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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月14日 17:42:52
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  UFO Attack“飞碟”来袭June.Nineteen sixty-nine, not one airliner but two, plus the pilot of an Air National Guard fighter plane, report being harassed by a team of UFOs. One man estimates the glowing ships have come within a few hundred feet. The pilot of the fighter plane even declares a near-collision.“1969年6月”、“两架飞机”、“外加一驾驶战斗机的空军国民警卫队飞行员”——一群不明飞行物让人们觉得很困扰!有人估测那些发光的飞船已经来到了距离他们数百英尺以内。战斗机的飞行员甚至还宣称跟它有近距离碰触。What were these UFOs really? It turned out they were fragments of a meteor coming apart in the upper atmosphere. Now heres the most interesting part: the meteor fragments were at least one hundred and twenty five miles from the planes. How could you possibly think something over a hundred miles away was about to hit you?这些不明飞行物真正是什么呢?事实明,它们是流星在高层大气瓦解后的碎片。最不可思议的是:流星的碎片距离飞机至少有125公里,那么人怎么可能会觉得在100多公里以外的东西会碰撞他呢?Objects in the sky confuse our perceptual abilities. With no visual cues to help calculate distance, our brains rely on size and speed instead. How? By using a simple fact: far-away things look like they are going slower than close-up things.天空中的物体会混淆我们的感知能力。没有视觉提示的帮助,我们的大脑就会依赖于(该物体的)大小的速度来计算距离。怎么来计算呢? 通过一个很简单的道理:远处的东西运动起来看起比近处的东西慢。You may have noticed this when driving: those distant phone poles pass sluggishly while the ones on the road go zooming by. In a blank white sky, our brains default to a simple strategy: the bigger it looks and the faster it goes, the closer it probably is.你或许会在开车时有这种感觉:远处的电线杆移动的很慢,而路边的电线杆则移动的很快。在空旷的白色天空中,我们的大脑默认了一个简单的道理:看起来越大、运动的越快的东西,距离我们就越近。This is a smart way to proceed, and it generally works. Still, our perception can be fouled by rare situations in which we find ourselves looking at something far away that nevertheless moves extremely fast, such as an incoming meteor.这是一个很聪明的方法,而且它通常都会起到作用。然而,在少有的情况下,我们的感知也会出错。例如,我们在看到一些距离很远但移动极快的东西的时候,如一颗靠近的流星。At thousands of miles an hour, that flaming object speeds across your field of vision, and your brain can easily conclude it must be much closer than it is,maybe even about to abduct you.发光的流星以一小时数千公里的速度穿过你的视野,你的大脑很容易觉得它离你比实际距离要近得多。或许它是来绑架你的! /201212/211890。

  

  Science and Technology New transistors Mechanical advantage科技 新型晶体管 机械优势Two new types of transistor may lead to simpler, more efficient computers两种新型晶体管或许会导致更加便捷高效计算机的出现WHEN baking a cake it helps to have all the ingredients within reach, rather than wasting time and energy making frequent trips to the pantry.当你在烧烤蛋糕的时候,它有会让所有的一切都变得触手可及,而不是让你在食品柜繁琐的开关之间浪费时间与精力。Something similar is true of the logic circuits in computers microprocessors.这也同样会真正应用于电脑微处理器中的某些逻辑电路。These could be made faster, and would consume less energy, if they were able to store information themselves instead of fetching it from separate memory chips or hard drives.如果这些微处理器自己能够储存一些信息,用来取代从原来相互独立的芯片或手工操作中获得的信息,它们的速度将会变得更快,能耗将会更低。The problem is that the transistors used to make logic circuits hold their electronic state, and therefore any data they contain, only when powered up.问题是,用来制造逻辑电路的晶体管中保留着它们的电子态,因此当这些晶体管通电的时候,它们会包含任何可能的数据。The choice engineers face is thus between supplying continuous power to a transistor, so that it can retain its memory (which costs energy), and ferrying data that would otherwise be lost to and from so-called non-volatile memory devices that do not require continuous power (which costs time).因此,工程师们面临的选择就是要么对晶体管提供一个持续的电源,让晶体管保持自己的记忆(这会耗费能源),否则从所谓的非易失性半导体存储器中传输的数据就有可能丢失,不过它不需要持续的电源(这会消耗时间)。Cracking this problem—so that transistors can act as their own non-volatile memory—would make all computers faster.解决这个问题——以便于让晶体管使用自身的非易失性半导体存储器——将会让所有的电脑运行速度更快。It would be particularly valuable, though, for mobile devices.虽然这对于移动设备来说,显得特别昂贵。These could be made smaller and lighter, since they would require fewer components.不过移动设备因此可以做得更小,更轻盈,因为它们需要的元件更小。And they could go for longer between charges.并且两次充电的时间间隔将会变得更长。To this end, Hiroshi Mizuta of the University of Southampton, in England, and Tsuyoshi Hasegawa of the National Institute for Material Science in Tsukuba, Japan, are proposing a marriage between two novel types of transistor that could hardly be more different.为此,英国南安普顿大学的Hiroshi Mizuta和日本筑波国立材料科学研究所的Tsuyoshi Hasegawa提出了将两种完全不同新型材料混合起来。One, the atomic transistor, draws on the latest advances in nanoscience.其中一种就是原子晶体管,它利用了最新的纳米科技。The other, the mechanical transistor, sounds as if it has been lifted from the annals of the industrial revolution.另外一种就是机械晶体管,这听起来就像是从工业革命史册中发掘出来的玩意儿。The atomic transistor works, as its name suggests, by shuffling individual atoms around within the device.原子晶体管的工作方式就像它名字所示的那样,是通过移动该元件内部的单个原子进行工作的。The atoms in question are copper,这里所说的原子指的是铜原子,and the result of the shuffling is to create or destroy a conductive pathway between two crucial bits of the transistor, the source and the drain, thus switching the device on or off. That is possible because this part of the transistor is made of tantalum pentoxide, a material whose atoms are arranged in a lattice which contains holes large enough for copper atoms to squeeze through.移动的结果主是在晶体管的两个十字位置构建或消除一个传导通路,它的源极和漏极因此就会开启或关闭。这是有可能实现的,因为这部分晶体管是由五氧化二钽制造的——这种材料可以将它自身的原子排布在晶格中,这些晶格包括一些足够大的孔,可以让铜原子挤过去。The mechanical transistor, more properly called a nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) transistor, creates and destroys the connection between source and drain mechanically.机械晶体管,更确切地可以称之为纳米电子机械系统(NEMS)晶体管,它可以在源极和漏极之间机械地构建或消除连接。When a voltage is applied across two beamlike electrodes made of aluminium, which are separated by a gap of around 50 nanometres, charge builds up on each, creating an attractive force between them, until a critical point is reached.两个柱状的铝电极间隔约50纳米,当电压加在这两个电极之间时,它们就会相互通电,在二者之间会形成一股引力,直至达到一个临界点。At that moment one of the electrodes flips towards the other, causing the two to make contact. This closes the circuit and turns the transistor on.在达到临界点的那一刻,其中一个电极就会移向另一个电极,这两个电极就会形成通路。Apply the opposite charge and the electrode flips back, breaking the circuit.这样就会接通电路,打开晶体管。利用相反的电荷,电极就会复位,进而断开电路。What makes these two very different types of transistor attractive is that both the copper and the aluminium stay put when the power is turned off.这两种完全不同类型的晶体管如此吸引人的地方就在于断电后,如何让铜原子和铝电极待在原地。They can thus act as memories as well as processors.它们可以应用于储存芯片和处理器。The ;on; state represents one type of binary digit (a one, say) and the ;off; state represents the other (zero).;开;的状态表示二进制中的一个数字(就是;一;),;关;的状态可以表示另一个数字(即;零;)。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa are therefore using the novel transistors to try to make the worlds first non-volatile processor chip.Mizuta士和Hasegawa士因此都在使用新型的晶体管,力图制造出世界上第一个非易失性处理器芯片。Ideally, such a chip would have only one sort of transistor, since that would mean it was much easier to manufacture.理想的这种芯片将只有一种晶体管类型,因为这意味着它将会更加容易制造。However, transistors come in two varieties, n-type (negative) and p-type (positive).不过,晶体管却有两种,一种是N型(负),一种是P型(正)。Both are needed in a logic circuit, but atomic devices can be only n-type.逻辑电路都需要这两种晶体管,不过在原子设备中,只需要N型。The alternatives, then, are to make the circuit entirely out of NEMS transistors, or to mix the two by using atomic devices where an n-type transistor is needed and NEMS ones where a p-type is required.那么另一个方案就是完全用NEMS晶体管制造电路,或者是将利用N型晶体管的原子设备和利用P型晶体管的NEMS晶体管混合起来。Dr Mizuta and Dr Hasegawa have opted for a mixture, because atomic transistors are much smaller than NEMS ones, and the saving of space outweighs the awkwardness of mixing them together.Mizuta士和Hasegawa士选择了二者的混合,因为原子晶体管比NEMS更加小巧,这样节省的空间就会消除二者的混合的尴尬。If their recipe works, it will mean far fewer electronic trips to the pantry and a quicker baking time for whatever answer the new chip is trying to cook up.如果他们的方案成功的话,这意味着食品柜中的开关将会大大减小,(无论任何口味的饭菜)实现更短的烹饪时间。 /201211/210629If you find yourself away from a city, spend an hour looking up on any clear, moonless night,youre bound to see a few brilliant ;shooting stars.; These actually have nothing to do with stars: Theyre meteors, and if your viewing conditions are good, you can see about seven per hour on any given night. During a ;meteor shower; however, this rate may increase to over a hundred meteors an hour. What are meteors, and what makes them gather into showers?如果在没有月亮的晴朗夜晚,你远离城市,花一个小时观察天空。你一定会看见许多绚丽的一划而过的星星。它们其实不是真正的星星。它们只是流星,如果观察条件允许,你每小时大约可看见七颗流星。然而,如果遇上一场流星雨,你流星出现的频率会增加,达到每小时100多颗。什么是流星?它们是怎么聚集从而形成流星雨的?Meteors are caused by bits of rocky material that enter our atmosphere from space, then burn up because of friction. They dont have to be big for you to see them. Surprisingly, most visible meteors are caused by debris no larger than a single grain of sand. They burn so brightly because of tremendous friction when they hit our atmosphere at more than forty miles per second.流星是由很小的外太空陨石进入大气层,与空气擦燃烧引起的。那些陨石很小,人类并不能用肉眼看见。出人意料的是,大多数可见的流星其实是由比沙粒还小的碎石屑形成的。陨石以每秒40多英里的速度闯入大气层,产生巨大的擦力,从而发出明亮的光芒。Why would something as random as flying specks of space debris gather into showers? Its because the Earth passes through the same regions of space each time it orbits the sun. Certain regions have more debris than others, so we have meteor showers on those nights.为什么从外太空随机飞入的陨石屑会汇聚成流星雨呢?这是因为地球每次绕太阳轨道公转会经过同样的区域。某些区域比其它区域有更多的陨石屑,所以地球经过这些区域时的夜晚,我们就会看见流星雨。Of course this raises the question of why certain parts of our orbit would be especially full of debris. The answer has to do with comets. Comets are big, dirty snowballs that orbit our sun. Long after a comet and its tail have passed us by, it leaves behind a thin trail of dust and debris. If a comet crosses the Earths orbit, we pass through this trail each year. For example, every October twenty-first we pass through the Orionid shower, which is debris left behind from Halleys comet. 当然这又会引出另一个问题,为什么地球公转轨道上的某些区域会有特别多的陨石屑。与彗星有关。彗星就像是围绕太阳转的巨大的,脏兮兮的雪球。彗星及其彗尾扫过之后,会留下一道充满细小尘埃和碎屑的痕迹,并存在很长一段时间。如果有一颗彗星经过地球公转轨道,那么我们每年都会经过这道满是尘埃和碎屑的区域。例如,每年10月21号我们会经过猎户座流星雨,这就是哈雷彗星残留的陨石屑引起的。201205/182984Forensics辩论术/ 法医学A murder has been committed. The scene of the crime is a secluded area. There were no witnesses, and the body is considerably decayed.有一场凶手案。凶案现场是一个隐蔽的地方,没有目击人,尸体也严重腐烂了。As the chief investigator, you have a suspect who was in town a week ago. But to convict him, youll need to know the date and time that the victim was murdered. How can you tell? And besides, whats that annoying buzzing in your ear? Wait, dont swat that fly! Hes your star witness. In fact, that little fly just told you the date of the crime!身为首席侦查员,你在一周前就在镇子里有一个怀疑对象。但是要明其有罪,你需要知道受害人被害的日期和时间。你要怎么说呢?除此之外,你耳朵里那些恼人的嘈杂声又是什么呢?等等,不要拍打这只“苍蝇”,它就是你的重要目击人。事实上,这只小苍蝇就告知了你犯罪日期。Flies dont carry pocket calendars, and they cant testify before a jury. How can a crime-scene insect help a police investigation? By doing what it naturally does—eating and laying eggs.苍蝇并没有在兜里自带日历,它们也不能在陪审团面前作。那一只在犯罪现场的虫子是怎样帮助警察调查的呢?通过它们正常的方式—— 食用(尸体)并产卵。When someone dies outdoors, the first investigators on the scene are usually bright greenbottle blowflies. Attracted by the smell of decaying flesh, these usually arrive within ten minutes of the death. While this smell might make us retch, for the blowfly its as savory as grandmas apple pie. The blowflys scientific name is ;Sarcophagi;, which means ;corpse eater;.当一个人死于户外时,到现场的第一批侦查员通常都是亮亮的绿头苍蝇。他们被正在腐烂的肉味所吸引,通常在死亡后十分钟内就到来了。这些(腐肉)气味或许会令我们作呕,但对于绿头苍蝇来说他们就像是外婆做的苹果派一样可口。绿头苍蝇的学名是“Sarcophagi(中文意思为“石棺”)”,意思是“尸体食用者”。While they eat, the blowflies lay eggs in the softer parts of the body, and these hatch into maggots twenty-four hours later. These maggots attract other insects, like the predatory rove beetle(隐翅虫), who feast on them. And so on. Wave after wave of hungry insects arrive, marking time as accurately as a clock.这些苍蝇一边嗜(尸体),一边在尸体较软的地方产卵,然后这些卵又会在24小时后会孵化称蛆。蛆又会引来其它的昆虫,比如说以蛆为食的肉食型隐翅虫等。饥饿的昆虫们一波接一波的到来,时间精准的跟时钟一样。Meanwhile, the blowflies follow their natural life cycle. Maggots become pupae, the pupae become adults. By surveying the insects in and around a corpse, forensic scientists can help a police investigator determine how long ago a victim was murdered.与此同时,绿头苍蝇们继续这它们的正常生命循环。蛆变成蛹,蛹再长大。通过调查尸体周围的昆虫,法医可以帮助警方调查人员确定受害者遇害的时间。 /201209/201312

  Books and Arts; Book Review;The life of Lillian Hellman;Profile in courage;文艺;书评;丽莲·海尔曼的生活;勇气的轮廓;Lillian Hellman, a popular playwright and bestselling author, was a minor player in American intellectual circles. So why is she still such a divisive figure?丽莲·海尔曼,一个有名的剧作家和畅销书作者,曾今是美国知识分子圈中的一个小角色。但是为什么时至今日,她还是一个如此备受争议的人物?A Difficult Woman: The Challenging Life and Times of Lillian Hellman. By Alice Kessler-Harris.《一个难对付的女人:莉莲·赫尔曼充满挑战的一生和她的时代》,阿丽丝·凯斯勒·哈里斯著。Lillian Hellman knew how to tell a good story, and she liked to spin her own. So she destroyed old letters, suppressed records and hushed friends. She replaced hard documentation with soulful reminiscences of a Jewish childhood in New Orleans, of coming of age during the Depression and of defending her leftist ideals amid the hysteria of the cold war. Flinty yet glamorous, she was blacklisted in the 1950s because she would not confess to a crime of disloyalty she felt she never committed. In memoirs and anecdotes, Hellman presented herself as she wished to be remembered—the courageous and upright heroine of her own play—and tried to destroy or quash everything else.丽莲·海尔曼知道怎样才能叙述出一个好的故事,并且她喜欢编写关于自己的故事。正因为这样,她废弃了旧的书信,禁止写记录性的文件,缄默朋友。用充满感情的回忆录,取代了生硬刻板的文件。一个犹太人,在新奥尔良度过了自己的童年时光,成年时期经历了大萧条,并且在歇斯底里的冷战时期捍卫她的左翼思想。在二十世纪五十年代,她被列入黑名单,原因是她不愿意承认自己犯了不忠罪,她觉得自己从来没有犯过。虽然顽固了点,可是却很绚烂。在回忆录与轶事里,海尔曼这样呈现自己——一个有勇气且正直的女英雄,并且试图摧毁或是捣碎一切。Hellman is an irresistible subject, but time has not been good to her reputation. Her effort to control her legacy appears to have backfired. Once celebrated for her taut writing and devotion to social justice, her image since her death in 1984, aged 79, has curdled into something villainous. Her plays are still performed—particularly “The Little Foxes”, which secured her fame in 1939—but they are often dismissed as moralising melodramas. Her name now tends to invite vitriol about her being a Stalinist and a liar, a woman who preached economic equality while swaddled in mink. She was a hypocritical “bitch with balls”, in the words of Elia Kazan, a film director, who seethed at Hellmans self-righteous take on the McCarthy era.海尔曼是一个让人无法抗拒的主题,可是时间对她的名誉而言却并不是一件好事。她企图控制自己的遗产,没料却事与愿违。曾今人们赞美她那简洁紧凑的著作,还有为社会正义所做出的努力。但是她的形象,在1984年79岁的她去世后,变质成腐化堕落。人们仍然在表演她的剧本,尤其是1939年为她赢得名声的《小狐狸》。但是更多的时候,剧本被认为是具有说教性质的情景剧,因此不予考虑。一提起她的名字,就会引来社会对她的尖酸刻薄的评价。一个斯大林主义者,撒谎精,一个鼓吹经济平等却穿着貂皮大衣的女流之辈。用美国导演伊利亚卡赞的话说,她是一个虚伪的“长有男性睾丸的婊子”。导演伊利亚卡赞及其讨厌海尔曼在麦卡锡时代的自以为是。This is the backdrop of “A Difficult Woman”. Alice Kessler-Harris, an American historian at Columbia University, begins her thoughtful book assuring ers that “it would be folly to try to capture the ‘real Lillian, whoever that is”. Hellman is too slippery a subject and too unco-operative a source for that. Rather, this biography works to answer the question of why Hellman remains such a divisive figure, “a lightning rod for the anger, fear and passion” that divided Americans during an especially fraught ideological time.这是令人深思的书籍《一个难对付的女人》的创作背景。艾丽斯·凯斯勒·哈里斯,美国哥伦比亚大学历史学家,如此开头本书向人们保,“企图捕捉真实的丽莲是一件愚蠢的事,不管是谁”。原因是海尔曼是如此的狡猾,如此的不可合作。准确点说,这本传记主要是来回答海尔曼为什么是这样一位富有争议的人物,“是愤怒,恐惧与的避雷针”,在各种意识形态混杂的时代,让美国人四分五散。Ambitious, acerbic and direct to the point of rudeness, Hellman was a woman of voracious appetites, the kind of “tough broad” who “can take the tops off bottles with her teeth”, according to a 1941 New Yorker profile. She knew she wasnt a beauty (her first boyfriend said she looked like “a prow head on a whaling ship”), but she bristled with a sexual charisma designed to distract husbands from their wives. Lonely and insecure about her desirability, she found affirmation in affairs and friendships with men.野心勃勃,尖刻,并直接达到粗鲁的程度。海尔曼是个贪吃的女人,据1941年杂志纽约形象描述,她粗鲁的可以“用牙齿扯下瓶塞”。她知道自己不是一个美人(她的第一任男友说她长得像是“捕鲸船的船头”),但是她性感十足,专门勾引别人的老公。孤独,还有对性感的不安全感,使得她在艳遇和与男人的友谊中寻求肯定。The most significant of these was with Dashiell Hammett, a famous and flamboyantly alcoholic writer of detective novels, with whom she enjoyed an unconventional romance for 30 years until he died in 1961. Hellman always credited him with teaching her how to write, showing her how to craft distinctive characters with just a few lines of raffish dialogue. In turn Hellman bailed Hammett out of the occasional fix, and tended to his reputation and estate for the rest of her life.与她交往的最有名的当属达希尔·哈米特。达希尔·哈米特,侦探小说家,著名,有派头,酗酒。直到1961年达希尔·哈米特死亡,海尔曼跟他经历了30年的不同寻常的浪漫。海尔曼经常说他的好话,比如他教她如何写作,如何用几行简短的低级趣味的对白塑造出与众不同的人物形象。对应地,海尔曼保释达希尔·哈米特于偶尔的贿赂,并用其余生悉心照料他的名誉和财产。Vehemently anti-fascist, Hellman fought for civil rights and civil liberties, always believing a better future was within reach. She became a labour organiser during the Depression, and travelled to Spain to witness the horrors of its civil war. She flirted with communism in the 1930s, seeing the party as an essential check on fascism in Europe. Problematically, she joined the party after the worst of Moscows purges and show trials, and even signed a letter declaring her faith in the guilt of the defendants. But her membership was brief, and she later expressed regret for not having understood just how blood-soaked Stalin was.海尔曼是激进的反法西斯主义者,为了人权和自由而战,并且坚信美好的未来就在手边。在大萧条时期,她成为工会的组织者,并且亲赴西班牙,见内战的恐怖。在十九世纪三十年代,她与共产主义接触,亲眼目睹了,在欧洲,主要的被抓捕对象是共产党。给她真正惹麻烦的,是在糟糕的莫斯科大清洗后,她加入了共产党,并且出庭,甚至签署一封信,宣称自己对被告的过失有信心。Amid growing fears about the Soviet menace in the 1950s, Hellman still loudly supported “peaceful coexistence” rather than aggressive containment. Called before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1952, she elegantly declared that it was “indecent and dishonourable” to name names in order to save herself, particularly when she did not feel she had done anything wrong. Americas repression of communism, she argued, was more insidious than the threat of it. Despite decades of involvement in progressive politics and her public criticism of Stalins regime, Hellman is still regarded as an “unrepentant Stalinist”.在1950年代,人们在对苏联的威胁战战兢兢之际,海尔曼依旧高调持“和平共处”而不是强制遏制。1952年,在被非美活动调查委员会传唤之前,为了保全自己,她高雅地宣称公开点名是“不得体且不被尊重”的。看点是,她还并不觉得自己做错了什么。针对美国对共产党的镇压,她反驳道,比起共产党带来的威胁,这更阴险。尽管她参与了几十年的政治改革,并且公开批评斯大林政权,海尔曼还是被标榜为“顽固不化的斯大林主义者”。Ms Kessler-Harris largely defends Hellman against her harshest critics by placing her and her choices—such as her defence of communism and her refusal to embrace feminism—in the context of her times. Hellmans politics were often naive, but she was hardly alone. She had the “sense of justice of a very small child”, according to a friend, and she conveyed this moral certainty in her plays. But she was a bit player in intellectual circles, a celebrity whose outspokenness earned her disproportionate attention. So why has Hellman become a symbol for all that went wrong in the ideological battles of the 20th century? Ms Kessler-Harris argues that it may have something to do with the fact that she was a brassy, unattractive and sexually voracious woman who reaped commercial success from “middlebrow” work.凯斯勒·哈里斯女士替海尔曼讲话,反对那些针对她的苛刻的批评。主要是通过把海尔曼放在她所处的时代来看待她这个人和她的决定。诸如,防卫共产主义,拒绝拥抱女权主义。海尔曼的政治活动通常是天真幼稚的,但是却都不是她一个人的行为。根据她一个朋友的说法,她有一种“一个非常小的小孩子的正义感”,这在她的剧本中有所体现。在知识分子层中,她可以说算是跑龙套的,可是她的坦率直言,赚足了人们的眼球。在二十世纪意识形态竞争焦灼的年代,到底是什么让海尔曼成了一个标志?凯斯勒·哈里斯女士认为,这来源于这样一个事实,她脸皮厚,长的不好看,性贪婪,但是却能从极普通的工作中攫取大量的商业财富。Hellman hardly helped matters by claiming her own moral superiority. In her 1976 memoir, “Scoundrel Time”, she lambasts fellow leftists for not speaking up when innocent Americans were being jailed or ruined by the HUAC witch hunt. Her anger was not directed at the government, but at “the people of my world”, the intellectuals who did nothing to defend Americas civil liberties. By placing herself on this righteous pedestal, touting her own bravery in a time of fear, she left herself open to criticism, particularly for her blindness to Stalins sins. She was also more vulnerable to claims that she twisted the facts to promote her story of personal courage.海尔曼想通过声称自己的道德优越感来帮助解决事情,可事情却正好相反。1976年的回忆录《邪恶的日子》,HUAC监禁或迫害无辜的美国人民,左翼分子们没有大声抗议,海尔曼炮轰同行的行为。她的愤怒并不是指向美国政府,而是“我的王国里的人们”,那些知识分子,对于保卫人民的自由,置若罔闻。她把自己当做正义的化身,在人们充满恐惧心理的年代,兜售自己的勇敢。海尔曼将自己置于大众批评的箭靶之下,尤其是她对斯大林罪行的一无所知。同时她也很容易让人们攻击她利用扭曲事实来推广自己很有勇气。But the final nail in the coffin of Hellmans reputation was hammered in 1980, when she decided to go after Mary McCarthy, a novelist and literary critic, for defaming her in a late-night TV interview. Younger, more attractive and intellectually fierce, McCarthy accused Hellman of being a bad and dishonest writer; “every word she writes is a lie, including ‘and and ‘the.” Hellman sued. The lawsuit lasted for the rest of her life. After years of defending civil liberties and criticising rapacious wealth-seeking, Hellman ended her days seeming like a greedy and vengeful censor.但是,给海尔曼的名声带来致命一击的,是1980年她与玛丽麦卡锡的官司。玛丽麦卡锡,小说家和文学批评家,在一档晚间电视访谈中说了海尔曼的坏话。麦卡锡,更年轻,更有吸引力,更智慧,谴责海尔曼是一个坏人,一个不诚实的作家:“她写的每一个词,包括‘and和‘the都是谎言。”海尔曼起诉她。这场官司一直持续到海尔曼生命的最后。多年以来,她保卫人民自由,谴责贪婪的追求财富的行为,不料在生命结束之际,看起来却像是个贪婪的,报复心重的审查员。This is a shame. Hellman may not have been the hero of her reminiscences, but she spent a lifetime believing it was the duty of engaged citizens to fight racism, alleviate poverty and protect civil liberties. She was a role model to feminists in the 1970s, but she despaired that they talked too much about bras and too little about economic opportunity and human rights. She made some foolish choices, but Lillian Hellman was often on the right side of history. Too bad so many of her good ideas have been tossed out with the bad ones.这真是一件令人遗憾的事。海尔曼或许不是她回忆录中的英雄,可是她终生坚信,反对种族歧视,缓解贫困,并且保护人民的自由是参与社会的人民应有的义务。她是1970年代女权运动的行为榜样,但是她们谈论的更多的主题是内衣,经济机会和人权的实在太少,这很令海尔曼失望。虽然她做过一些愚蠢的决定,但是丽莲海尔曼总是站在历史的正确的一边。真不幸,她的很多好的观点随着不好的,一同被丢弃。 /201212/213118

  

  Freeze冻结的一瞬Suppose you are an animal. Well, actually, you are an animal, but suppose you’re another kind of animal, maybe something small that might make a tasty snack for a larger predator.假设你是一只动物。额,你其实本来就是一只动物。但假设你是另外一种动物,也许是一种可以被食肉动物当成可口点心的小动物。You’re walking along one day when you see a big dog. What do you do?如果有一天你在独自散步时看到一条大,你会怎么办?Well, depending on what kind of animal you are, you have different options. A skunk can spray a noxious liquid that will repel predators,好吧,这取决于你是哪种动物,你有不同的选择。一只臭鼬可以释放毒液击退捕食者,a cat can make its hair stand on end so that it seems larger than it is, or some animals, such as opossums, may pretend to be dead aly.一只猫可以让它的毛发倒竖起来,让它看起来比往常更大,还有一些动物,比如负鼠,也许早已装死躺在地上了。There’s another strategy all these animals have, though. You’ve seen it before, but maybe never thought about it. They can freeze.其实这些动物还有另外一条策略,虽然你可能以前见过,但也许你从来没想到过。它们可以冻结。When a squirrel or a rabbit or a chipmunk freezes, it can remain almost entirely motionless for minutes at a time.当一只松鼠,兔子或花栗鼠冻结时,它可以一次保持完全静止不动达数分钟之久。Try it yourself. Whatever position you’re in right now, move nothing at all for the next minute. It’s not so easy!你自己试试。不管你现在是什么姿势,在下一分钟内保持一动也不动。这可没那么简单!The reason an ability to freeze works as a defense is that a predator’s attack behavior may actually be triggered by motion. A frog, for example,冻结能作为一种防御的手段,其原因在于一个食肉动物的攻击行为可能只是由运动而引起。举例来说,will literally starve to death in a box full of dead flies. Pass one of those flies in front of its eyes on a little string, though, and it will automatically gulp it down.一只青蛙,会在装满死苍蝇的盒子里活活饿死。用一根线绑住其中一只从它眼前经过,它就会不假思索的把苍蝇吞下去。The response to freeze is completely hard-wired, so freezing shows us something about both predator and prey.对冻结的反应是动物与生俱来的,所以冻结给我们展现的是捕食者和被捕食者双方的特性。Evolution has caused the freeze strategy to come into existence precisely because it fits in with the way the visual systems of predators operate.进化已使得冻结策略应运而生,因为它适应了捕食者视觉系统的运转方式。 /201206/187249。

  

  

  We usually think of play as something thats done only in ones free time, separate from the serious business of life. For an infant or a toddler, however,learning to play is a crucial part of social development. The ages between eight months and three years are a very busy time for children. This is when they first learn to use language, starting with single words and moving gradually into word groups and finally sentences.我们通常认为玩耍是在闲暇时光做的事情,应该与正规的生活活动区分开来。然而,对于婴儿或者学步的小孩而言,学会玩耍则是社交能力发展的至关重要的部分。孩子从8个月大至3岁这段时期是最忙的。在这段时期他们第一次学着使用语言,从单个的词语开始,逐渐学会组词造句。This is also when they learn what psychologists call symbolic play; that is, using gestures or objects to symbolize other events and objects. Just as the abstract words of a language can symbolize real things, the word “house” for a real house, a childs play doll might come to symbolize a real baby. Whats more, just as language starts with words, then moves gradually to sentences, symbolic play starts with discrete episodes pretending to change the baby, pretending to answer the phone then moves to more elaborate games.这段时期也是孩子们学习心理学家称为象征性游戏的时期,即用手势或者物体来象征其它事件或者物体。正如抽象的单词可以象征真实的事物,例如:单词“house” 象征着一间真正的房子,孩子的玩具娃娃可能用来象征一个真正的孩子。更重要的是语言学习是从单词开始,逐渐发展到句子,象征性游戏也是这样,从不连续的情景开始,例如假装给小孩换尿布,假装在回电话,然后换成更为复杂的游戏。A number of psychologists have studied the connection between play and language mastery. One group found that they could predict how quickly children would learn to speak by carefully watching how they played. Another study seems to indicate that you can actually improve a childs mastery of language by training him or her in the basics of symbolic play, although more research is needed to confirm this.许多心理学家研究过玩耍和语言能力的联系。其中一组发现可以通过观察孩子们玩游戏来估计他们能多快地学会说话。另一项研究似乎表明通过象征性游戏训练可以提高孩子的语言能力,不过还需要更多的实验来明这一点。原文译文属!201301/223371

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