port of call was the World Values Survey.首先,柳米尔斯基士从世界价值观大调查开始着手。This is a project which gathers huge amounts of data about the lives of people all around the planet.这是个浩大的工程,用来收集海量的居住在这个星球各个角落里的人的数据。For the purposes of her research, Dr Lyubomirsky looked at the answers 6,906 Americans had given, in four different years, to four particular questions.柳米尔斯基士从这些数据中调出了6,906份来自美国的数据,用以进行她的研究。这些数据从四个不同的年份里收集获得,涉及了四个方面不同的问题。These were: how many children the responder had;这四个方面是:受访者有多少子女;how satisfied he was with life;他对自己的生活有多大程度的满足感;how happy he was;他的快乐感多大;and how often he thought about the meaning and purpose of life.以及他多少次思考过生活的意义和目标。She found that, regardless of the year the survey was conducted, parents had higher happiness, satisfaction and meaning-of-life scores than non-parents.结果她发现,剔除调查的年份因素之后,为人父母的人群比非父母人群具有更高的快乐感和满足感,生活意义项的得分值也更高。The differences were not huge,这些数据的差别其实并不明显,but they were statistically significant.但是从统计学的角度来看,其意义却非常重大。Moreover, a closer look showed that the differences in happiness and satisfaction were the result of mens scores alone going up with parenthood.另外,仔细查看这些数据会发现,男子在当了父亲后,快乐感和满足感会出现细小的差别,分数会越来越高。Those of women did not change.但是女性则没有变化。Armed with this result, Dr Lyubomirsky conducted her own experiment.有了这个结果做撑,柳米尔斯基士开始着手弄自己的实验了。The problem with projects like the World Values Survey is that, 不过诸如世界价值观大调查此类的大工程的问题是,because participants are asked to recall their feelings rather than stating what they are experiencing in the here and now, this might lead them into thinking more fondly in hindsight about their parenting duties than they actually felt at the time.它在收集数据时,要求参与者是回忆自己的感受,而不是叙述他们当下的经历,所以这就容易导致他们去深情地,美化地思考他们为人父母的责任,而不是他们当时真实的感受。Dr Lyubomirsky therefore gave pagers to 329 North American volunteers aged between 18 and 94, having first recorded, among other things, their sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, marital status and number of children.为此,柳米尔斯基士给329名来自北美地区的志愿者发了调查问卷。这些志愿者从18岁到94岁不等。她第一手记录下他们的性别,年龄,种族,社会经济地位,婚姻状态以及子女的数量。She told them they would be paged at random, five times a day.她告诉他们受访者将会被随机排列,一天五次受访。When they were so paged, they were asked to complete a brief response sheet about how they felt, then and there.当受访者被随机排列好后,将会被要求完成一份简明的答卷,用来调查关于其当时的感受。She did not, however, tell them why she was asking these questions.当然,柳米尔斯基士并没有告诉受访者她为何问他们这些问题。The upshot was the same as her findings from the World Values Survey.结果,这次的结局和她在世界价值观大调查项目里得出的结论是一致的。Parents claimed more positive emotions and more meaning in their lives than non-parents, and a closer look revealed that it was fathers who most enjoyed these benefits.相比那些还没做父母的人,为人父母者在他们的人生中显示出了更加积极的情感和更多对他们人生意义的积极思考。Moreover, further analysis revealed that this enhanced enjoyment came from activities which involved children rather than those that did not.同时,通过更加仔细的观察,显示出父亲在上述方面更加典型。另外,更进一步的分析表明了上述的那种积极和欢乐来自于有关孩子的活动。生活中不涉及孩子的日常活动则没有这种效果。It looks, then, as if evolution has bolted into men a psychological mechanism to keep them in the family.所以说,由此可见,似乎自然进化让男人们产生了一种心理学机制,把他们闩在了家庭里。At first sight, it is strange that women do not share this mechanism, but perhaps they do not need to.乍一看,似乎女性没有这种机制很奇怪,但是仔细想想,她们也许根本就不需要这种机制。They know, after all, that the children are theirs, whereas the best a man can do is hope that is true.她们至少知道,自己的孩子一定是自己生的。That, and a mans potential to father an indefinite number of offspring if he can find willing volunteers, might encourage him to stray from the bosom of his family.但是孩子是不是男人自己的血脉,他们只能祈求上天了。所以说,一个男人想做一大堆子子孙孙的父亲的潜在本能,会激励他挣扎着走出家庭的怀抱。Enjoying fatherhood, by contrast, will help keep him in the porch.但是,相反的,身为人父的喜悦,则会让他们在家里的门廊前停住脚步。 /201307/247868兴国做颧骨整型多少钱

赣州医院哪家割双眼皮比较好定南县祛痘多少钱 When we are in a fairly dark room, or outside at night away from lights, we can still see, but wecant see the colors of things very well. Why is that?当我们在一个非常昏暗的房间或夜晚在无灯的户外,我们仍然可以看见物体,但很看不清楚物体的颜色,为什么会这样呢?There are two kinds of light-sensitive organs located in the backs of our eyes: rod-shaped andcone-shaped.在我们眼睛的后部有两种感光器官:杆状体和锥状体。Both rods and cones are sensitive to light.它们都对光线敏感。The difference between them is that therods allow us to see in very dim light but dont permit detection of color, while the cones let ussee color but they dont work in dim light.而它们的差别就在于,杆状体能让我们看见昏暗的光线下的东西,但无法辨别颜色;而锥状体能让我们辨别物体的颜色,但在昏暗的灯光下却无法发挥作用。When it gets dark the cones lose their ability to respond to light.当光线变暗时,锥状体失去对光线做出反应的能力。The rods continue to respond toavailable light, but since they cannot see color, so to speak, everything appears to be variousshades of black and white and gray.而杆状体继续对光线做出反应,但由于它不能帮助人们识别颜色,因此所有的物体看上去都是不同形状的黑色、白色或者灰色。A curious thing is that in dim light you can see more clearly out of the side of your eye, becausethe light-sensitive rods are more highly concentrated off to the side in the back of your eye.奇特的是,在光线暗淡情况下,通过眼睛两边的余光你能看得更清晰,因为杆状体更集中地分布在眼睛后部的边侧。So, next time youre out on a clear night, notice how little color you can see, and how you can see objects like dim stars better out of the corner of your eye than from the center.所以,下次在一个晴朗的夜晚外出,留意一下你是不是看不见什么颜色,并且关注一下用眼角的余光看东西,例如晦暗的星星,会不会比正视看效果更好。 201404/289599赣州市祛疤手术多少钱

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