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来源:当当生活    发布时间:2018年01月23日 20:05:21    编辑:admin         

Food饮食Lab-grown meat feeds the world人造肉类养活全世界Petri meat, in vitro meat, cultured meat. Call it whatever you like, but get used to the name. Meat produced in a lab (and grown from animal cells) could be the future of nutrition.试管肉,培养肉,或者其他任何名称,不管怎么叫,我们都得习惯它。因为,实验室通过动物细胞培养出来的食用肉将成为人类未来的营养食品。The scientists who are developing test-tube meat (and chicken!) say it is an important way to keep up with the world#39;s growing appetite for protein while simultaneously reducing meat production#39;s environmental impact like land requirements and CO2 emissions.研究试管肉(包括鸡肉!)的科学家们指出,我们一方面要满足人类对蛋白质日益增长的需求,同时还要降低猪肉生产所造成的用地需求、二氧化碳排放等环境影响,要想实现这些目的,这种方法至关重要。There are only about 30 people working on cultured meat globally, and they agree the stuff will take a while to get to grocers#39; shelves. The biggest hurdle to commercialization (besides the obvious ;ick; factor) is lack of funding for research ; though money is trickling in from unconventional sources. A scientist in the Netherlands received 300,000 euros from an anonymous donor to produce a lab burger. And PETA is offering million to the scientist who can make and sell cultured chicken by June 2012.当下,全球仅有大约30名科学家正在研究人工培养肉;他们一致认为,人工培养肉上市还需要一段时间。虽然有非传统型渠道为这项研究提供资金,但研究经费不足仍是人造肉实现商业化的最大障碍(当然,;令人恶心;也是另一个显而易见的障碍)。荷兰的一位科学家获得了30万欧元的匿名捐赠,用于生产实验室汉堡。另外,善待动物组织(PETA)将出资100万美元,用于资助能在2012年6月前生产和销售人工培养鸡肉的科学家;Beth Kowitt;;贝斯;考维特 /201202/172799。

1. Use common sense and pay attention to your gut reaction. This is often the Holy Spirit in you, warning you that things may not be right. 运用常识,相信直觉。这是你内心的真正感受,会提醒你事情是不是有点不对劲了。 2. If he or she sounds too good to be true, he or she probably is to good to be true and isn’t being truthful on his or her profile. 如果对方好得有点不真实了,那么就应该质疑一下他/她的身份的真实性了。 3. Listen and watch (by ) for signs of a temper, control, etc. and run for the hills if you sense this person needs therapy first. You aren't going to change him or her. Let the person get help. 听一听,看一看(通过视频)对方的性格脾气。如果你觉得这个人有点不太正常,那就赶紧撤吧。你可没必要去改变他/她,让他/她自己想办法吧。 4. Use a free email account with family name and something else. This way a person cannot search all your personal details. 用你的姓氏开通一个免费的电子邮箱,防止别人来搜索你的个人信息。 5. Ask for a RECENT picture and encourage the person to send candid shots for more realism. You don't want major surprises when you meet. Awkward! 问对方要一张他/她的近照,最好是生活照,这样更真实。你也不想在见面的时候,对方是恐龙或青蛙吧,见光死啊! 6. If anyone asks for money, do not give it. Most likely you are being scammed. 如果对方问你要钱,千万别给!十有八九是来骗钱的。 7. Don't reveal details of your personal life too soon and be careful what you reveal. 别太快把自己的生活细节泄露给对方,多留意自己都说了些什么。 8. Paid services usually have more safety and screening procedures than free. 付费的婚恋网站往往比免费的更安全,审核程序也更严格。 9. If you do have a home phone, don't give out the number. Use your cell phone. 不要给对方家庭电话,给他/她手机号码就行。 10. Some people have a great deal of social awkwardness at meeting others. If you meet and it feels awkward, you may want to give it another chance to see if the person settles down and is interesting. 有些人在面对陌生人时会很紧张,表现糟糕。如果对方在见面时是这样的,再给他/她一次机会,看看对方的人品怎样,是不是风趣幽默。 11. Meet in a public space the first time. 第一次见面安排在公共场所。 12. Don't use a provocative handle to get interest. The interest you get is not the kind of interest you want. 不要用轻佻的言行引起对方的兴趣,这样激起的兴趣不是你想要的那种。 13. Don't go into questionable chat rooms. 不要进那些有问题的聊天室。 14. Use Skype (and other visual media) to actually see each other if the relationship progresses. You get more information when you can observe nonverbal behavior. 如果你们的关系有所进展的话,用Skype等视频聊天工具面对面地交流,你可以从非语言的行为中获得更多的信息。 15. Think about how your photos may be used. Once you send them to the cyberspace, people can use them however they want. And get permission from any person who might be in a photo with you. Better yet, crop that person out of the photo. It violates his or her privacy. 慎用照片。一旦你把照片上传到网络,人们就可以任意使用它了。如果是与别人一起的合照,要事先征求对方意见,要不然就直接把别人从照片上裁掉,不要泄露别人的隐私。 /201109/155367。

They say that first impressions count, but if you’re a man and you want to make a lasting impression on a woman, apparently all you need is a deep, low-pitched voice to rival Barry White。大家都说第一印象很重要,但如果你是一位男性,想要给女性留下深刻持续的印象,只要有一把低沉的迷人嗓音就可以啦!美国黑人歌手巴里·怀特的声音就非常性感低沉。According to a study from the University of Aberdeen, women are more sensitive towards deeper voices in men and will most likely remember them over guys with a higher pitched tone。根据英国阿伯丁大学的一项研究,和男性相比,女性对低沉的嗓音更加敏感;而比起那些高亢的嗓音来说,女性也更容易因为男人低沉的嗓音而自此记住他们。The study, led by researcher David Smith, observed 45 women who were shown images objects and were out the name of the object by someone with a low and high-pitched voice。该研究由研究者大卫·史密斯主导,共有45位女性参与到实验中。研究人员为她们展示物品图像,并让人分别用低沉和高亢的嗓音读出物品的名称。When asked to recall the objects and which voice they preferred, the deep drawl came up trumps, in both memory and attractiveness。当被要求回忆物品和被问到哪个嗓音更喜欢时,女士们的回答显示,不管是在帮助记忆还是在吸引力方面,慢吞吞的低沉嗓音都更胜一筹。According to the findings, the results show that a woman’s memory is enhanced by a low, manly voice and because women rely heavily on memories, it helps them scan the voice tones for genetic superiority when looking for a potential partner。根据研究发现,结果显示低沉的男性嗓音会帮助提升女性的。而因为女性非常依赖记忆作出判断,这也会帮助她们仔细考虑这些声音语调,会在她们选择潜在伴侣时显示出低沉嗓音的优越性。David Smith said: ;Our findings demonstrate that women#39;s memory is enhanced by lower pitch male voices, compared with the less attractive raised pitch male voices。大卫·史密斯表示:“我们的研究发现明,那些女性的会因为低沉的男性嗓音而有所提升,相比之下高音男声则比较缺乏吸引力。”;Our experiments indicate for the first time that signals from the opposite sex that are important for mate choice also affect accuracy in women#39;s memory.;“我们的实验第一次显示,异性释放的信号不仅在配偶选择方面产生重要影响,还有影响女性的准确性。”Is a deep, masculine voice the key to a woman’s heart? “We think this is evidence that evolution has shaped women#39;s ability to remember information associated with desirable men,” says Dr. Kevin Allen, a supervisor from the study。低沉的男性嗓音是打开女性芳心的钥匙?这项研究的监督导师凯文·艾伦士表示:“我们相信这些都是有力的据,明进化使女性发展具备了记住理想男性相关信息的能力。” /201508/392329。

POLITICAL revolutionaries turn the world upside down. Scientific ones more often turn it inside out. And that, almost literally, is happening to the idea of what, biologically speaking, a human being is.世界在政治革命家手中上下颠倒,在科技革命者手中却常常里外颠倒。在字面上来看,这句话恰巧从生物学角度解释了:人类到底是什么。The traditional view is that a human body is a collection of 10 trillion cells which are themselves the products of 23,000 genes. If the revolutionaries are correct, these numbers radically underestimate the truth. For in the nooks and crannies of every human being, and especially in his or her guts, dwells the microbiome: 100 trillion bacteria of several hundred species bearing 3m non-human genes. The biological Robespierres believe these should count, too; that humans are not single organisms, but superorganisms made up of lots of smaller organisms working together.传统观点认为,人体是十万亿个细胞的集合体,这些细胞又是23000个基因表达后的生成物。如果生物革命者的观点正确,那这些数字就远远的低估了实际情况。因为在人体的各个部位,尤其是内脏寄居着微生物群落:来自几百个类型的上百万亿个细胞携带着300万个非人类基因。生物学家罗伯斯比尔认为:这些数字是有价值的,因为人体不是单一的有机个体,而是由成千上万个微小的有机体共同作用构成的超级个体。It might sound perverse to claim bacterial cells and genes as part of the body, but the revolutionary case is a good one. For the bugs are neither parasites nor passengers. They are, rather, fully paid-up members of a community of which the human ;host; is but a single (if dominating) member. This view is increasingly popular: the world#39;s leading scientific journals, Nature and Science, have both reviewed it extensively in recent months. It is also important: it will help the science and practice of medicine.要说细菌、细胞和基因是人体的一部分,可能令人无法接受,但这一革命性的结论确是有益的。这些小东西既非寄生生物,也非人体系统的过客,而是人体独立这个宿主环境内的忠实成员。这个观点越来越普及,全球先进的科学报刊《自然》和《科学》,用大篇幅对该观点进行,它的重要性在于能够帮助医学理论和实践的发展。All in this together齐聚一堂The microbiome does many jobs in exchange for the raw materials and shelter its host provides. One is to feed people more than 10% of their daily calories. These are derived from plant carbohydrates that human enzymes are unable to break down. And not just plant carbohydrates. Mother#39;s milk contains carbohydrates called glycans which human enzymes cannot digest, but bacterial ones can.微生物群落通过许多工作向人体换取生存原材料和环境。有一种微生物向人体提供每月所需热量的10%,这些热量产生自一种人体酶无法分解的植物碳水化合物,其实不仅是植物糖类,人类母乳中包含的多糖也无法被人体自身的酶消化,细菌酶却可以。This alone shows how closely host and microbiome have co-evolved over the years. But digestion is not the only nutritional service provided. The microbiome also makes vitamins, notably B2, B12 and folic acid. It is, moreover, capable of adjusting its output to its host#39;s needs and diet. The microbiomes of babies make more folic acid than do those of adults. And microbiomes in vitamin-hungry places like Malawi and rural Venezuela turn out more of these chemicals than do those in the guts of North Americans.这个例子只能说明人体和微生物群落是如何在几十年内协同作用产生进化的。但消化只是微生物为人体提供的多种营养务之一,它们还能产生维生素,特别是B2、B12和叶酸(维生素B),此外它还能根据人体需要和膳食情况调节产量。婴儿体内的微生物可以产生比成人多的维B,维生素缺乏地区,如马拉维和委内瑞拉的农村,这些地方的人们内脏产生的维生素就要多于北美地区。The microbiome also maintains the host#39;s health by keeping hostile interlopers at bay. An alien bug that causes diarrhoea, for instance, is as much an enemy of the microbiome as of the host. Both have an interest in zapping it. And both contribute to the task. Host and microbiome, then, are allies. But there is more to it than that. For the latest research shows their physiologies are linked in ways which make the idea of a human superorganism more than just a rhetorical flourish.微生物还通过抵御外界有毒物质入侵,帮助人体的健康。例如引起腹泻的细菌,是人体和体内微生物共同的敌人,两者都希望消灭它,这就需要;宿主;与微生物群联合才能完成任务。除此以外,近期研究还表明,人体与微生物在生理机能上也存在一定的联系,这让人体是超级个体的说法脱离了繁冗修辞的嫌疑。These links are most visible when they go wrong. A disrupted microbiome has been associated with a lengthening list of problems: obesity and its opposite, malnutrition; diabetes (both type-1 and type-2); atherosclerosis and heart disease; multiple sclerosis; asthma and eczema; liver disease; numerous diseases of the intestines, including bowel cancer; and autism. The details are often obscure, but in some cases it looks as if bugs are making molecules that help regulate the activities of human cells. If these signals go wrong, disease is the consequence. This matters because it suggests doctors have been looking in the wrong place for explanations of these diseases. It also suggests a whole new avenue for treatment. If an upset microbiome causes illness, settling it down might effect a cure.生理机能上的联系在它出现问题时体现得更加突出,微生物功能将产生许多问题:过度肥胖或消瘦;营养不良;1型和2型糖尿病;动脉硬化和心脏病;多发性硬化症;哮喘和湿疹;肝病;肠道内的多种疾病,包括肠道癌;孤独症。这些问题的细节不甚明了,但在一些病例中反应出,似乎微生物制造的分子可以帮助调节人体细胞功能。这一点很重要,因为它反映出医生在分析这些疾病时错误的切入点。同时也提出了出全新的治疗方法,如果是微生物功能紊乱引起疾病,那只需要解决这个问题就可能治愈。Yogurt companies and health-food fanatics have been banging this drum for years. And in the case of at least one malady, irritable-bowel syndrome, they are right. So-called probiotics, a mixture of about half a dozen bacterial species found in yogurt, do act to calm this condition. But there is little evidence that consuming probiotics has the tonic effect on healthy people that certain adverts suggest.酸奶制造商和营养品热衷者多年前就鼓吹这种说法。但至少在过敏性肠道综合症这个病症上,他们说对了,所谓的益生菌,主要存在于酸奶中,混合了大约六个菌种,可以缓解这一病症。但有些广告说益生菌对人体有滋补作用,目前暂无据可以实。A handful of doctors are taking a more fundamental approach to another microbiome-related disease, infection with Clostridium difficile. This bacterium, which causes life-threatening distension of the gut in some people who have been treated with antibiotics and thus had their microbiomes disrupted, is a bane of hospitals. It kills 14,000 people a year in America alone. But recent experiments have shown it can be eliminated by introducing, as an enema, the faeces of a healthy individual. ;Stool transplants; are a pretty crude approach, to be sure, but the crucial point is that microbes are much easier to manipulate than human cells. For all the talk of superorganisms (and despite the yuck factor of what is being moved from one body to another), transplanting a microbiome is far easier than transplanting a heart or a kidney.一小部分医生采取更为基本的方式治疗另外一与微生物有关的疾病:梭状芽胞杆菌感染。一些病患曾接受抗生素治疗。导致体内微生物群落紊乱。梭状芽胞杆菌可以引起致命的肠道扩张,这种病向来是让医院极其苦恼的,仅在美国,每年死于该疾病的就有14000人。但近期有实验结果表明,可将一个健康人体的粪便,用灌肠剂的方法引入体内消除这类芽胞杆菌。粪便移植的确是种残忍的手段,不可否认,但关键在于处理微生物要比人体细胞简便得多。尽管关于超级有机体众说纷纭,尽管在人体间转移的东西很恶心,移植微生物的简易性远不是心脏或肾脏移植可比。 /201208/195859。