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2019年12月10日 06:22:52来源:当当知识

  • Scotland is a unique and austere place,laden with history,where you can find aristocratic palaces and castles,as well as the traditional parades in national costumes.It has some of the most beautiful cities in Europe,a living testimony of a proud and splendid past.苏格兰是一个独特的地方,自然条件虽不得天独厚,历史的厚重感却随处可见。豪门望族的府第与城堡历历在目,仪仗队的士兵也还穿着传统装。这里有全欧洲最美的城市,诉说着苏格兰昔日的荣光。In order to see and discover the true soul of Scotland today,what forged the character of this splendid region,we have to go towards the northern regions,to the Grampian Mountains.Beautiful and unspoiled,it was difficult to farm.The Scots subdued the environment with simple spades and strong arms.想看看真正的苏格兰,追寻这里民族精神的源泉,就得去北部的格兰扁山区。格兰扁山区景色怡人,还没有受到现代文明的污染。格兰扁一度不适合耕作,倔强的苏格兰人,凭着双手征了这片土地。The history of this ancient struggle,and its people’s ancient love affair with the hard land,is enclosed within the walls of the Angus Folk Museum.You are able to get a feel of the typical rural atmosphere of times past from the everyday artifacts displayed here.苏格兰先民的艰苦劳作与他们自古对这片贫瘠土地的眷恋,在这个物馆里一览无余。这里展出的都是平常的物品,营造出往日乡间的氛围,使人油然而生怀旧之情。From coastal Aberdeen in towards the interior of the Grampian Mountains there runs the Castle Trail,a road that touches on many fortresses,which are witnesses of continual revolts against the dominion of neighboring England in Scottish history.从沿海的阿伯丁,有一条古堡之路,一直蜿蜒到格兰扁山区深处。沿途很多昔日的要塞,都是苏格兰在历史上不断反抗英格兰统治的见。Perhaps the most uplifting moment for Scottish autonomy is the one experienced inside this ancient abbey of Arbroath,where,in 1320;the Declaration of Independence was celebrated,at the instigation of King Robert the Bruce.He carried out the plan for autonomy drawn up by the great popular hero William Wallace,to whom cinema has dedicated the wonderful film;Brave heart;,the winner of five Oscars.苏格兰争取自治的过程中最大快人心的时刻莫过于1320年在这个修道院,布鲁斯国王鼓动百姓大肆庆贺独立宣言签订。布鲁斯采纳传奇英雄威廉·华勒斯所献的计策,完成了自治大业,这个故事后来被改编成电影《勇敢的心》,该片曾摘取了五项奥斯卡奖。This is Glamis Castle.It is often remembered for being the residence of King Macbeth and Queen Elizabeth in her childhood.Among the most assiduous guests here are the inevitable ghosts,which are nourished,if not actually created,by ancient popular beliefs.These have been handed down over the centuries by a people inclined to live with mystery,with the forces of the supernatural.这座城堡之所以名闻遐迩,却是因为曾经的两位主人——苏格兰国王麦克白与幼年时的伊丽莎白女王。如今这里最相看无厌的客人当数传说中挥之不去的幽灵,这些传说即使不是源于世代相传的民间故事,也大有借鉴化用的嫌疑。苏格兰人似乎生来就笃信超自然的力量,因此才有了这些传说。Another attraction here is a legendary monster:the Loch Ness Monster.Is it real or imaginary,this monster,which has been nicknamed Nessie,has collected a good 3000 sightings over the last 50 years?To fuel the debate about the monster,and perhaps also curiosity about the lake,a price of 500,000 pounds sterling has been put on Nessie’s head.这里游人如织的另一个原因则是尼斯湖的怪兽。真假姑且不论,这个昵称Nessie的怪兽在过去的半个世纪中已经吸引了三千余名游客。如今它头上有五十万英镑的悬赏,使得学术界的争论日益激烈,或许也会令游人的好奇日盛吧。The true flag of Scotland,tartan,is recognizable from the brightly colored plaid patterns which are used to distinguish the various clans.Over the last few decades this fabric has made a comeback and is part of the daily life of this country.苏格兰格子呢是苏格兰真正的旗帜。它显著的花格子图案曾经是区分不同宗族的标志。在过去几十年里,格子呢在苏格兰再度流行,如今则已在日常生活中不可或缺。The typical Scottish garment,the kilt,is de rigeur when the Scots play the Great Highland bagpipes,especially when they march in parades.苏格兰传统的褶裙按照礼节是应该在演奏高地风笛时穿的,尤其是列队前进的时候。Bagpipes and dancing open the competitions of local sporting events,which are called Highland Gatherings.The games,which have strange rules,involve a spirit that has more to do with brute force than with athletics.高地风笛与利尔舞揭开了高地运动盛会的序幕。运动会的比赛项目规则奇特,与其说是田径比赛,不如说是大力士的较量。 /201409/332819。
  • The creepiest job perk in the world:Facebook and Apple are paying women staff to freeze their eggs so they can work longer. How utterly chilling, says LIBBY PURVES.Now here#39;s a creepy bit of news: employers are thinking outside the box,going beyond offering staff the company car, bonus scheme, health insurance and workplace gym.The offer is of a bout of invasive surgery and a cold-store for your hopes of a future family.有一条可能会让人有点不安的新闻,用人单位打破常规,不再拘于给员工配车、发奖金、办医疗保险和在办公室配备健身房等福利,而是为女性员工提供冷冻卵子的务,给你未来组建家庭的希望。Deep in Silicon Valley,where the best and worst ideas come from, we hear word that Facebook and Appleare offering female employees a hideous new perk.在硅谷,这个好想法和坏点子汇集的地方,据称Facebook和苹果公司正在为女性员工提供这种可怕的新补贴。#39;Harvest#39;your unused ova in your 20s or30s, and delay motherhood until after your fastest-moving career years.The company will keep the eggs frozen for you and pay the ,000-odd medical bill for hoicking them out and storing them. Then, later on, you can draw them out,like a pension, and have a go at getting pregnant.在你二三十岁的时候收卵子,等到快速发展的事业生涯结束后再生孩子,公司会帮你保存冷冻的卵子,并付采集和冻存的卵子所需的2万美金。等过些年,你可以像领退休金一样把你的卵子取回来,尝试怀。How#39;s that for a deal? Terrible, I#39;d say.这个待遇听上去怎么样?我不得不说,实在太可怕了!Big, ruthless companies always did have aknack for sounding generous while snapping leg-irons on their employees. Even lavishly gilded handcuffs can be man-traps — or, in this case, woman-traps.不过,这些无情的大公司向来都是一边说得好听,一边剥削他们的员工。即使华丽的镀金的手铐也可以是给男人的现金。从这个案子来说,是女人的陷阱。It is not difficult to work out that thereally cold thing in this equation is the heart of the corporate boss.不难看出,这整个想法背后真正冰冷的是公司大老板的心。It seems that women, the pesky critters,are now leaving high-tech companies at twice the rate of men.Presumably (thoughthis may not have occurred to the management), this is because the intensity of the business is hostile to any kind of decent human family life.目前,在高科技公司,女性的离职率似乎是男性的两倍。可能是因为这些行业的工作强度对正常人的家庭生活有威胁,不过可能他们的管理层还没意识到呢。One spokesman for a company offering this new service says it #39;cares deeply about our employees and their families#39; and simply desires to ‘empower women to do the best workof their lives#39;. Well, one might diffidently suggest that there are other ways in which you can do this empowering thing.一个提供该务的公司的发言人称“他们十分关心员工和他们的家庭,仅仅是希望能让女星们享受她们人生中最好的工作”。额,有人可能会提出异议说还有别的方式可以鼓励她们。These cutting-edge companies could pioneer fantastic ways of keeping mothers included in the workforce without ruiningtheir lives .这些前沿公司本可以开创潮流,让母亲们也能继续在职场战斗,不用破坏她们的人生计划。But no: with absurdly touching faith in a newish technology, they decide to set up an in-house cryopreservation andegg-storage programme, so they can keep every young woman#39;s nose to the grindstone,developing apps or whatever.但不,他们对于新科技有荒谬的信仰,决定成立室内低温保存和冷冻卵子的项目,他们就能使每个年轻女性都不敢松懈,勤恳开发Apps或是之类。And then, once the dear old thing is slowing down a bit, streaking past 40, creaking a little, running out of cool,young ideas — just hand over the freezer-bags and send her hobbling off downthe mommy-track.一旦她们超过40岁,不再年轻,想法也不再新潮的时候,直接给她们扔一包冻卵子,把她们送上做母亲的人生轨迹。The process begins with an operation, and probably hormone treatment. And then, years later, it isn#39;t just a matter of getting the seancient eggs out and hatching a baby.It involves more hormones and in-vitro fertilisation, which itself has a limited success rate .And using pre-frozen eggs has an even lower success rate, according to latest figures — barely 25 per cent, if you#39;re lucky.而这个过程首先要从取卵子开始,会有激素治疗,然后多年以后,就不仅仅是取出这些“远古”的卵子生孩子的事了。会有更多的激素治疗和体外受精,成功率本来就不高,用冷冻过的卵子成功率就更低了,根据最新的数据——幸运的话也只有25%。But never forget what a lovely thing it isto produce a child as a result of making love, of a night with a trusted partner in the drowsy or passionate warmth of your own bed, at home.Who would choose, deliberately and in full health, to give this up in favour of operations, anxiety, dependence on white coats and sterile laboratories? So no, it#39;s not a perk. It#39;s creepy, and corporate, and dry-hearted, and impractical: aparticular kind of silliness which, if I may be sexist for a moment, is quinte ssentiallymale. Schoolboy sci-fi stuff.永远别忘了,没有什么比在家中舒适的床上与爱人享受性爱后怀上孩子更美好的事了,谁会故意不用这种方法,而选择在实验室里接受手术,经历各种担心的方法来怀。所以这根本不是给员工的福利,而是一个让人毛骨悚然的、没心没肺的、不切实际的愚蠢想法。 /201410/337545。
  • Scientists from two landmark heart-disease studies are joining forces to wield the power of genetics in battling the leading cause of death in the U.S. 参加过两项具有里程碑意义的心脏病研究项目的科学家现在正通力合作,运用遗传学的力量来对抗这种在美国导致死亡的主要疾病。Cardiologists have struggled in recent years to score major advances against heart disease and stroke. Although death rates have been dropping steadily since the 1960s, progress combating the twin diseases has plateaued by other measures. 心脏病医生近年来付出了很大努力,争取在治疗心脏病和中风方面获得重大进展。虽然死亡率从1960年代以来就一直在稳步下降,但是从其它标准来看,与这对兄弟疾病的斗争没有再取得更多的进步。Genetics has had a profound impact on cancer treatment in recent years. Now, heart-disease specialists hope genetics will reveal fresh insight into the interaction between a person#39;s biology, living habits and medications that can better predict who is at risk of a heart attack or stroke. 遗传学近年来对癌症的治疗产生了深远的影响。如今,心脏病专家希望遗传学可以揭开新的奥秘,让人深入了解一个人的生命机理、生活习惯和药物治疗之间的相互作用,以此更好地预测谁有心脏病发作或中风的危险。#39;There#39;s a promise of new treatments with this research,#39; said Daniel Jones, chancellor of the University of Mississippi and former principal investigator of the 15-year-old Jackson Heart Study, a co-collaborator in the new genetics initiative. 美国密西西比大学(the University of Mississippi)校长丹尼尔#12539;琼斯(Daniel Jones)说:“这项研究可望找到新的治疗方法。”他是历时15年的杰克逊心脏研究项目(Jackson Heart Study)的前首席研究员,也是新的遗传学研究项目的共同合作伙伴。Prevention efforts also could improve with the help of genetics research, Dr. Jones said. For example, an estimated 75 million Americans currently have high blood pressure, or hypertension, but only about half of those are able to control it with medication. It can take months of trial-and-error for a doctor to get the right dose or combination of pills for a patient. Researchers hope genetic and other information might enable doctors to identify subgroups of hypertension that respond to specific treatments and target patients with an appropriate therapy. 琼斯说,在遗传学研究的帮助下,预防工作也可以得到提升。比如,目前估计有7,500万美国人患有高血压,但是只有大约一半人能够使用药物进行控制。医生为病人确定恰当的用药剂量或者药物组合可能需要好几个月的反复尝试。研究人员希望遗传学及其它信息可以帮助医生找到对特定治疗方法产生疗效反应的高血压亚组,对病人实行对症下药。Also collaborating on the genetics project is the 65-year-old Framingham Heart Study. Its breakthrough findings decades ago linked heart disease to such factors as smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Framingham findings have been a foundation of cardiovascular disease prevention policy for a half-century. 参与遗传学项目合作的还有历时65年的弗雷明汉心脏研究 (Framingham Heart Study)团队。该研究在几十年前取得的突破性发现将心脏病与吸烟、高血压和高胆固醇等因素联系起来。弗雷明汉的研究发现半个世纪以来一直是心血管疾病预防政策的基本根据。More than 15,000 people have participated in the Framingham study. The Jackson study, with more than 5,000 participants, was launched in 1998 to better understand risk factors in African-Americans, who were underrepresented in Framingham and who bear a higher burden of cardiovascular disease than the rest of the population. Both studies are funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. 超过15,000人参与了弗雷明汉研究。参加人数达5,000多人的杰克逊研究是1998年启动的,目的是为了更好地弄清楚非洲裔美国人面临的危险因素,这个群体在弗雷明汉研究中代表人数不足,而且他们承受的心血管疾病负担高于其它人群。上述两项研究都是由美国国家卫生研究院(the National Institutes of Health)所属的国家心脏、肺和血液研究所(the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,简称NHLBI)提供的资金持。Exactly how the collaboration, announced last week, will proceed hasn#39;t been determined. One promising area is the #39;biobank,#39; the collection of more than one million blood and other biological samples gathered during biennial checkups of Framingham study participants going back more than a half century. 上周公布的这项合作计划如何具体地进行还没有决定。很有希望的一个领域是“生物样本库”(biobank),一个拥有超过100万个血液及其它生物样本的数据库。这些生物样本是在对过去半个多世纪中参与弗雷明汉研究的人员进行两年一度的体检时采集来的。The samples are stored in freezers in an underground earthquake-proof facility in Massachusetts, said Vasan Ramachandran, a Boston University scientist who takes over at the beginning of next year as principal investigator of the Framingham Heart Study. Another 40,000 samples from the Jackson study are kept in freezers in Vermont. By subjecting samples to DNA sequencing and other tests, researchers say they may be able to identify variations linked to progression of cardiovascular disease -- or protection from it. 波士顿大学(Boston University)科学家瓦桑#12539;拉马钱德兰(Vasan Ramachandran)说,这些样本储存在马萨诸塞州(Massachusetts)一个抗震的地下设施内的冷藏库中,拉马钱德兰即将于明年年初接任弗雷明汉心脏研究的首席研究员。杰克逊研究中的另外40,000个样本保存在佛蒙特州(Vermont)的冷库中。研究人员说,通过对样本进行DNA测序和其它测试,他们或许能够确认心血管疾病发展过程中出现的各种变体――或者预防心血管疾病的因素。Each study is likely to enroll new participants as part of the collaboration to allow tracking of risk factors and diet and exercise habits, for instance, in real time instead of only during infrequent checkups. 作为合作项目的一部分,每一项研究都很可能要招募新的参与者,对他们的危险因素、饮食习惯和锻炼习惯进行跟踪,跟踪采取实时的形式,而不是仅在并非经常进行的体检时才进行。Heart disease is linked to about 800,000 deaths a year in the U.S. In 2010, some 200,000 of those deaths could have been avoided, including more than 112,300 deaths among people younger than 65, according to a recent analysis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But those avoidable deaths reflected a 3.8% per year decline in mortality rates during the previous 10 years. 在美国,一年大约有80万例死亡病例与心脏病有关。根据美国疾病控制与预防中心(the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)最近的一份分析资料,2010年,那些死亡病例中大约有20万例本来是可以避免的,其中超过112,300例的死亡病人年龄低于65岁。不过那些可以避免的死亡病例在过去十年中让死亡率每年下降了3.8%。Now, widesp prevalence of obesity and diabetes threatens to undermine such gains. And a large gap remains between how white patients and minorities -- especially African-Americans -- benefit from effective strategies. 现在,普遍存在的肥胖和糖尿病对取得的这些成绩构成了威胁,而且白人患者和少数民族――尤其是非洲裔美国人――在从有效的治疗策略中获益的程度上存在很大的差异。There have been few new transformative cardiovascular treatments since the mid-1980s to early 1990s, when a stream of large-scale trials of new agents ranging from clot-busters to treat heart attacks to the mega class of statins electrified the cardiology field with evidence of significant improvements in survival from the disease. One reason: Some of those remedies have proven tough to beat with new treatments. 从1980年代中期到1990年代初期,治疗心血管疾病的方法就没有多少新的改变(自那以后,对治疗心脏病发作的溶血剂和大量降低胆固醇的他汀类药物等新药进行的一系列大规模试验明患心脏病的生存几率可以大大提高,这让心脏病学界兴奋不已)。其中一个原因是:那些疗法中有些被明很难被新的治疗手段所超越。What#39;s more, use of the current of medicines for reducing heart risk remains an imprecise art. Besides blood pressure drugs, cholesterol-lowering statins also are widely prescribed. Drug-trial statistics show that to prevent a single first heart attack in otherwise healthy patients can require prescribing a statin to scores of patients, but no one knows for sure who actually benefits and who doesn#39;t. 此外,使用现行的药物目录来降低心脏病风险还是一件没有把握的事情。除了降血压的药物之外,处方里大量出现的还有降低胆固醇的他汀类药物。药物试验统计数字表明,为了防止在其它方面十分健康的病人出现第一次心脏病发作,数十位病人可能都会被开据他汀类药物的处方,但是没人确切知道这药对谁真正有用,对谁没有作用。#39;It would be great if we could make some more paradigm-shifting discoveries,#39; said Michael Lauer, director of cardiovascular sciences at the NHLBI, which is a part of the National Institutes of Health. 美国国家卫生研究院下属 NHLBI的心血管学科主任迈克尔#12539;劳尔(Michael Lauer)说:“如果我们能够在转变思维模式方面做出更多发现的话,那就太好了。” Finding new treatments isn#39;t the only aim of the new project. #39;You could use existing therapies smarter,#39; said Joseph Loscalzo, chairman of medicine at Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital in Boston. 找到新的治疗方法并不是新研究项目的唯一目的。波士顿布里格姆妇科医院(Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital)的医务委员会主席约瑟夫#12539;洛斯卡尔佐(Joseph Loscalzo)说:“你可以更高明地使用现存的疗法。” The American Heart Association launched the initiative and has committed million to it over the next five years. The AHA sees the project as critical to its goal to achieve a 20% improvement in cardiovascular health in the U.S. while also reducing deaths from heart disease and stroke by 20% for the decade ending in 2020, said Nancy Brown, the nonprofit organization#39;s chief executive. 美国心脏病学会(The American Heart Association,简称AHA)发起了本次研究行动,并答应在今后的五年中拨付3,000万美元(约合人民币1.83亿元)的资金。AHA打算在2020年之前的十年时间里将美国的心血管健康水平提升20%,同时将心脏病和中风引起的死亡病例减少20%,它把本项目看成是实现目标的关键。The Jackson study has aly identified characteristics of cardiovascular risk among African-American patients #39;that may have promise for new insights#39; in a collaborative effort, said Adolfo Correa, professor of medicine and pediatrics at University of Mississippi Medical Center and interim director of the Jackson study. 密西西比大学医学中心(Mississippi Medical Center)的医学及儿科学教授、杰克逊研究项目的临时主管阿道夫#12539;科雷亚(Adolfo Correa)说,杰克逊研究已经找到了非洲裔美国人心血管疾病患病危险的特征,这在合作项目中“也许有望让人获得新的认识”。For instance, there is a higher prevalence of obesity among Jackson participants than seen in the Framingham cohorts. Obesity is associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Diabetes is also more prevalent among blacks than whites. 比如,杰克逊研究的参与者中肥胖者所占比例比弗雷明汉研究队伍中的人高。肥胖与高血压、糖尿病和心血管疾病危险有关。黑人中患糖尿病的人也比白人普遍。But African-Americans of normal weight appear to have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than whites of normal weight. #39;The question is, should [measures] for defining diabetes be different or the same for the [different] populations and are they associated with the same risk of cardiovascular disease?#39; said Dr. Correa. The collaboration, he said, may provide better comparisons. 然而体重正常的非洲裔美国人相比体重正常的白人似乎有更高的高血压及糖尿病患病率。“问题在于,定义糖尿病(的手段)对于(不同的)人群来说应该是相同的还是不同的?他们面临的心血管疾病危险是否是相同的?”科雷亚如是说。他说这个合作项目也许会提供更好的比较。Researchers, who plan to use tools other than genetics, think more might be learned about blood pressure and heart and stroke risk by monitoring patients in real time using mobile devices rather than taking ings only in periodic office visits. For example, high blood pressure during sleep or spikes during exercise could indicate risks that don#39;t show up in a routine measurement in the doctors#39; office. 研究人员还打算利用遗传学之外的其它工具。他们认为,通过利用移动设备对病人进行实时监测而不是只在病人定期到诊室就诊时才读取数据,人们可以对血压、心脏和中风了解得更多。比如,睡眠期间血压升高或者运动期间血压陡增可能预示着危险,这在医生诊室的常规测量中是不会出现的。A big challenge is making sense of the huge amounts of data involved in sequencing DNA and linking it to medical records, diet and exercise habits and other variables that influence risk. 一个巨大的挑战是要弄清DNA测序中大量数据代表的意义并将它与病历、饮食和锻炼习惯以及影响到患病危险的其它变量关联起来。#39;The analytical methods for sorting out these complex relationships are still in evolution,#39; said Dr. Loscalzo, of Brigham and Women#39;s Hospital. #39;The cost of sequencing is getting cheaper and cheaper. The hard part is analyzing the data.#39;“整理这些复杂关系的分析方法尚在逐步完善之中,”布里格姆妇科医院的洛斯卡尔佐说,“DNA测序的成本越来越低了,难的部分是对数据进行分析。” /201312/268171。
  • The modern maraschino cherry is “a real cherry with the cherry flavor removed,” explains Darcy O’Neil, a chemist and the author of “Fix the Pumps,” a history of the soda fountain. The original version, by contrast, was a marasca cherry — a sour, dark variety cultivated on the coast of Dalmatia (now part of Croatia) beginning in the mid-19th century. It was brined in ocean water, then preserved in a liqueur made from its own juices, as well as leaves and ground-up pits.现代的酒渍马拉斯奇诺樱桃(maraschino cherry,特指冰淇淋、鸡尾酒,奶油蛋糕等物上的装饰性红樱桃——译注)是一种“去掉了樱桃味的樱桃”,化学家达西·奥尼尔(Darcy O’Neil)说,他曾出版讲述冷饮机历史的《修好水泵》(Fix the Pumps)一书。马拉斯奇诺樱桃是用欧洲酸樱桃制成的,二者截然相反。欧洲酸樱桃又酸又黑,是19世纪中期在达尔马提亚(今克罗地亚境内)培育出来的。制作方法是将它用海水浸泡,之后用同一种樱桃的汁液、叶子和碾碎的籽制成的甜酒腌渍。The fruit first arrived on American shores as a luxury import around the turn of the century, along with a cheaper version made primarily in France using sugar and dyes. Large shipments of European cherries that had been preserved but not fully transformed into maraschinos were also sent to the ed States — American cherries were considered unacceptable because of their mushier texture — where they, too, were made into less rarefied versions of the Croatian original.在19世纪与20世纪之交,这种果子作为一种奢侈的进口物品来到美国大洋两岸,此外还有一种较为便宜的法国制造品种,用糖和颜料浸渍而成。美国樱桃被认为质地较软,无法用来制作马拉斯奇诺樱桃,于是大量欧洲半成品樱桃也被运往美国,在美国本土加工制作,但没有克罗地亚的原产品那么正宗。Americans happily gobbled up imitation marascas, usually flavored with vanilla or almond. But when information about how they were made was leaked, outraged articles followed. “Maraschino Cherries Violate Pure Food Law,” ran one 1907 headline. According to another report, the fruit was smoked in sulfur and packed in a noxious chemical brine before shipping; once in the factory, it was soaked in sugar syrup, flavored and dyed red with aniline, a toxic colorant made of coal-tar byproducts. So many maraschino impostors — some alcoholic and some not — hit the market that in 1912, the Food and Drug Administration issued an official statement on the difference between a real maraschino and an imitation.美国人开心地吃着这些仿制樱桃,通常是配香草和杏仁一起吃。但是当制作过程泄露后,开始出现愤怒的抨击文章,1907年,一篇文章题为“马拉斯奇诺樱桃触犯纯净食品法”。另一篇报道写道,这些樱桃经过硫磺烟熏,在运输前被浸泡在一种臭名昭著的化学制剂里。在工厂,它们被浸入糖浆,用苯胺调味和染上红色——苯胺是一种有毒的着色剂,由煤焦油的副产品制成。大量冒牌马拉斯奇诺樱桃涌入市场(有些是酒渍的,有些不是),1912年,美国食品和药物发表了一份官方声明,澄清真假马拉斯奇诺樱桃的不同之处。None of these alarming findings stopped people from eating the candied treats. It wasn’t long before American cherry growers, particularly in Oregon, where there were vast orchards, looked for ways to break into the market. Ernest Wiegand, a horticulturist at Oregon Agricultural College (now Oregon State University), focused on figuring out how best to preserve the shape and structure of local cherries to the standards Americans expected. “Preserving them with alcohol causes them to shrink,” O’Neil explains. “They become hard and wrinkled, and they don’t look like a plump, beautiful cherry.” In 1925, Wiegand discovered that adding calcium salts to the preserving brine firmed up the fruit. With a few modifications, this is still the method used to make maraschinos today. And while the maraschino we know has long been a kind of Frankenstein’s monster of the fruit world, in a Manhattan or on a sundae it offers a certain reliable comfort. “It’s got this burst of sweetness and sugar and childhood in it,” O’Neil says. “And those are good associations.”这些警告并没有阻止人们继续食用这种甜品。不久后,美国樱桃种植者,特别是拥有大片果园的俄勒冈州的种植者们找到办法打入这个市场。厄内斯特·维甘德是俄勒冈农业学院(今俄勒冈州立大学)的园艺学家,他致力于让本土樱桃的形状和质地在腌渍过程能够达到美国人期待的标准。“用酒精腌渍会让它们缩水,”奥尼尔说,“会让它们变硬起皱,看上去就不像美丽丰满的樱桃了。”1925年,维甘德发现,在腌渍液中加入钙盐,会让樱桃变得质地坚实。经过若干调整,这个方法如今仍应用在制作马拉斯奇诺樱桃的工序中。我们熟悉的马拉斯奇诺樱桃早已成为水果界的弗兰肯斯坦怪物,但当它随曼哈顿鸡尾酒和圣代冰淇淋一起端上来的时候,还是让人有种安心的舒适感。“它包含了关于甜蜜、糖果和童年的感觉,”奥尼尔说。“这些都是美妙的联想。” /201410/338308。
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