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襄阳南漳县治疗龟头炎多少钱宜城市男科挂号老河口市治疗早泄哪家医院最好 The 1970s seem destined to be a justly forgotten decade─a time of disco, stagflation and little of the social upheaval that defined the previous decade or the epic global changes of the one that followed. But Christian Caryl sees more than malaise when he looks at the 1970s; he sees one of history#39;s great turning points. #39;With the passage of time,#39; Mr. Caryl writes in #39;Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century,#39; #39;the 1970s begin to appear less like a sideshow than the main event.#39;1970年代似乎注定要成为一个被人遗忘的十年──一个经济滞胀、流行迪斯科舞的年代,没有之前十年那么明显的社会动荡,也没有之后十年史诗般的全球巨变。然而克里斯蒂安#8226;卡里尔(Christian Caryl)在看待1970年代时,看到的不仅仅是萎靡不振;他看到了历史上最伟大的转折点之一。“随着时间的流逝,”卡里尔在《奇怪的叛道者:1979与21世纪的诞生》(Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century)一书中写道,“1970年代开始显得更像是一场主要赛事,而不是一次穿插表演。”As the title of Mr. Caryl#39;s book suggests, his focus is 1979─a year that brought Iran#39;s Islamic revolution, the siege of the U.S. embassy in Tehran, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the emergence of four leaders who, he argues, changed the course of history: Margaret Thatcher, the Ayatollah Khomeini, Deng Xiaoping and Pope John Paul II.正如卡里尔的书名所示,他关注的焦点是1979年──这一年伊朗爆发了伊斯兰革命、美国驻德黑兰大使馆被包围、苏联入侵阿富汗、另有四位改变了历史进程的领导人崭露头角,他们是玛格丽特#8226;撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)、伊朗宗教领袖霍梅尼(the Ayatollah Khomeini)、邓小平和教皇约翰#8226;保罗二世(Pope John Paul II)。It is hard to imagine figures as different as these or a year quite as grim as 1979, but suspend your disbelief for a moment. Mr. Caryl makes a fairly compelling case that this was a year when history made a sharp turn and that each leader set in motion the seismic changes that came to shape our world today: the fall of the Soviet Union, the rise of China and the emergence of radical Islam. In 1979, Mr. Caryl says, #39;the twin forces of markets and religion, discounted for so long, came back with a vengeance.#39;很难想象人物身份会有如此差异,也很难想象1979年会如此严峻,但是先把你的怀疑搁置一下吧。卡里尔提出了非常令人信的观点,他认为这一年历史来了一个急转弯,每一位领导人都开始启动翻天覆地的变革,形成了我们今天的世界格局:苏联的解体、中国的崛起以及激进伊斯兰主义的出现。卡里尔说:“市场和宗教的双重力量在被无视了太久之后开始绝地反击。”In January of that year, China#39;s new paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, made a nine-day visit to the ed States. He was not technically China#39;s head of state (he never held that title), but President Jimmy Carter welcomed him to the White House with a state dinner. At the dinner, Deng found himself seated at a table with actress Shirley MacLaine, who had spent time in China working on a documentary extolling the virtues of Maoism during the bloody Cultural Revolution. She told Deng how wonderful it had been for her to meet a professor plowing a field on a collective farm. #39;Deng looked at her scornfully . . . ,#39; Mr. Caryl writes. #39;Professors, he told her, should be teaching university classes, not planting vegetables.#39;就在那一年的一月,中国新的最高领导人邓小平到美国进行了为期9天的访问。严格意义上说他不是中国的国家元首(他从来没有拥有过那个头衔),但是吉米#8226;卡特(Jimmy Carter)总统在白宫举办了国宴欢迎他的到访。在宴会上,邓小平发现他与女演员雪莉#8226;麦克雷恩(Shirley MacLaine)坐在同一桌。麦克雷恩曾在血腥的文化大革命期间到中国拍摄大力颂扬毛主义的纪录片,她告诉邓小平自己在集体农场见到种田的教授是多么美妙的经历。“邓小平不以为然地看了她一眼……,”卡里尔写道,“他对她说,教授,应该在大学里教书,不应该种菜。”If Ms. MacLaine had done her homework, she would have known that Deng himself had been effectively banished during the Cultural Revolution and had come to power determined to modernize China. He wanted to affirm the supremacy of the Chinese Communist Party─minus the communism. When he returned to China after his U.S visit, Deng said that he couldn#39;t sleep for several nights as he wondered, #39;How could China possibly catch up?#39; His answer was to unleash the market forces that were aly transforming the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore and Japan. His first moves were to allow private farming (result: a major increase in productivity) and to create special economic zones that would allow private business and even foreign investment.如果麦克雷恩事前做过准备,她就会知道邓小平自己在文革期间也曾被黜,他上台执政后决心要使中国实现现代化。他想要肯定中国共产党的绝对地位──淡化一点共产主义。当他结束访美回到中国之后,邓小平说他好几个晚上都睡不着觉,因为他在寻思“中国如何才能迎头赶上?”他的是释放业已改变着香港、新加坡和日本经济的市场力量。他的第一步棋是放手发展私有农业经济(结果:生产力得到极大提高),创立经济特区,允许在经济特区设立私营企业,甚至允许外商投资。In May 1979, Chinese officials brought a group of visiting American businessmen to an undeveloped area in China near Hong Kong. The officials gestured out over the horizon to where China was planning to allow its first economic zone. #39;All that the Americans could see,#39; Mr. Caryl writes, #39;was the usual South China landscape: there were rice paddies, worked by peasants and their water buffalo.#39; In fact, the group was viewing a site that would become Shenzhen─today a city of more than 10 million people and home to one of the most lucrative manufacturing centers in the world.1979年5月,中国官员带领一队到访的美国商人前往距离香港不远的一块尚待开发的地区,官员们指着地平线,用手比划中国计划允许建立首个经济区的地方。“在场的所有美国人能够看到的,”卡里尔写道,“这是典型的华南地貌:到处是农民和水牛耕种其间的稻田。”实际上,这群人目睹的地方后来成了深圳──今天这座城市的人口超过了1,000万,是世界上最赚钱的制造业中心之一。While Deng was visiting the U.S., Margaret Thatcher was in London preparing to run for prime minister. By then, Britain#39;s economy had slumped so badly that it had become the first developed nation to go to the International Monetary Fund for support. #39;This was a humiliation of epochal proportions,#39; says Mr. Caryl. #39;A country that had been at the heart of the Western economic and political system found itself reduced to the status of a banana republic.#39;就在邓小平访美的时候,玛格丽特#8226;撒切尔正在伦敦准备竞选首相。当时,英国经济下滑之严重,英国成了第一个向国际货币基金组织(International Monetary Fund)寻求援助的发达国家。“这是一个奇耻大辱,”卡里尔说,“一个曾经是西方政治、经济体制核心的国家发现自己沦落到香蕉共和国的地位。”Making matters worse, in late 1978 and early 1979 the British suffered through a series of paralyzing labor strikes and high unemployment, giving the grocer#39;s daughter an opening to campaign against Labour Prime Minister James Callaghan with the slogan, #39;Labour Isn#39;t Working.#39; But Thatcher was running against more than her opponent─her platform of privatization, spending cuts and self-reliance was a challenge to the views that had come to dominate both of Britain#39;s political parties and, for that matter, most of the developed world.雪上加霜的是,英国在1978年底和1979年初经历了一系列让经济瘫痪的工人罢工以及高企的失业率。这给了这位杂货店老板的女儿一个机会,她打出了“工人没有工作(工党没有作为)”(Labour Isn#39;t Working)的口号与工党首相詹姆斯#8226;卡拉汉(James Callaghan)竞选。然而撒切尔不光是在和她的竞争对手较量──她为私有化、削减开和自主自立搭建的平台对于已经主导了英国两大政党、其实也配了大多数发达国家的观点提出了挑战。The reigning ideology favored more government intervention into the economy and an expanding welfare state. #39;The aim of the Thatcherite counterrevolution,#39; Mr. Caryl writes, #39;was to dismantle the postwar consensus.#39; Thatcher#39;s transformational moves─facing down the unions, selling off state-owned businesses─would come later, but the groundwork was laid with her first campaign as Conservative leader in 1979. Her win, Mr. Caryl argues, #39;reflected a fundamental shift in British thinking.#39; As Labour#39;s Peter Mandelson would say years later, #39;We are all Thatcherites now.#39;当时的执政理念倾向于让政府更多地干预经济并扩大国家福利。卡里尔写道,“撒切尔逆革命潮流的目的是废除战后的共识政治。”撒切尔的转型举措──打压工会、出售国有企业──会在晚一些时候推出,但是在她以保守党领袖初次参加竞选时就已经埋下了伏笔。她的获胜,卡里尔说,“反映了英国思维的根本性转变。”正如工党的彼得#8226;曼德尔森(Peter Mandelson)多年后所说:“我们现在都是撒切尔了。”Another fundamental shift was under way elsewhere in Europe. With a puff of white smoke at the Vatican on Oct. 16, 1978, a Polish cardinal─Karol Jozef Wojtyla─was chosen as the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years. Pope John Paul II had nothing to say on the economic theories being put into practice by Thatcher and Deng, but his June 1979 trip to his Polish homeland represented an even greater challenge to a reigning orthodoxy─specifically, the ideas underlying the Soviet empire.欧洲另一个地方也在发生着根本性的变化。随着一缕白烟于1978年10月16日在梵蒂冈升起,波兰红衣主教──卡罗尔#8226;约瑟夫#8226;沃伊蒂瓦(Karol Jozef Wojtyla)──成为400多年来第一位非意大利教皇。对于撒切尔和邓小平付诸实践的经济理论,教皇约翰#8226;保罗二世没有什么可说的,但是1979年他的祖国波兰之行却是对一个在朝正统思想的更大挑战──具体说来,就是苏联帝国统治下的思想。Over the course of nine days, the pope gave 39 sermons attended by an estimated 11 million Poles. The church, not the state, organized these vast assemblies─a crucial experience that would be put to use in the Solidarity rallies that led to martial law in 1981 and, ultimately, to the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in 1989.在九天的访问行程中,教皇主持了39场布道,参加布道的波兰人估计达1,100万。组织这些大型集会的是教堂而非政府──这是一次十分重要的经验,团结工会(Solidarity) 后来运用这些经验举行集会,导致波兰1981年实施军事戒严,并最终在1989年导致东欧集团的瓦解。The pope#39;s message was a religious one, of course, but it was also a rebuke to Marxist doctrine. #39;Dear brothers and sisters,#39; the pope said in one sermon, #39;do not let yourselves be seduced by the temptation to think that man can fully find himself by denying God, erasing prayer from his life and remaining only a worker, deluding himself that what he produces can on its own fill the needs of the human heart.#39; As Mr. Caryl points out: #39;Never before had a Communist Party in the Soviet bloc endured such a direct public challenge to its ideological and informational hegemony.#39;教皇传达的自然是宗教讯息,但它也是对马克思主义学说的谴责。“亲爱的兄弟,”教皇在一次布道中说,“不要让自己受人蛊惑,认为否定上帝、在生活中消灭祷告、只做一名劳动者人就可以充分发现自我,让自己误以为自己制造的东西可以自动满足人类内心的需求。”就像卡里尔指出的:“在苏联集团里从来没有哪个共产党容忍过对其意识形态和信息霸权这样直接公开的挑战。”In January 1979, a very different revolution was taking part in Iran. The rise of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic Republic of Iran not only deposed a corrupt American ally─the shah─but also represented the end of the leftist parties in Iran. The ayotallah and his followers had little use for godless Marxism, and the Soviet Union was as much an enemy for the ayotollah#39;s followers as the U.S. A young Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was among the radical students who urged, without success, a siege of the Soviet embassy instead of the American one.1979年1月,伊朗发生了一场迥然不同的革命。宗教领袖霍梅尼的上台和伊朗伊斯兰共和国(Islamic Republic of Iran)的成立不仅废黜了一个腐败的美国盟友──伊朗国王──而且也标志着伊朗左翼政党执政的终结。这位宗教领袖和他的追随者不怎么喜欢无神论的马克思主义,对霍梅尼的追随者而言,苏联与美国一样是敌人。一位名叫马哈茂德#8226;艾哈迈迪-内贾德(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad)的年轻人就是激进的学生之一,他力主包围苏联大使馆而不是美国大使馆,但没有成功。For the Soviet Union, the Islamic Revolution ushered into power an enemy of its enemy, but not a friend. For the ed States, it was a wake-up call that the march of communism was not the only global threat. What nobody could predict was that the new threat would long outlive the old one.对苏联而言,这场伊斯兰革命(Islamic Revolution)让其敌人的敌人上台执政,但却不是它的朋友。对美国来说,这场革命敲响了警钟,共产主义的蔓延并不是唯一的全球威胁。大家没能预料到的是,新威胁比旧威胁历时更久。But the broader effect of Khomeini#39;s revolution was on the rest of the Islamic world. For the first time since the fall of the Ottoman Empire an overtly Islamic movement had seized political power. This achievement reverberated beyond Iran, inspiring even the country#39;s natural enemies in the Arab Sunni world. #39;After Khomeini, the Islamists did not just talk,#39; Mr. Caryl writes. #39;They acted. The most potent legacy of the Islamic revolution in Iran was simply to show it could be done.#39;然而霍梅尼革命更广泛的影响产生在其它伊斯兰世界。自从奥斯曼帝国覆灭以来,一场公然展开的伊斯兰运动首次攫取了政治权力。这一成果产生的反响超出了伊朗之外,甚至对这个国家在逊尼派阿拉伯世界的宿敌起到了鼓舞作用。“霍梅尼革命之后,伊斯兰教徒不再只停留在语言上,”卡里尔写道,“他们行动了。伊朗伊斯兰革命最有影响的遗产就是向人明,革命是可以成功的。”The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December was also one of the major stories of 1979 and, like the others chronicled in #39;Strange Rebels,#39; one that was historically significant in ways not apparent until later. The long, costly and ultimately fruitless war pushed the Soviet Union closer to collapse, helping to bring an end to the Cold War. It also helped set the stage for the next global conflict by providing a rallying point and training ground for militant Islam. After all, it was to fight the Soviets that Osama bin Laden first came to Afghanistan.苏联12月入侵阿富汗也是1979年的主要历史事件之一。就像《奇怪的叛道者》中记录的其它事件一样,它的历史重要性要在事后才显现出来。这场旷日持久、代价高昂、最终无果的战争将苏联进一步推到了崩溃的边缘,促进了冷战的结束。这场战争为伊斯兰武装分子提供了集结点和训练场地,因而为下一场全球冲突创造了条件。毕竟,奥萨马#8226;本#8226;拉登(Osama bin Laden)首次到阿富汗是为了与苏联人战斗。#39;Strange Rebels,#39; though engagingly written, is occasionally repetitive, and Mr. Caryl#39;s effort to craft a coherent narrative out of a series of disparate and chaotic events is at times a bit forced. But the er comes away convinced that the forces set in motion, for good and for ill, in 1979 set the stage for the world we see today, in ways that were hard to see at the time. We#39;ll no doubt face another turning point (maybe we aly have?), and when we do, there is no guarantee that it will be any more obvious than it was in 1979.《奇怪的叛道者》虽然文笔动人,但是偶尔也有赘述之处,卡里尔力图将一系列互不相关、杂乱无序的事件进行有机连贯地叙述,这个尝试有时有点牵强。但是读者放下书时会相信,1979年启动的大事,不管是好是坏,都为我们今天看到的世界做好了铺垫,而这一点当时是很难看到的。毫无疑问,我们还会面临新的转折点(也许我们已经在面对了?),当我们真的面对它的时候,没人能保它会比1979年的转折更明显。 /201305/239263襄阳早上偶尔没有勃起是什么原因

襄阳保康县人民中心医院治疗阳痿多少钱When you#39;re in your 40s, it#39;s pretty common to need ing glasses. You might need smaller wine glasses, too. 到了40岁,需要佩戴老花镜是很常见的。与此同时,你可能也需要换更小的酒杯了。 That#39;s because alcohol hits people harder in their 40s and 50s than it did during their 20s and 30s. The reasons for this include changes in body composition to brain sensitivity and liver functioning. Lifestyle factors are at play, too. And since people tend to take more medications -- both prescription and over-the-counter -- as they age, there are more chances for uncomfortable and even dangerous booze-drug mixing. 这是因为人到了四五十岁时,酒精的影响比二三十岁的时候更厉害。原因包括身体组成、大脑敏感度和肝功能等各方面的变化。生活方式也有影响。另外,由于人们年纪增大时会用更多药物――包括处方药和非处方药――酒精和药物混合的机率就会更大,从而造成身体不舒甚至出现危险。 #39;All of the effects of alcohol are sort of amplified with age,#39; says David W. Oslin, a professor of psychiatry at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. #39;Withdrawal is a little bit more complicated. Hangovers are a little bit more complicated.#39; 宾夕法尼亚大学佩雷尔曼医学院(Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania)精神病学教授大卫#12539;奥斯林(David W. Oslin)说:“酒精的作用会随着年龄的增长而放大。戒酒变得更复杂了,宿醉也变得更复杂了。” Part of the issue is that people in their 40s and older simply tend not to drink as much or as often as those in their 20s and 30s, which lowers tolerance. #39;You#39;re becoming more work-oriented, more family-oriented,#39; says Robert Pandina, director of the Center of Alcohol Studies at Rutgers University. 一个原因在于40岁以上的人往往不会像二三十岁时那样喝得那么多和那么频繁了,这样会降低酒量。罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)酒精研究中心(Center of Alcohol Studies)主任罗伯特#12539;潘迪纳(Robert Pandina)说:“人会变得更以工作和家庭为重。” So when you do drink #39;you might have a more sensitive response to alcohol because you#39;ve lowered your exposure to alcohol over all.#39; 所以当你喝酒的时候,“你可能会对酒精的反应更敏感,因为你已经整个降低了酒精消耗量”。 Some people swear that only certain types of alcohol -- red wine, tequila -- are a problem. Generally, doctors say there#39;s little science indicating that some drinks make people drunker or lead to more miserable hangovers. It is true, however, that people at any age can develop sensitivities to sulfites and tannins in wine, which can cause headaches and an upset stomach, Dr. Pandina says. And the carbonation in sparkling wines or even in mixed drinks like whiskey and Coke #39;seems to increase how rapidly alcohol is absorbed,#39; says Reid Blackwelder, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians and a practicing family doctor in Kingsport, Tenn. 有人断定只有某些种类的酒会有问题,比如葡萄酒和龙舌兰酒。医生普遍表示,鲜有科学依据表明某些种类的酒会让人更容易醉或者导致更严重的宿醉。不过潘迪纳士说,人在任何年纪确实都会对葡萄酒里的亚硫酸盐和单宁酸形成敏感性,这两种物质会造成头痛以及胃部不适。美国家庭医生学会(American Academy of Family Physicians)主席、田纳西州金斯波特(Kingsport)执业家庭医生瑞德#12539;布莱克韦尔德(Reid Blackwelder)说,起泡酒甚至威士忌和可乐等混合饮料中的碳酸“似乎会增加酒精吸收的速度”。 About 52% of people age 45 to 64 are #39;regular#39; drinkers, meaning they had at least 12 drinks in the previous year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention#39;s 2011 National Health Interview Survey. 美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)2011年全国健康采访调查(National Health Interview Survey)的结果显示,45岁至64岁的人群中,约52%是“经常性”饮酒者,也就是他们上一年至少喝过12杯酒。 Body composition starts to change as early as the 30s. As people age, they tend to lose muscle mass, while fat content increases. Alcohol isn#39;t distributed in fat. People also have less total body water as they get older. So if several people have the same amount to drink, those with more fat and less muscle and body water will have more alcohol circulating in their bloodstream. (This is also partly why women of any age tend to feel alcohol#39;s effects more than men.) 身体组成早在人30多岁的时候就开始改变。随着年龄增长,肌肉往往会开始减少,而脂肪含量会增加。酒精不能溶于脂肪。身体所含水分也会随着年龄增长而减少,因此如果几个人喝同量的酒,脂肪多而肌肉和身体水分少的人就会有更多的酒精在血液中循环。(这也是为何各个年龄段的女性通常比男性更容易感受到酒精的影响。) #39;A lot of older people are borderline dehydrated. They have less body water just from the natural effects of aging,#39; Dr. Blackwelder says. It helps to drink water and have a full stomach when knocking one back. 布莱克韦尔德士说:“很多年纪大的人都处于濒临脱水状态。由于衰老的自然效应,他们体内的水分会减少。”喝酒的时候大量饮水以及保持饱腹状态会有帮助。 The majority of alcohol is metabolized by the liver, which changes when people hit their 50s. (A small amount is metabolized in the stomach and mouth.) The liver gets bigger as people get older, but the organ becomes less efficient. Blood flow decreases, as do the number of hepatocytes, the liver#39;s functional cells, says Gary Murray, acting director of the Division of Metabolism and Health Effects at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism at the National Institutes of Health. 酒精大部分由肝脏代谢(小部分在胃和口腔代谢),而人到了50岁的时候就会不一样。年纪越大,肝脏就会越大,但功能却越来越弱。美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)国家酒精滥用及酗酒问题研究所(National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)代谢和健康影响部门代理主任加里#12539;穆雷(Gary Murray)说,血液流动会减缓,肝细胞的数量也会减少。 Certain enzyme levels dip, too, including one type of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which breaks down alcohol. Women of all ages tend to have lower levels of this enzyme in the stomach. But between the ages of 50 and 60, men see their levels slide, too. All these changes mean #39;you have a prolonged exposure to alcohol and possibly a little bit bigger buzz,#39; when you drink, Dr. Murray says. There#39;s also some evidence that hormonal changes around menopause can increase women#39;s sensitivity to alcohol. Healthy young people tend to metabolize about one drink per hour, Dr. Murray says. 某些酶的水平也会降低,包括一种降解酒精的脱氢酶。各个年龄段女性胃里的脱氢酶水平都较低,但男性到了50岁和60岁,脱氢酶水平也会降低。穆雷士说,所有这些变化都意味着,在你喝酒的时候“消耗酒精的时间会延长,可能酒劲儿也会更大一点”。穆雷说,还有据表明,更年期前后荷尔蒙水平的改变会增加女性对酒精的敏感度。健康的年轻人通常大概一小时代谢掉一杯酒。 Stephanie Draeken used to enjoy a glass or two of wine several nights a week. #39;I have four kids. I need my wine,#39; says the stay-at-home mother in Austin, Texas. But since turning 40 nearly two years ago, Ms. Draeken says if she has even one glass of wine now she#39;ll #39;wake up in the middle of the night with a horrible headache and the next day is like a college-style hangover without the college-style fun,#39; she says. 得克萨斯州奥斯汀(Austin)的全职母亲斯蒂芬妮#12539;德雷肯(Stephanie Draeken)以前喜欢每周有几天晚上喝一两杯葡萄酒。她说:“我有四个孩子,我需要喝酒。”但近两年前快40的时候,她说即使只喝一杯酒,她都会“在半夜醒来,头疼得厉害,而且第二天感觉就像大学时的宿醉一样,只不过没有大学时的那种乐趣”。 She tried switching to higher-priced wine, then stuck with white wine. She tried champagne. #39;It didn#39;t matter,#39; she says. She says she now rarely drinks wine and limits herself to an occasional vodka and soda. 她尝试过换成更高价格的葡萄酒,然后老是喝白葡萄酒。她尝试过香槟。她说:“不起作用。”她说她现在很少喝葡萄酒,只偶尔喝伏特加或苏打饮料。 Alcohol-drug interactions can become more of a problem, too, since older people are more likely to take medications. Alcohol and many medications are metabolized by the same enzymes in the liver, which can enhance the effects of alcohol or the medications. Heartburn drugs like Zantac interfere with the metabolism of alcohol, thus raising blood-alcohol levels. 酒精和药物的互相作用也是一个问题,因为年纪较大的人更有可能用药物。酒精和许多药物都是由肝脏中同样的酶代谢的,这就会加强酒精或药物的作用。善卫得(Zantac等缓解胃灼热的药物会干扰酒精的代谢,从而增加血液中的酒精浓度。 Acetaminophen (Tylenol) poses another problem because, combined with alcohol, it can damage the liver. 对乙酰氨基酚(商品名“泰诺”(Tylenol))会造成另外一个问题,因为它和酒精混合后会损伤肝脏。 Mixing alcohol with blood thinners like Coumadin can be particularly dangerous, causing bleeding. #39;People on Coumadin shouldn#39;t really drink at all,#39; says Dr. Oslin. And taking alcohol with some pain medications and benzodiazepines (antianxiety drugs) can make you #39;more prone to sedation, more prone to cardiovascular risk and more prone to overdose,#39; Dr. Oslin says. 酒精和可密定(Coumadin)等抗凝血药物混合尤其危险,会导致出血。奥斯林士说:“用可密定的人其实一点酒都不应该喝。”他说,酒精和某些止痛药及苯二氮平类药物(抗焦虑药物)一起用会让人“更容易进入镇静状态,更易患心血管病,更容易药过量”。 People with certain medical conditions should also be cautious with alcohol, doctors say. Long-term alcohol use can raise blood pressure. And alcohol tends to irritate the stomach. 医生们表示,身患某些疾病的人也应在喝酒上多加注意。长期饮酒会使血压升高,酒精还会刺激胃部。 Barring health problems and medication interactions, doctors generally become concerned when people drink more than a moderate amount of alcohol. That is defined as up to two drinks per day for men and up to one drink per day for women, according to the latest federal Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (A standard drink is about 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of liquor, according to the CDC.) 除健康问题和药物作用以外,医生通常还担心饮酒过量的问题。根据联邦政府最新的美国人膳食指南(Dietary Guidelines for Americans),适度饮酒的定义是男性每天最多两杯,女性每天最多一杯。(根据CDC标准,标准的一杯酒约为12盎司的啤酒、五盎司的葡萄酒或1.5盎司的烈酒。) In fact, there#39;s some evidence that a moderate amount of alcohol can have health benefits. Studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption with a reduced risk of cardiovascular problems and death overall. Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risks of liver disease, stroke, high blood pressure, certain types of cancer and dementia, beyond the obvious accidents and injuries. 事实上,有据显示适量饮酒有益健康。有研究表明适量饮酒可降低心血管疾病和死亡的风险。过量饮酒除了会导致显而易见的事故和受伤之外,还会增加肝脏疾病、中风、高血压、某些种类的癌症和痴呆的风险。 Particularly beginning in the 50s and 60s, the brain is more sensitive to alcohol. Booze basically enhances normal age-related cognitive decline. Neurons lose speed. Specifically, the insulating myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons -- the parts responsible for transmitting information to other neurons -- get smaller. As people age, #39;neurons are not as efficient. So you impair them with a little bit of alcohol, they are that much more inefficient,#39; says Dr. Oslin. #39;Somebody who goes to a cocktail party at 65 can have one or two drinks and be really impaired.#39; 尤其是从50和60多岁开始,人的大脑就会对酒精更敏感。酒精基本上会加重正常的衰老引起的认知功能衰退。神经元传播速度也会降低。具体来说,神经元轴突周围的绝缘性髓鞘――负责将信息传送至其他神经元的部分――变小了。奥斯林士说,随着年纪增加,“神经元的效率会不如以前,所以你用一点酒精损害它们后,它们就会变得更没有效率。65岁的人去鸡尾酒会时喝一两杯酒就会损害很大”。 Older people are also more affected by alcohol#39;s impact on sleep, a fact that can turn a mild hangover into a must-stay-in-bed-all-day affair. #39;Alcohol in all ages wrecks our REM sleep,#39; says Alison A. Moore, professor of medicine and psychiatry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. #39;Older adults are more likely to have poor sleep. [Alcohol] can make sleep even more fragmented.#39; 年纪大的人的睡眠也会更容易受到酒精的影响,轻微宿醉会变成全天都得躺在床上。加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)大卫格芬医学院(David Geffen School of Medicine)医药及精神病学教授艾莉森#12539;尔(Alison A. 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