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2019年12月13日 19:45:51来源:同城典范

When Xi Jinping visits the U.S. this autumn, one of the items on his agenda is bound to be what he has called a ;new type of major power relations.; The term remains ambiguous and some Americans fear that it is a device for disrupting American alliances. Chinese scholars reply that it is a genuine effort to avoid the dangerous dynamics between a rising and an established power that helped precipitate the Peloponnesian War and World War I.当习近平今年秋天访问美国时,他的议程上的项目之一必然是他所谓的;大国关系的新类型;。这个词仍然含糊不清,一些美国人担心它会分裂美国联盟。中国学者回答说,它是真诚的努力,旨在避免一个崛起的大国和一个根基稳固的大国之间的危险的动态关系,而这种关系可以推进伯罗奔尼萨战争和第一次世界大战发生。Looking ahead, pessimists predict an impending clash as China grows stronger and seeks to expel the U.S. from the Western Pacific. Some argue that this can be forestalled by the acceptance of spheres of influence in which the U.S. restricts its activities primarily to the Eastern Pacific. But such a response to Chinas rise would destroy American credibility and lead regional states into bandwagoning rather than balancing China. Instead, a continued U.S. presence in the Western Pacific can reinforce the natural balancing reactions of regional states and help to shape the environment in a way that encourages responsible Chinese behavior.展望未来,悲观者预测:随着中国变得更加强大,试图从西太平洋驱逐美国,冲突即将发生。一些人认为通过美国限制自身活动(主要是东太平洋)的影响范围,可以预先阻止冲突。但对中国崛起的如此大的反响会摧毁美国的信誉,导致区域各国也会对中国亦步亦趋,而不是平衡中囀?相反,美国在西太平洋的继续存在能加强区域各国的自然平衡反应,有助于塑造环境,在某种程度上鼓励中国采取负责任的行为。An appropriate policy response to the rise of China must balance realism and integration. When the Clint on Administration first considered how to respond to the rise of China in the 1990s, some critics urged a policy of containment before China became too strong. We rejected such advice for two reasons. First, it would have been impossible to forge an anti-China alliance since most countries in the region wanted (an d still want) good relations with both the U.S. and China. Even more important, such a policy would have unnecessarily guaranteed future enmity with China. As I used to say in my speeches when I was responsible for East Asia in the Pentagon, if you treat China as an enemy, you are certain to have an enemy.适当的应对中国崛起的政策必须平衡现实和整体。在上世0年代,当克林顿政府首先考虑如何应对中国崛起时,有员呼吁在中国变得过于强大之前对其剪政策。我们有两个理由拒绝这祥的建议。首我们不可结成反华联盟,因为该地区大多数国家希现在仍然希望)与美国和中国都保持良好关系。更重要的是,这祥的政策不必要地保了未来与中国为敌。正如我曾经在演讲中说当我在五角大楼负责东亚事务时,如果你把中国当作敌人,你就一定会拥有一个敌人。Instead the U.S. chose a policy that could be called ;integrate and insure.; China was welcomed into the World Trade Organization, but the U.S.-Japan security treaty was revived to insure against China becoming a bully. If a rising China throws its weight around, it drives neighbors to seek to balance its power. In that sense, only China can contain China.相反,美国选择了一个可以被称为;整体和保;的政策。中国被欣然接纳,进了世界贸易组织,但《美日安全条约》被重启,旨在避免中国强大后以强凌弱。如果一个崛起的中国盛气凌人,它会驱使邻居寻求平衡它的力量。在这个意义上,只有中国才能遏制中国。This is a key point in assessing the relative power of the U.S. and China. As Yan Xuetong wrote about how China could defeat America, ;to shape a friendly international environment for its rise, Beijing needs to develop more high-quality diplomatic and military relationships than Washington. No leading power is able to have friendly relations with every country in the world, thus the core of competition between China and the ed States will be to see who has more high-quality friends.; At this point, the ed States is better placed to benefit from such networks and alliances. Washington has about 60 treaty allies; China has few. In political alignments, The Economist estimates that of the 150 largest countries in the world, nearly 100 lean toward the ed States; 21 lean against.这是评估美国和中国的相对实力的一个关键点。正如阎学通所写的关于中国如何此能打败美国所言;为中国的崛起塑造一个友好的国际环境,北京需要发展比华盛顿更优质的外交和军事关系。没有一个大国能够拥有世界上每个国家的友好关系,因而中国和美国之间的竞争核心将是看看谁拥有更多高品质的朋友;在这一点上,美国能够更好地受益于这样的网络和联盟。美国有0个盟友;而中国的盟友只有几个。在政治路线上,《经济学人》杂志估计世界上最大的150个国家中,有将近100个倾向美国;有21个倾向中国。In 2011, the ed States announced a strategy of rebalancing toward Asia, the fastest growing part of the world economy. Some Chinese see the Obama Administration policy of ;rebalancing; towards Asia as a form of containment, but unlike the Cold War doctrine when the U.S. had virtually no trade or social contact with the Soviet Union, it has massive trade with China and more than 250,000 students in American universities. Shaping the environment for Chinese decisions is a more accurate description than containment for American strategy.2011年,美国宣布对亚洲——世界经济增长最快的部分,实施再平衡战略。一些中国人认为奥巴马政府对亚洲;再平;政策是一种遏制形式。但不像美国与苏联几乎没有任何贸易或社会交往时的冷战声明,美国和中国之间有大量贸易,有超5万中国学生就读于美国大学。相对于美国战略遏制,一个更准确的描述是塑造中国的决策环境。Some analysts see China as a revisionist state eager to overthrow the established international order as its strength increases. But China is not a full-fledged revisionist state like Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union in the last century. While it has joined in the creation of a BRICS development bank, and promotes regional organizations that suit its needs, China has benefited greatly from, and is not eager to destroy, existing international institutions such as the UN, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization -- as well as many others. American allies help shape the environment that encourages responsible behavior, and China cares about its reputation.一些分析师认为中国是一个修正主义国家,随着其国力增强,急于推翻既定的国际秩序。但中国并不像纳粹德国或上个世纪的苏联,它并不是一个成熟的修正主义国家。虽然它已经参与创建了金砖国家发展,推进适合其需求的区域组织,而不是急于破坏现有的国际机构,如联合国,国际货币基金组织,以及世界贸易组织——以及许多其他组织,中国已经从中受益匪浅。美国的盟友帮助塑造鼓励中国负责任行为的环境,而中国也关心自己的声誉。In addition, technological and social changes are adding a number of important transnational issues to the global agenda such as climate change, pandemics, terrorism, organized crime, and cyber crime. These issues represent not a transition of power among states, but a diffusion of power away from governments. Coping with these global threats will require increased inter-governmental cooperation that includes China, Europe and the ed States and others.此外,科技和社会的变化给全球议程增添了一些重要的跨国问题,如气候变化、流行病、恐怖主义、有组织犯罪和网络犯罪。这些问题不代表着权力在各国之间的过渡,而是代表着权力从政府的扩散。应对这些全球性威胁,需要增强包括中囀?欧洲、美国和其他国家在内的政府间合作。China aspires to play a larger role in East Asia, and the U.S. has Asian allies to whose defense it is committed. Miscalculations are always possible, but conflict is far from inevitable. The legitimacy of the Chinese government depends on a high rate of economic growth; the top leaders realize that China will need many decades before it approaches the sophistication of the American economy. Where Germany was pressing hard on Britains heels (and passed it in industrial strength), the U.S. remains decades ahead of China in overall military, economic, and soft power resources at the global level. Moreover, China cannot afford a policy like that of the Kaisers Germany. Too adventuresome a policy risks its gains and stability at home and abroad.中国渴望在东亚发挥更大的作用,美国拥有亚洲盟国,美国承诺守护盟国国防安全。误判是可能的,但冲突并非不可避免。中国政府的合理性依赖于高经济增长率;最高领导人意识到中国将需要几十年才能像美国经济一样成熟。曾经德国对英国穷追不舍(并在工业实力上超过了它),而全球范围内,未来数十年美国仍然会在军事、经济和软实力资源方面整体领先中囀?此外,中国不能承担像Kaiser(译者注:德国皇帝)的德国的政策。过于冒险的政策无疑给其在国内外的获益和稳定性增加了太多风险。In other words, the ed States has more time to manage it relations with a rising power than Britain did a century ago, and China has more incentives for restraint than Germany had. This provides an opportu nity to work out a new type of major power relationship if the U.S. continues to avoid containment as a s trategy, and if China accepts the legitimacy of the American presence in the Western Pacific. Whether the ed States and China will manage to develop such a relationship is another question. Human error and miscalculation are always possible. But with the right choices, conflict is not inevitable.换句话说,不像一个世纪前的英国,美国有更多的时间来处理它与一个正在崛起的大国之间的关系,而与德国相比,中国有更多动机来约束自己。如果美国继续避免遏制成为战略,如果中国接受美国在西太平洋存在的合理性,这就为制定一 个新型的大国关系提供了一个机会。美国和中国是否能建立这样的关系是另外一个问题。人为错误和误判是可能的。但有了正确的选择,冲突并非不可避免。来 /201503/364160。

  • Austrian Interior Minister Johanna Mikl-Leitner says Austria will build a fence along its border with Slovenia to slow the tide of migrants crossing into the country.奥地利内政部长米克尔-莱特纳说,奥地利将沿与斯洛文尼亚的边界设立围栏,减缓涌入奥地利的移民潮。Mikl-Leitner made the announcement Wednesday, saying the fence will be meant to ensure controlled, orderly entry into Austria, not to keep migrants out altogether.米克莱特纳星期三做出上述宣布。她说,设立围栏是为了确保人们有控制、有秩序地进入奥地利,而不是为了将移民阻挡在国门之外。Speaking to reporters on the border, Mikl-Leitner used the term ;technical barriers; to describe the planned construction. She did not present a time frame or budget for the plan.米克莱特纳在边境对记者发表谈话的时候使用了“技术屏障”的说法来形容计划中的设斀?她没有提出设立围栏的时间表或预算。Tuesday, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker criticized member nations for not acting expeditiously to provide funds and experts to help in managing Europes worst migration crisis since World War Two.欧盟委员会主席容克星期二批评欧盟成员国没有迅速采取行动提供资金和专家来协助应对欧洲自第二次世界大战以来的最严重移民危机。Juncker said ;the member states have been moving slowly at a time when they should be running.;容克说:“欧盟成员国在需要奔跑的时候却慢慢腾腾。”He stressed the need for more funds and experts in a report to the European Parliament in Strasbourg.在向斯特拉斯堡的欧洲议会提交的一份报告中,他强调需要更多的资金和专家。The U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees reports that more than 700,000 people have arrived in Europe this year, fleeing war and poverty in the Middle East, Africa and Asia.联合国难民事务高级专员报告说,今年已经有70万人为躲避战乱和贫困而从中东、非洲和亚洲抵达欧洲。来 /201510/406483。
  • MADRID A dog named Excalibur who belonged to an Ebola-infected nurse was euthanized on Wednesday, even as protesters and animal rights activists surrounded the Madrid home of the nurse and her husband. A online petition calling for the dogs life to be spared had drawn hundreds of thousands of signatures.马德里——周三,一名感染埃拉病毒的护士的被实施了安乐死,尽管抗议者和动物权益活动人士包围了这名护士及其丈夫在马德里的住所。这条名叫埃克斯卡利伯(Excalibur)。网上一封呼吁放这条一条生路的请愿书,目前已获得了数以万计的签名。The furor came amid questions about whether dogs can get and transmit the disease.群情激奋之时,有人质疑是否会感染以及传播这种疾病。In the ed States, a spokesman for the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Thomas Skinner, said Wednesday that studies had shown that dogs can have an immune response to Ebola, meaning that they can become infected. But he said there had been no reports of dogs or cats developing Ebola symptoms or passing the disease to other animals or to people.美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)发言人托马斯·斯金Thomas Skinner)周三表示,研究表明,能对埃拉病毒产生免疫反应,这意味着它们可能也会受到感染。但是他说,目前尚无或猫出现埃拉病症或者把这种疾病传播给其他动物或人类的报告。The death of Excalibur, a 12-year-old rescue dog, was confirmed to reporters by Javier Rodríguez, an official from Madrids regional government, and the body is expected to be cremated.埃克斯卡利伯是一2岁的搜救犬,马德里地区政府官员哈维尔·罗德里格Javier Rodríguez)向记者实了它的死亡,它的尸体将被火化。The nurses husband had pleaded publicly with officials in Madrid to change their minds about euthanizing the dog. He told the Spanish newspaper El Mundo that there was no indication that Excalibur had been infected with Ebola. The nurse has been identified as María Teresa Romero Ramos.这名护士的丈夫曾公开请求马德里官员改变主意,不要对埃克斯卡利伯实施安乐死。他告诉西班牙报纸《世界报El Mundo),没有迹象表明埃克斯卡利伯感染了埃拉病毒。这名护士被认定为玛丽亚·特雷莎·罗梅罗·拉莫María Teresa Romero Ramos)。The fate of the dog ignited a frenzy online. More than 350,000 people signed the petition to save his life. By comparison, about 150,000 people have signed a petition urging the Food and Drug Administration to fast-track research on a potential vaccine and treatment for Ebola.这条的命运引起了网民的愤怒。共5万人在请愿书上签名,希望能挽救它的生呀?相比之下,大约15万人在一封请愿书上签名,敦促食品与药品(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)加快对埃拉疫苗和治疗方案的研究。Twitter erupted, with pleas in both English and Spanish to save Excaliburs life.Twitter上的反应也很强烈,人们用英语和西班牙语发表请愿,要求拯救埃克斯卡利伯的生呀?saveexcaliber SAVE THE DOG...OWNER HAS EBOLA...QUARANTINE THE DOG TOO...DONT MURDER HIM#saveexcaliber 救救这……主人感染了埃拉……把也给隔离了……不要杀害他Then, after Excalibur was euthanized, came tweets using the hashtag #RIPExcalibur.随后,在埃克斯卡利伯被实施安乐死后,有推文开始使#RIPExcalibur 的标签RIPExcalibur hating this world so damn much today.#RIPExcalibur 今天无比厌恶这个世界。Some also suggested that more attention was being focused on the dog than on Ebolas human victims.有人则提出人们把更多的注意力放在了上,而不是埃拉病毒的人类受害者。Nearly 4,000 people in West Africa have died during the current Ebola epidemic, and global health authories expect to see thousands more infections there. The Spanish nurse became the first person to become infected outside West Africa. The only case diagnosed in the ed States has been that of a Liberian man who had traveled from Liberia to Dallas and died in a hospital there Wednesday. Three infected American aid workers were transferred from West Africa to American hospitals and treated successfully, and a freelance cameraman for N who became infected in Liberia has been transferred to a hospital in Nebraska, where he is undergoing treatment.在西非,共有将近4000人在目前的埃拉疫情中丧生,全球各地的卫生官员认为,将来还会有数千人会受感染。这名西班牙护士成了西非以外地区受感染的第一人。美国的唯一确诊案例是一名利比里亚籍男子,他曾从利比里亚去往达拉斯,并于周三在那里的一家医院死亡。有关部门把三名受感染的美国救援工作者从西非转移到了美国医院,他们在那里得到了很好的治疗,一名在利比里亚受感染的N自由摄影记者被转移到了内布拉斯加州的一家医院,目前正在那里接受治疗。Mr. Skinner said the disease centers were recommending that Ebola patients with dogs or cats at home ;evaluate the animals risk of exposure,; meaning they should assess how likely it is that the animal has ingested bodily fluids like blood, vomit and feces from the patient. If the animal has been exposed, it should be monitored for 21 days, the incubation period for the disease. Mr. Skinner said the C.D.C. was working with the American Veterinary Medical Association to study the issue and develop guidance for pets in the ed States.斯金纳称,疾病预防和控制中心正在建议家中有或猫的埃拉患者“评估动物的接触风险”,也就是说他们应该评估动物摄入患者的血液等体液,以及呕吐物和排泄物的可能性有多大。如果动物已经接触了病毒,应将其观察21天1天是埃拉病毒的潜伏期。斯金纳称,CDC正在与美国兽医协American Veterinary Medical Association)合作,研究这个问题,并制定针对美国宠物的指导意见。In a 2005 study of dogs in Gabon done after an Ebola outbreak in 2001-02, researchers found that dogs can be infected with the virus, but that they show no symptoms.埃拉在2001年至2002年期间爆发后,研究人员在2005年对加蓬的进行的一项研究中发现,可能会感染该病毒,但它们未表现出症状。The study, published in Emerging Infectious Diseases, a C.D.C. journal, tested dogs in two villages in the heart of the Ebola outbreak, as well as dogs in a city with some human Ebola cases, dogs in distant villages and a control group of dogs in France. Of 159 dogs tested from the two villages, 40 had Ebola antigens in their blood. This rate was significantly higher than the prevalence of antigens found in dogs in the city with some human cases, three times higher than the dogs several hundred miles from the outbreak, and much higher than the dogs in France. Two out of 102 dogs tested in France had antigens for Ebola.发表在CDC期刊《新生感染性疾病Emerging Infectious Diseases)上的该研究,对位于那一轮埃拉爆发的中心的两个村子,以及出现了一些感染埃拉病例的一座城市、偏远村庄和法国一个控制组的进行了测试。那两个村子共有159条接受了测试,其中40条的血液中含有埃拉抗原。这一比例,明显高于出现了人感染埃拉病例的那座城市的,是距病毒爆发地几百英里的的三倍多,同时也远高于法国的。法国有102条接受了测试,条体内发现了埃拉抗原。The researchers said the possibility that pet dogs could become infected and transmit the virus to humans could not be ruled out. They noted that pet dogs in Gabon, as in many parts of Africa, probably have greater access to the wild animals that are the source of Ebola infections because African dogs often scavenge for food, eating small animals and organs from carcasses of wild animals killed by hunters, some of which were sources of human Ebola cases in Gabon.研究人员称,不能排除宠物感染病毒并将其传播给人类这个可能性。他们指出,和非洲许多地区一样,加蓬的宠物接触野生动物的可能性更大,因为非洲的经常觅食,吃小动物和被猎人打死的野生动物的器官。野生动物是埃拉感染的源头,其中部分野生动物正是加蓬人感染埃拉病例的根源;We observed that some dogs ate fresh remains of Ebola virus infected dead animals brought back to the villages and that others licked vomit from Ebola virus-infected patients,; the researchers reported.“我们观察到,一些吃了感染了埃拉病毒的动物的新鲜遗骸——这些动物尸体被带回了那些村子——其他一些舔过感染了埃拉病毒的患者的呕吐物,”这些研究人员通报称。None of the dogs in the study showed symptoms, unlike wild animals. In gorillas and chimpanzees, Ebola infection is often lethal, the study said. Still, it is possible that dogs exposed to Ebola could be a potential source of human infection if people come in contact with viral particles in dog urine, feces or saliva through ;licking, biting, or grooming,; the study said.不同于野生动物,研究中的那些没有一条表现出了症状。该研究称,在大猩猩和黑猩猩身上,埃拉感染通常是致命的。但研究称,接触过埃拉的可能是潜在的人类感染源头,因为人可能会通过“的舔、咬或给其梳毛刷洗”,接触的尿液、排泄物或唾液中的病毒颗粒;Given the frequency of contact between humans and domestic dogs,; it said, ;canine Ebola infection must be considered as a potential risk factor for human infection and virus sp.;“考虑到人类与家里的的接触频率,”研究称,“必须将犬类埃拉感染视作人类感染,以及病毒扩散的一种潜在风险因素。”来 /201410/335711。
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