浙江嘉兴曙光医院做抽脂手术多少钱普及常识

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月20日 11:28:17
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SOUTH PORTLAND, Me. — LIKE many parents, I have a particular book I like to give to friends when they announce they’re pregnant for the first time. It is the book I early in my wife’s pregnancy, blurting out passages about everything from birth, baby minding and child rearing to education, work and discipline. But you probably won’t find it in the baby section of your local bookstore. “The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings,” by David F. Lancy, is an academic title — but it’s possibly the only book that new parents will ever need.缅因州南波特兰——和很多父母一样,在有朋友宣布第一次怀的时候,我也有一本专门的书想送给他们。这本书是我在妻子怀初期看过的,将从出生、保育、抚养,到教育、工作和管教的一切议题,都和盘托出。但也许你在本地书店的育儿区找不到这本书。戴维·F·兰西(David F. Lancy)的《童年人类学:小天使、私产、调换儿》(The Anthropology of Childhood: Cherubs, Chattel, Changelings)是一本学术书——但它可能是初为父母的人唯一需要看的一本书。The book, which first appeared in 2008 and is about to be published in a second edition, is a far cry from “What to Expect When You’re Expecting.” Professor Lancy, who teaches at Utah State University, has pored over the anthropology literature to collect insights from a range of culture types, along with primate studies, history and his own fieldwork in seven countries. He’s not explicitly writing for parents. Yet through factoids and analysis, he demonstrates something that American parents desperately need to hear: Children are raised in all sorts of ways, and they all turn out just fine.这本2008年首版、即将再版的书,和《海蒂怀大百科》(What to Expect When You’re Expecting)是很不一样的东西。在犹他州立大学(Utah State University)任教的兰西教授查阅了大量的人类学文献,从各文化类型中寻找灼见,此外还参考了灵长目动物的研究、历史,以及他自己对七个国家的实地考察。他写这本书,并不是明确地面向父母,而是通过一些逸闻趣事和分析,验了一些美国父母迫切想听到的话:抚养孩子的方法多种多样,结果都挺好的。Children in Fiji, for example, are not allowed to address adults, or even make eye contact with them. In Gapun, an isolated village in Papua New Guinea, children are encouraged to hit dogs and chickens, and to raise knives at siblings. At 8 or 9 years old, boys among the Touareg, a nomadic people in North Africa, get a baby camel to care for. Try sitting on the couch with your partner and keeping these to yourself as you .比如斐济的孩子不能称呼大人,甚至不能跟他们对视。在巴布亚新几内亚的偏远村庄加庞(Gapun),孩子们被怂恿着去打和鸡,对着兄弟挥舞刀子。北非游牧民族图瓦雷克(Touareg)人会让8、9岁的男孩去照料一只幼年骆驼。当你坐在沙发上看这本书,看看你如何忍得住不把这些说给身边的另一半听。This is not “Ripley’s Believe It or Not,” anthropological trivia into the weird and wonderful ways of mankind. I took a larger point from all this — namely that humans have a tremendous capacity for living inside their culture and accepting those arrangements as natural, and finding other arrangements weird, unnatural, even abhorrent.它并非“信不信由你”(Ripley’s Believe It or Not)式的人类学趣事,专门收集人类一些古怪而奇妙的做法。它有着更宏大的视角——即人类在自己的文化中生活时,有着极强的适应力,可以自然地接受这些约定,而觉得其他的约定很奇怪、不自然,甚至可恶。When you’re a first-time parent, something perverse happens that makes you seem like a visitor to your own culture. In the first year of my son’s life, I found myself pondering things like baby rattles. Where do they come from? Why do we give rattles to babies? Are there cultures where babies don’t get rattles? (Indeed, there are.)初为父母的人会遇到一些不合常理的事,让你觉得对自己身处的文化很陌生。在儿子降生后的第一年里,婴儿摇铃之类的东西会引发我的深思。这些东西从哪冒出来的?为什么我们要给孩子铃铛?是不是有些文化是不给孩子铃铛的?(的确有。)At precisely the moment that I was worrying about my cultural performance of parenthood, I stumbled across mention of “The Anthropology of Childhood” on a blog and got a copy. I was immediately taken. The book does not render judgments, like other parenting books we know. “My goal is to offer a correction to the ethnocentric lens that sees children only as precious, innocent and preternaturally cute cherubs,” Professor Lancy writes. “I hope to uncover something close to the norm for children’s lives and those of their caretakers.”正当我忧心于我作为父母的文化表现如何时,我在一篇文上偶然看到《童年人类学》这本书,于是就买了一本。我立刻被吸引住了。这本书不像我们知道的其他育儿书,它没有发表论断。“我们把孩子视为宝贵、无邪、非比寻常的可爱小天使,我的目标就是对这种以自身文化为中心的看法做出纠正,”兰西教授写道。“我希望能为儿童的生活以及他们的监护者,找到一种接近常态的东西。”That norm is that children are expected to earn their keep, starting at a very early age (or they are tolerated as semi-supernatural forces, the “changelings” of the book’s title). Worldwide, there is little formal schooling; most knowledge is learned through play and imitation. Kids may spend more time overseen by older siblings than adults. Fathers have very little to do with their children. And adults in most cultures rarely, if ever, play with their children as extensively as we do with ours.这种常态就是,儿童应该在非常小的时候开始自食其力(否则他们就会被当成一种有些超自然力量来纵容,也就是书名中所说的“调换儿”)。放眼世界,正规的学校教育所占比重微不足道,多数知识都是通过玩耍和模仿习得的。孩子更多时候是他们的兄姊在照看,而不是大人。父亲几乎不管孩子。绝大多数文化中,成年人不像我们这样花大量时间跟孩子玩,甚至根本不玩。The first-time parent faces a bewildering array of commercial products and schools of parenting philosophies: attachment parenting, “Resources for Infant Educarers,” “Baby Wise,” the list rolls on. But “The Anthropology of Childhood” shows that neither the supermarket baby aisle nor our parenting ideologies are truly diverse. The real divide isn’t between people who co-sleep and those who don’t, or between those who use cloth diapers and those who use disposables. It is between what Professor Lancy, in lectures, has deemed “pick when ripe” cultures versus “pick when green” cultures.初为父母的人要面临扑面而来的各种商业产品和育儿哲学流派:亲密育儿法、婴幼儿资源中心(Resources for Infant Educarers)、《从零岁开始》(Baby Wise)等等。然而《童年人类学》让我们看到,无论是超市里琳琅满目的婴儿用品,还是我们的育儿思想,都谈不上真的有什么不同。真正的差别是有的人和孩子一起睡,有的人不是;有的用尿布,有的用纸尿裤。兰西教授在讲座中说,两者就是“成熟后再采摘”和“未成熟就采摘”的文化区别。In the “pick when ripe” culture, babies and toddlers are largely ignored by adults, and may not be named until they’re weaned. They undergo what he calls a “village curriculum”: running errands, delivering messages and doing small-scale versions of adult tasks. Only later are they “picked,” or fully recognized as individuals. In contrast, in “pick when green” cultures, including our own, it’s never too early to socialize babies or recognize their personhood.在“成熟后再采摘”的文化里,大人基本上对婴幼儿不理不睬,断奶前可能连个名字都没有。他们要经历一种他称为“乡村课程”的过程:跑跑腿、带个信,做一些小规模的成人事务。而后才会被“采摘”,也就是被完全被当作一个独立的个人。“未成熟就采摘”的文化则完全不同,包括我们也是这样,我们总是迫切地尽早让婴儿社会化,或承认他们作为人的身份。Professor Lancy calls the American way of doing pick when green a “neontocracy,” in which adults provide services to relatively few children who are considered priceless, even though they’re useless. One senses him rolling his eyes at modern American parents, impelled to get down on the floor to play Legos with their kids. But he admits that each culture evolves the child-rearing strategies it needs to reproduce itself, and he posits that pick when green is necessary in a complex society like ours. Whether it should be exported is another question.兰西教授将美国的未成熟采摘方式称为“幼者至上”(neontocracy)的文化,成年人为相对较少的儿童提供务,他们被视为无价之宝,尽管他们什么用也没有。有人感觉兰西是在藐视当代的美国家长,他们被迫坐在地上,跟孩子们玩乐高积木(Lego)。但他承认,每种文化都逐步形成了保持自我发展所需的育儿策略,他认为,“未成熟就采摘”在像我们这么复杂的社会中是必要的。而是否应该输出这种文化则是另一个问题。We take our cultural practices as a timeless given, but I was fascinated to the historical origin of our modern neontocracy: 17th-century Netherlands. Wealthy and urbanized, the Dutch middle class began treating their children as inherently valuable, not as future labor. Birthrates dropped because more children survived infancy; the pampered offspring could be trained at an early age. We can blame the political philosopher John Locke for our current child-rearing preoccupations. He carried Dutch ideas back to England in the 1680s, where Protestant radicals like the Puritans and Quakers picked them up. We, and our “godlike cherubs,” as Professor Lancy calls them, are their heirs.我们将我们的文化习惯当作一种与生俱来的东西,但我看到了当代“幼者至上”文化的历史渊源:17世纪的荷兰,这让我着迷。富裕、城市化的荷兰中产阶级开始把他们的孩子当作天生的瑰宝,而不是未来的劳工。由于越来越多的婴儿成功存活,出生率有所降低;娇生惯养的孩子可以在早期获得培养。我们可以说,导致我们现在如此专注于育儿的,是政治哲学家约翰·洛克(John Locke)。他认为荷兰人的想法源于17世纪80年代的英国,英国的清教徒和贵格会(Quaker)信徒等新教激进分子提出了这些想法。我们,以及兰西教授所说的“神一般的小天使”是他们的继承人。And I was glad for an ethnographic antidote to the ubiquity of developmental psychologists, whose advice often lacks a vital cultural perspective. Case in point: When my wife and I were sleeplessly losing our wits, we through advice books on infant sleep, none of which mentioned that sleeping for eight uninterrupted hours in a bed in separate rooms is a distinct cultural anomaly. For most cultures, sleep is social. Around the world, people sleep in groups; with animals; in briefer chunks of time; without coverings.有人从民族学的角度对无处不在的发育心理学家——他们的建议往往缺乏重要的文化视角——进行了修正,我对此感到高兴。案例分析:当极度缺觉的妻子和我已经无计可施时,我们通读了关于婴儿睡眠的各种建议书籍,其中没有哪一本曾提到,在单独的房间的床上连续不断地睡8小时是一种明显的文化特例。在大多数文化当中,睡眠都带有社会性。从世界范围来看,有人成群结队地睡觉,有人和动物一起睡,有人睡得时间比较短,还有的人睡觉不盖东西。Once we learned that ours is not the norm, we relaxed. The fact that our year-old son wasn’t sleeping the way we wanted him to didn’t mean he lacked something; it meant that he wasn’t developmentally y to be acculturated to our cultural model of sleep, not all at once.一旦我们认识到自己的做法并非常态,我们就放松了。我们一岁的儿子不像我们期望的那样一直熟睡,并不意味着他存在缺陷;这意味着他还没有发育到能适应我们文化中的睡眠模式的程度,而这并不能一蹴而就。Perhaps the most surprising thing about “The Anthropology of Childhood” was how it taught me to value things that, in a cross-cultural perspective, might suddenly seem arbitrary: how we approach hygiene, for example, or teach etiquette. As a parent, I realized, my job is to transmit my culture. It helps to think of your child as a stranger in a strange land, like a study-abroad student you are hosting long term and to whom you must, patiently and constantly, explain the land they’re visiting.对于《童年人类学》,最令人惊讶的事就是它教会我要从跨文化的视角出发,重视那些乍看可能有些随意的事情,例如我们如何对待卫生习惯或传授礼仪。我意识到,作为家长,我的工作就是传输我的文化。把孩子想象成来自异乡的陌生人,比如长期住在你家的留学生,而且你必须不断地耐心针对他们到来的这个地方,向这个学生做出解释,这样做能带来一定帮助。“In our culture, we don’t put our feet on the table,” I have heard myself say. “I suppose there are cultures where you can, but this isn’t one of them.”“在我们的文化中,我们不把脚搁在桌子上,”我听见自己说。“我想在有些文化当中,你可以这样做,但我们的文化不行。”Then we get on the floor and play Legos, which is what we do in our culture.然后,我们开始到地板上玩乐高(Lego)积木,我们的文化就是这么做的。 /201502/358188

  

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  You should probably be drinking your morning cup of coffee around10 a.m., according to a new from AsapScience.科普频道AsapScience近日发布视频声称,早上十点或许是喝咖啡的最佳时间。We know, we know. If you#39;re an I-need-caffeine-as-soon-as-I-wake-up kind of person, this isn#39;t great news. But as AsapScience explains it, the production of cortisol, the ;stress hormone; associated with the way the body naturally wakes itself up, generally peaks between 8 and 9 am -- right around the time most people are sipping their cappuccinos and lattes.我们知道,如果你是那种一起床就需要喝咖啡的人,这并不是个好消息。AsapScience解释说,人体内的皮质醇,也就是“压力激素”的分泌与身体自然唤醒的方式相关,其分泌高峰期一般在早上八点到九点,也就是大部分人喝咖啡的时间。Peak cortisol hours also happen between 12 and 1 p.m. and 5:30 and 6:30 p.m. And according to AsapScience, drinking coffee during those hours lessens caffeine#39;s effects.皮质醇的其他分泌高峰分别是中午十二点到一点和下午五点半到六点半。AsaaScience认为,在这些时段喝咖啡,会削弱咖啡因的作用。If you#39;re an early or late riser, your peak cortisol hours are probably different from the average person#39;s. So whenever it is you wake up, just wait a bit before hitting the coffee maker.早起或晚起的人分泌皮质醇的高峰期与平均值会有所不同。所以最好起床后过一段时间再去泡咖啡。“Cortisol levels do indeed increase about 50 percent right after you wake up, regardless of the time,; the explains. ;Science says, wait at least an hour to get your cup of joe and your body will be optimally y to go.”视频中介绍说:“无论几点起床,皮质醇的含量在起床后都会激增50%左右。科学家认为,起床一小时后再饮用咖啡,可以让身体获得更多动力。”Hey, we#39;re all about reaping all of coffee#39;s benefits -- especially because it#39;s been linked to a healthier heart and, ahem, a lower risk of erectile dysfunction. Let#39;s keep that stuff brewing.我们这也是为了充分利用咖啡的功效啊,尤其是听说它能强健心脏并减少勃起功能障碍。喝咖啡不能停啊。 /201506/378241

  A:Why in the world would a dog come to see a psychiatrist?A:为什么世界上还会有去看精神病医生呢?B:For one thing, we don’t yell at them for getting up on the couch.B:第一,你没有对他吼过从沙发上醒来。 /201504/371665There was a time when fine jewelry was thought of as something that was inherited from your grandmother, but it seems that those days are ancient history.曾几何时,高级珠宝在人们心目中就是从祖母那里传下来的东西。但那个时代似乎已经一去不复返了。In the last few years, a spate of young, edgy but still elegant fine jewelry designers have come on to the scene, and they’re catering to a clientele that could be described the very same way.近些年来,一大批年轻、前卫又不失优雅的高级珠宝设计师陆续闪亮登场。而且,他们也正在迎合一群具有同样风格的客户。The jewelry industry has been growing steadily for the last several years, with annual sales predicted to reach a total 250 billion euros (about 1 billion), up from 148 billion euros (0 billion) by 2020, according to a report released last year by McKinsey amp; Company.据麦肯锡公司(McKinsey amp; Company)去年公布的一份报告,珠宝行业近些年来一直在稳步增长,预计至2020年,该行业的年销售额将从1480亿欧元(大约1600亿美元,约合人民币1万亿元)增至共计2500亿欧元(大约2710亿美元,约合人民币1.69万亿)。It seems that there is a new market for fine jewelry in the post recession years; young women who are looking for luxurious, but less ostentatious pieces they can incorporate into their daily lives. New York designers like Eva Zuckerman, who launched her Eva Fehren line in 2011, and Anna Sheffield, whose boutique opened in 2013, are catering directly to that market.在经济衰退结束后的这些年,似乎出现了一个新兴的高级珠宝消费群体;年轻女性们正在寻找一些奢华又不太张扬的首饰,适合在她们的日常生活中佩戴。纽约市的一些珠宝设计师们直接迎合了这一市场需求,比如2011年发布了伊娃-费伦(Eva Fehren)系列珠宝的伊娃·扎克曼(Eva Zuckerman),和2013年开设了自己的珠宝精品店的安娜·谢菲尔德(Anna Sheffield)。“I feel like there was something missing in the marketplace not just stylistically or aesthetically, but also from the perspective of the brand value and how that corresponds to the lifestyle of our clientele,” said Ms. Sheffield.“我感觉这个市场里缺了一些东西,不仅是在风格或审美上,从品牌价值的角度、以及从同客户生活方式间的匹配度来看,也是如此。”谢菲尔德说。Her eponymous line, which grew out of a collection of engagement and wedding rings, ranges in price from just 0 for a set of sterling silver Rivet Studs to ,500 for a platinum and black diamond ring named for the deity Astarte. Ms. Sheffield and her staff have noticed that women want jewelry that is beautiful and valuable, and that they can wear everyday, not the heirlooms inherited from mothers and grandmothers.她设计的一款同名珠宝系列,衍生自一组订婚及结婚戒指,其价格范围从仅200美元(约合人民币1253元)一套的纯银饰钉(Rivet Studs),到19500美元(约合人民币12.2万元)一枚、以司育女神阿斯塔蒂(Astarte)命名的黑宝石铂金戒指不等。谢菲尔德与她的同行们都已注意到,女人们都想要既美丽又珍贵、还可以每天佩戴的珠宝首饰,而非从母亲或祖母那里继承来的遗珍。Incorporating high fashion and luxury into daily life is nothing new—the chicest women around the globe have been pairing their most expensive garments with purchases from lower priced brands like Hamp;M and Top Shop for years. Those same women see accessorizing with fine jewelry as another way of incorporating luxury into their daily routines; so they are looking for pieces that fit seamlessly into their active schedules.将时尚奢华的高档物品融入我们的日常生活,这并不是什么新鲜事。多年来,世界各地的时尚女性已经在用她们最昂贵的礼来搭配Hamp;M和Top Shop等价格较低的品牌饰了。也是这些女性,把佩戴高级珠宝也视为另一种将奢华融入日常的方式;于是她们在寻找一些能够完美搭配自己各类日常安排的首饰。Caitlin Mociun, who designs the Brooklyn based line Mociun, said she’s always surprised by the number of young women she sees in fine jewelry doing the everyday things that women of a previous generation would have removed their gems for.在布鲁克林推出了莫辛(Mociun)品牌珠宝的设计师凯特琳·莫辛(Caitlin Mociun)说,她总是惊讶地看到许多年轻女性戴着高级首饰,在从事上一代女性只有摘下珠宝才会去做的那些日常活动。“We’re not just sitting around in our pretty jewelry. Women want to go to their exercise class in their jewelry,” she said. “A lot of fine jewelry is not made for everyday. I have to think about how I can make something that is luxurious and beautiful, but also holds up in their lifestyle.”“我们不只是戴着漂亮的珠宝闲坐着。女人们还想戴着首饰去健身房,”她说,“许多高级珠宝并不是为日常佩戴而设计的。我必须想想怎样才能做出一些既奢华美观,又能契合她们生活方式的首饰。”Ms. Fehren has seen a similar trend with her customers. She said that they are looking to buy pieces that can be worn easily from day in to evening. Her geometric line includes rings and bangles in varying weights, making them ideal for stacking or layering. It pairs unexpected stones, like opaque sapphires and grey diamonds with 18-carat gold.费伦女士也从自己客户身上看到了类似趋势。她说,她们想买的是一些无论日夜均可佩戴的首饰。她的几何系列包括了各种成色的戒指及手镯,非常适合层叠佩戴。首饰上还出其不意地镶嵌着一些宝石,比如不透明的蓝宝石和带有18克拉金的灰钻。“Our customer is looking for designs that are not overly complicated and looks to invest in timeless pieces that complement her overall style,” she said. Her best selling pieces fall into the ,000-,000 range, though some items cost as much as ,000.“我们的客户不想要过分繁复的设计,而是希望投资一些既能保值、又可以衬托自己整体风格的首饰,”她说。她卖得最好的作品,价格介于4000美元(约合人民币2.5万元)至7000美元(约合人民币4.4万元)之间,不过也有一些价格会高达30000美元(约合人民币18.8万元)。And it is women who are doing the investing. Another factor affecting growth in the fine jewelry market is that, more than ever, women are purchasing expensive pieces for themselves instead of waiting to receive the items they covet as gifts on special occasions.而且,在做这项投资的都是女人。影响珠宝市场增长的另一个因素是,女士们比以往任何时候都更倾向于自己购买昂贵的珠宝,而非等待某个特殊场合,才收到这些令她们倾心已久的首饰作为礼物。Rony Vardi, owner of the jewelry boutique Catbird, and Leigh Plessner, the store’s general manager said they see self-purchasing that ranges from small to extravagant. They say that younger women shopping to celebrate a milestone or a hard week at work with mid-priced fine jewelry.猫鹊(Catbird)珠宝精品店的店主罗尼·瓦尔迪(Rony Vardi)与该店的总经理利·普勒纳(Leigh Plessner)都说,他们发现,从小件饰品到奢华首饰,都不乏买给自己的顾客。他们说,一些年轻女士会购买中等价位的高级珠宝,来为自己达到某个里程碑而庆祝,或犒劳自己一个星期的辛苦工作。“Fine jewelry not a stodgy thing that is totally inaccessible. You can own something really beautiful that can be passed down to your kids, and it’s the same price as a pair of really beautiful shoes that you would wear for a few seasons and retire,” Ms. Vardi said by phone.“高级珠宝并不是什么难以企及的老古板物件。你可以拥有这类不仅很美、还能传给你孩子的东西,其价格无非相当于一双非常漂亮的、让你穿上几季就束之高阁的鞋子。”瓦尔迪在电话中说。Catbird, which has developed a cult following by women of all ages, opened in Brooklyn ten years ago. At first, its core business was with women in their 20s, who they say have grown with the brand. In recent years Ms. Vardi and Ms. Plessner noticed women coming to them for engagement and wedding rings, which encouraged them to expand Catbird’s offerings.而猫鹊,已经缔造出了一种让各年龄段女性都趋之若鹜的流行文化。这家珠宝店于十年前在布鲁克林开业。该店最初的核心业务面向的是那些20多岁的女性,后来这些客户与此品牌共同成长。近些年,瓦尔迪和普勒斯纳留意到,有些女士甚至来他们这里看订婚戒指和结婚戒指。这样的需求促使他们扩大了猫鹊经营的品类。“That opened the door. We realized that people wanted to see the higher priced pieces, not just for weddings, but to buy for themselves or as gifts.”“那些需求为我们开启了一扇门。我们意识到,人们想看看价格更高的珠宝,不仅是为婚礼,也有买给自己、或作为礼物的。”Overall sales at Catbird have grown steadily, increasing 21 percent from 2013 to 2014 and 32 percent year to date from 2014 to 2015.猫鹊的总销售额也在稳步增长。从2013年至2014年增长了21%,而2014年到2015年间更是增长了32%。Another New York based designer, Pamela Love, whose costume jewelry brand also saw cult success with young women when it launched in 2007, expanded in to fine jewelry last year.另一位纽约珠宝设计师帕米拉·洛芙(Pamela Love),去年也将经营范围扩展到了高级珠宝首饰。此前,她的廉价珠宝品牌自2007年创立以来,就在年轻女性之间风靡开了。Ms. Love said that her clients are in their 20s to middle 40s, and that many of them hear about the collection, sold exclusively at Barney’s New York, through social media. The label’s Instagram account boasts over 100,000 followers.洛芙说,她的客户群年龄都在20多岁到40多岁之间,其中许多人都是通过社交媒体得知这个只在纽约巴尼斯商店(Barney’s New York)出售的珠宝品牌的。该品牌的Instagram账号目前已经吸引了超过10万粉丝。According to a McKinsey survey, one to two-thirds of luxury shoppers says that they frequently turn to social media for advice.据麦肯锡的问卷调查显示,有三分之一到三分之二的奢侈品购买者称,他们常常在社交媒体上寻求建议。Ms. Sheffield and Ms. Mociun’s brands also have Instagram accounts that serve as a prime space to showcase another element of their businesses that is changing the way young women shop for fine jewelry: their custom made pieces. For both brands the segment still remains mostly dedicated to engagement and wedding rings, though customers often return to have additional pieces made, for themselves or as gifts. Eva Fehren also works with clients on bespoke creations and all three of the brands say that many of their customers bring heirloom stones to have them reset to their taste.谢菲尔德与莫辛的品牌也都有Instagram账号,她们将它作为一处绝佳的空间,来施展他们业务当中的另一项特色:定制珠宝。这一特色务将改变年轻女性购买高级珠宝的方式。对于这两个品牌而言,虽然有些顾客也常来定制一些首饰自己佩戴,或作为礼物送人,但她们的细分市场依然主要集中于订婚和结婚戒指。伊娃-费伦也为一些客户定做首饰,而且这三个品牌的设计师都说,他们有许多客人会把家传的宝石带来,让她们根据自己的喜好重新设计款式。“I have one client who I’m always slowly making something for,” Ms. Mociun said.“有一位客人,我总是会慢慢地为她做些什么。”莫辛说。Each of the New York City based designers said that they plan to continue to grow their fine jewelry business.这几位身处纽约的设计师都说,她们打算不断扩大自己的高级珠宝生意。Ms. Vardi said that the uptick in jewelry sales across the board makes perfect sense.瓦尔迪说,珠宝销售的全线增长说明了一切。“There is something very special about jewelry. Clients are never grumpy when they are buying jewelry. There is no ‘Oh this is going to make me look fat.’ It is a pleasurable and meaningful experience, and I think that increases the value.”“在珠宝行业里,有一件事非常特别。客人们在购买珠宝时从不会怨声载道。他们不会说‘唉,这让我太显胖了’之类的。购买珠宝是一种令人愉悦又很有意义的体验,所以我认为这会让珠宝显得更加宝贵。”她说。 /201504/368570

  导语:端午节(Dragon Boat Festival)为每年农历五月初五,又称端阳节、午日节、五月节等。“端午节”为中国国家法定节假日之一,并已被列入世界非物质文化遗产名录。端午节起源于中国,最初是中国人民祛病防疫的节日,吴越之地春秋之前有在农历五月初五以龙舟竞渡形式举行部落图腾祭祀的习俗;后因诗人屈原在这一天死去,便成了中国汉族人民纪念屈原的传统节日;部分地区也有纪念伍子胥、曹娥等说法。端午节有吃粽子,喝雄黄酒,挂菖蒲、蒿草、艾叶,薰苍术、白芷,赛龙舟的习俗。端午节的历史渊源:农历五月初五是中国的传统节日——“端午节”,端是“开端”、“初”的意思。初五可以称为端五。农历以地纪月,正月建寅,二月为卯,顺次至五月为午,因此称五月为午月,“五”与“午”通,“五”又为阳数,故端午又名端五、重五、端阳、中天、重午、午日,此外一些地方又将端午节称之为五月节、艾节、夏节。从史籍上看,“端午”二字最早见于晋人周处《风土记》:“仲夏端午,烹鹜角黍”。端午节是我国汉族人民的传统节日。端午节的前世今生(1)端午节的前世今生 (2) 弘扬传统文化:端午节端午节的来历:汉语介绍MP3端午节话题的各种英语表达端午祭屈原:传说屈原死后,楚国百姓哀痛异常,纷纷涌到汨罗江边去凭吊屈原。渔夫们划起船只,在江上来回打捞他的真身。有位渔夫拿出为屈原准备的饭团、鸡蛋等食物,“扑通、扑通”地丢进江里,说是让鱼龙虾蟹吃饱了,就不会去咬屈大夫的身体了。人们见后纷纷仿效。一位老医师则拿来一坛雄黄酒倒进江里,说是要药晕蛟龙水兽,以免伤害屈大夫。后来为怕饭团为蛟龙所食,人们想出用楝树叶包饭,外缠丝,发展成棕子。以后,在每年的五月初五,就有了龙舟竞渡、吃粽子、喝雄黄酒的风俗;以此来纪念爱国诗人屈原。千百年来,屈原的爱国精神和感人诗词,已广泛深入人心,故人们“惜而哀之,世论其辞,以相传焉”,因此,纪念屈原之说,影响最广最深,占据主流地位。在民俗文化领域,中国民众把端午节的龙舟竞渡和吃粽子等,都与纪念屈原联系在一起。时至今日,端午节仍是中国人民生活中一个十分盛行的隆重节日。屈原投江双语阅读小故事屈原的故事flash小故事CCTV9报道:屈原家乡庆端午屈原诗词:“沧浪之水清兮,可以濯吾缨;沧浪之水浊兮,可以濯吾足。”屈原被放逐后,在和渔父的一次对话中,渔父劝他“与世推移”,不要“深思高举”,自找苦吃。屈原表示宁可投江而死,也不能使清白之身,蒙受世俗之尘埃。《楚辞·哀郢》英文是个什么样《楚辞·湘夫人》英文版本《楚辞·离骚》绝美翻译屈原《山鬼》端午玩什么:内容主要有:女儿回娘家,挂钟馗像,迎鬼船、躲午,帖午叶符,悬挂菖蒲、艾草,游百病,佩香囊,备牲醴,赛龙舟,比武,击球,荡秋千,给小孩涂雄黄,饮用雄黄酒、菖蒲酒,吃五毒饼、咸蛋、粽子和时令鲜果等。英文探索端午节习俗弘扬传统文化 品味端午习俗佩戴香包苗族龙船节赛龙舟“赛龙舟”英语长什么样端午吃什么:最早出现的端午时食,应属西汉的“枭羹”。《史记》“孝武本纪”注引如淳言:“汉使东郡送枭,五月五日为枭羹以赐百官。以恶鸟,故食之”。大约因为枭不易捕捉,所以吃枭羹的习俗并没有持续下来。锉是端午的主角-粽子,在稍晚的东汉就已出现。一直要到晋朝,粽子才成为端午的应节食品。《风土记》:“五月五日,与夏至同,……先此二节一日,又以菰叶裹黏米,杂以粟,以淳浓灰汁煮之令熟。”同时又有另一种端午节食,称为“龟”也只在晋朝昙花一现,随即销声匿迹。只有《风土记》中称为“角黍”的粽子,因为附会在屈原的传说上,千百年来,成为最受人欢迎的端午节食。端午节吃什么各种粽子都什么样端午习俗之吃粽子端午说粽子 各地粽子英文都长啥样端午习俗之饮雄黄酒端午节的特别美味盛宴韩国端午:韩国的江陵端午祭及与中国端午节的区别。韩国江陵端午祭是一项大型的庆祝活动,它以端午节为契机,紧密结合了韩国民众信仰和农时活动。不同于中国端午节的是,它以韩民族自己的方式,结合韩国民众的需要和审美观,创造了丰富多的内容和形式。韩国怎么过端午端午传说:白蛇饮雄黄现原形的故事纪念伍子胥端午节的第二个传说,在江浙一带流传很广,是纪念春秋时期(公元前770--前476年)的伍子胥。伍子胥名员,楚国人,父兄均为楚王所杀,后来子胥弃暗投明,奔向吴国,助吴伐楚,五战而入楚都郢城。当时楚平王已死,子胥掘墓鞭尸三百,以报杀父兄之仇。吴王阖庐死后,其子夫差继位,吴军士气高昂,百战百胜,越国大败,越王勾践请和,夫差许之。子胥建议,应彻底消灭越国,夫差不听,吴国大宰,受越国贿赂,谗言陷害子胥,夫差信之,赐子胥宝剑,子胥以此死。子胥本为忠良,视死如归,在死前对邻舍人说:“我死后,将我眼睛挖出悬挂在吴京之东门上,以看越国军队入城灭吴”,便自刎而死,夫差闻言大怒,令取子胥之尸体装在皮革里于五月五日投入大江,因此相传端午节亦为纪念伍子胥之日。纪念孝女曹娥端午节的第三个传说,是为纪念东汉(公元23--220年)孝女曹娥救父投江。曹娥是东汉上虞人,父亲溺于江中,数日不见尸体,当时孝女曹娥年仅十四岁,昼夜沿江号哭。过了十七天,在五月五日也投江,五日后抱出父尸。就此传为神话,继而相传至县府知事,令度尚为之立碑,让他的弟子邯郸淳作诔辞颂扬。  孝女曹娥之墓,在今浙江绍兴,后传曹娥碑为晋王义所书。后人为纪念曹娥的孝节,在曹娥投江之处兴建曹娥庙,她所居住的村镇改名为曹娥镇,曹娥殉父之处定名为曹娥江。图腾祭近代大量出土文物和考古研究实:长江中下游广大地区,在新石器时代,有一种几何印纹陶为特征的文化遗存。该遗存的族属,据专家推断是一个崇拜龙的图腾的部族----史称百越族。出土陶器上的纹饰和历史传说示明,他们有断发纹身的习俗,生活于水乡,自比是龙的子孙。其生产工具,大量的还是石器,也有铲、凿等小件的青铜器。作为生活用品的坛坛罐罐中,烧煮食物的印纹陶鼎是他们所特有的,是他们族群的标志之一。直到秦汉时代尚有百越人,端午节就是他们创立用于祭祖的节日。在数千年的历史发展中,大部分百越人已经融合到汉族中去了,其余部分则演变为南方许多少数民族,因此,端午节成了全中华民族的节日。龙的节日说这种说法来自闻一多的《端午考》和《端午的历史教育》。他认为,五月初五是古代吴越地区“龙”的部落举行图腾祭祀的日子。其主要理由是:1 端午节两个最主要的活动吃粽子和竞渡,都与龙相关。粽子投入水里常被蛟龙所窃,而竞渡则用的是龙舟。2 竞渡与古代吴越地方的关系尤深,况且吴越百姓还有断发纹身“以像龙子”的习俗。3 古代五月初五日有用“五丝系臂”的民间风俗,这应当是“像龙子”的纹身习俗的遗迹。结语:关于端午节还有很多的传说和迷思,如白娘子和许仙等等……,这也正是中国传统节日的魅力所在。欢度端午,粽子节快乐!~ /201506/381311

  Can we ever understand the mind of a mass murderer and dictator?我们能够理解一个杀人如麻的刽子手和独裁者的想法吗?The question was raised by Martin Amis at a recent FT event when talking about his latest novel on the Holocaust, The Zone of Interest. In the case of Hitler, Amis argued, it was near-impossible to grasp what lay behind the Nazi leader’s crimes. The killing of millions of innocents for no reason other than blind hatred hovers at the outer edges of – if not beyond – human comprehension. Amis referred to the writings of Primo Levi, a survivor of Auschwitz, who was told by one camp guard: “Hier ist kein warum” (There is no why here). “[T]here is no rationality in the Nazi hatred; it is a hate that is not in us; it is outside man#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;” Levi wrote.最近在英国《金融时报》举办的一次活动中,马丁#8226;埃米斯(Martin Amis)在谈及他关于纳粹大屠杀的最新小说《利害之畿》(The Zone of Interest)时,提出了这个问题。埃米斯认为,就希特勒而言,几乎不可能理解是什么使这位纳粹头子犯下诸多罪行。只因为盲目的憎恨就屠杀数百万无辜的人,这若非超出人类理解能力之外,也至少达到了人类理解能力的极限。埃米斯提到了奥斯维辛集中营(Auschwitz)幸存者普里莫#8226;莱维(Primo Levi)的著作。集中营的一位看守曾告诉莱维:“这儿没有为什么(Hier ist kein warum)”。莱维写道,“纳粹的憎恨没有理性可言;这种憎恨不属于人类的心灵;它已超出了人性的界限……”That problem, however, becomes a lot more complex when dealing with the other mass-murdering tyrant of Europe’s 20th century: Stalin. Amis suggested that it was possible to understand Stalin’s actions, no matter how monstrous his regime may have been. His hatred was inside man.然而,谈及20世纪另一个手上沾满鲜血的欧洲暴君斯大林(Stalin),问题就变得复杂多了。埃米斯认为,不论斯大林政权如何残暴,理解斯大林的行为还是可能的。他的憎恨并没有脱离人的范畴。Stephen Kotkin’s monumental biography of Stalin could be presented as Exhibit A for the Amis thesis. Arguably, Kotkin knows as much about Stalin as any historian: he has aly written an important work on Stalinism viewed from the ground up and has taught Russian history at Princeton University for many years. It is a measure of Kotkin’s powers of research and explanation that Stalin’s decisions can almost always be understood within the framework of his ideology and the context of his times – at least during the early days of power covered by this first book in a projected three-volume biography. There was more often than not a Why in Stalin’s Russia.斯蒂芬#8226;科特金(Stephen Kotkin)这部规模宏大的传记《斯大林》(Stalin)可以作为埃米斯观点的最佳佐。可以说,科特金对斯大林的了解不输给任何历史学家:他已经写过一本探究斯大林主义来龙去脉的重要著作,并且多年来一直在普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)教授俄罗斯历史。归功于科特金出色的研究和解释能力,斯大林的所有抉择几乎都可以在他的意识形态框架下和他所处的时代背景下得到解释——至少第一卷叙述的斯大林掌权早期是这样(传记计划用三卷完成)。在斯大林主政下的苏联,事情在多数情况下是有原因可循的。That is not to say that Stalin’s story is anything but fantastical: how a Georgian cobbler’s son born in an outpost of the Tsarist empire could help shatter the shackles of a 300-year dynasty, emerge as the supreme leader of one-sixth of the world’s landmass, and reshape the destiny of millions. Nor is it to deny the irrationality of the entire Leninist project: that violence, murder and mass repression are permissible today to build a more peaceful and just tomorrow. As Kotkin puts it, Stalin “intensified the insanity inherent in Leninism” – but his actions were mostly sanctified by that ideology.这并不是说斯大林的人生算不上了不起:他出生于沙皇俄国边缘地带的格鲁吉亚,父亲是个鞋匠,而他居然推动俄罗斯摆脱了帝俄持续300年的桎梏,他自己成为一个占世界六分之一面积的国家的最高领袖,改写了数百万人的命运。本书也不是要否认整个列宁主义事业的不合理之处:现在的暴力、杀戮和大规模镇压是可以容许的,只要是为了构建更和平、更公正的未来。正如科特金所写的,斯大林“强化了列宁主义中固有的荒谬之处”,但这种意识形态却基本上让他的行为神圣化了。Soviet historians used to present their past as the onward march of vast, impersonal forces (albeit with some erroneous detours). But Kotkin, building on the recent western historiography of Russia, emphasises the role of accident in Stalin’s times and the primacy of human actors.苏联历史学家将过去的历史描述成各种巨大的客观力量推动的结果(尽管错误地走了一些弯路)。但科特金以近年来西方眼中的俄罗斯历史为基础,强调斯大林时期一些偶然性事件的作用,认为人是其中最重要的因素。In this account, had Lenin and Trotsky been killed early in 1917 – in the same way that Germany’s Communist leaders Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were assassinated in 1919 – there would have been no October revolution. “The Bolshevik putsch could have been prevented by a pair of bullets”, Kotkin writes. Had Stalin died of tuberculosis in the early 1920s then the Soviet Union would not have been brutally frogmarched through the collectivisation of agriculture and forced industrialisation.从这个角度出发,如果列宁和托洛茨基(Trotsky)在1917年初,就像德国共产主义领袖卡尔#8226;李卜克内西(Karl Liebknecht)和罗莎#8226;卢森堡(Rosa Luxemburg)在1919年那样遇刺身亡,十月革命(October revolution)就不会发生了。“两颗子弹就可能阻止布尔什维克(Bolshevik)暴动,”科特金写道。如果斯大林在20世纪20年代就死于结核病,那么苏联就不会被野蛮地驱赶着被迫完成了农业集体化和工业化。So much has been written about Stalin that one might doubt there is much new to say about the man. Library shelves groan with heavy tomes on the Russian revolutionary. But history, like science, advances one obituary at a time.关于斯大林的著作如此之多,以至于我们可能会怀疑关于他的书已经写不出多少新意。关于俄罗斯革命的大部头著作汗牛充栋。但是和科学一样,历史也是随着每次讣告的发表而一步步缓慢前进的。Kotkin has burrowed deep into the archives that opened following the collapse of the Soviet Union and has absorbed much of the recent Russian research on Stalin. His book stretches to almost 1,000 pages; his compendious notes and index make up close to 20 per cent of the length. Describing his work as a marriage of biography and history, Kotkin subjects our previous understanding of Stalin to searing scrutiny and finds much of it wanting.科特金深入挖掘了苏联解体后解封的档案,并吸收了近年来俄罗斯有关斯大林的大部分研究成果。他这卷书将近1000页,其中简明的注解和索引几乎占到篇幅的20%。科特金称自己的书是传记和历史著作的结合体,他将人们之前对斯大林的理解置于放大镜下审视,发现大部分理解存在问题。With a ferocious determination worthy of his subject, the author debunks many of the myths to have encrusted themselves around Stalin. First, Kotkin rubbishes the notion that Stalin was some kind of revolutionary superman, as later portrayed by Soviet propagandists. We learn all about Stalin’s human impulses and medical complaints, and his mass of personal contradictions. Stalin was “an uncanny fusion of zealous Marxist convictions and great-power sensibilities, of sociopathic tendencies and exceptional diligence and resolve”.带着和他笔下人物一样的决绝,作者批驳了许多围绕着斯大林的误区。首先,一些人认为斯大林是某种革命超人(正如后来苏联宣传的那样),而科特金称这是胡说八道。在科特金的书中,我们看到了斯大林作为人的冲动、病痛,和大量自我矛盾之处。斯大林身上“诡异地融合了狂热的马克思主义信仰、强烈的权力欲、反社会倾向、以及异乎常人的勤奋和毅力”。Kotkin is equally dismissive of efforts to explain Stalin’s lust for power through cod psychology. Some historians have made much of the beatings that Stalin endured during his childhood, his early banditry and his sexual conquests. But Kotkin argues that Stalin’s childhood was no more traumatic than those of others of his time. When Stalin was born, the average lifespan for a Russian was just 30 years. His worldview was shaped more by the revolutionary mentality encapsulated by Sergei Nechaev: “Everything that allows the triumph of the revolution is moral.”有人试图通过伪心理学解释斯大林的权力欲,科特金对这种解释同样不屑一顾。一些历史学家在斯大林童年时期遭受的毒打、他早期的匪徒生涯以及他的风流韵事上面大做文章。但科特金认为,斯大林童年时期遭受的痛苦和他的同时代人并无二致。斯大林出生时,俄罗斯人的平均寿命仅为30年。斯大林的世界观更大程度上是由谢尔盖#8226;涅恰耶夫(Sergei Nechaev)概括的革命思维所塑造的:“一切有利于革命取得胜利的事情都是道德的。”Finally, and most substantively, Kotkin dismisses the Trotskyite theory that Stalin betrayed the revolution. In Kotkin’s view, Stalin was Lenin’s faithful pupil. One of the few constants in Stalin’s life was his faith in – and adherence to – Marxist-Leninist theory. A fellow prisoner in a Baku jail in 1908 described Stalin: “Looking at that low and small head, you had the feeling that if you pricked it, the whole of Karl Marx’s Capital would come hissing out of it like gas from a container.”最后,也是最具实质意义的一点是,科特金驳斥了托洛茨基关于斯大林背叛了革命的理论。在科特金看来,斯大林是列宁忠诚的学生。斯大林一生中为数不多的始终坚守的东西就是对马列主义的信仰和忠诚。1908年与斯大林一同被关押在巴库监狱的一名狱友曾这样描述斯大林:“看着那低垂的小小的头颅,你就会有一种感觉,如果用针刺一下,卡尔#8226;马克思(Karl Marx)的整部《资本论》(Capital)都会像瓦斯从瓦斯罐里漏出来一样,嘶嘶地从里面跑出来。”The disciple was true to his teacher. In Kotkin’s view, “Pitiless class warfare formed the core of Lenin’s thought.” Or, as Maxim Gorky wrote, “His [Lenin’s] love looked far ahead, through the mists of hatred.”斯大林这个学生忠于他的老师。在科特金看来,“残酷无情的阶级斗争组成了列宁思想的核心”。或者就像马克西姆#8226;高尔基(Maxim Gorky)所写的那样,“他(列宁)的爱,穿透了仇恨的迷雾,望向遥远的未来”。A similar impulse was evident in Stalin’s decision in 1928 to attack Russia’s richer peasants – or kulaks – and collectivise agriculture. This action, which could only be explained within the “straitjacket of Communist ideology” according to Kotkin, led to the deaths of between 5m and 7m in a horrific famine. Had Stalin’s only concern been to amass personal power – as some have it – he would not have launched such a ruinous campaign. “Right through mass rebellion, mass starvation, cannibalism, the destruction of the country’s livestock, and unprecedented political destabilisation, Stalin did not flinch,” Kotkin writes. That tragic episode in Soviet history is the focus of Volume Two.类似的冲动也明显体现在斯大林在1928年作出的抉择中:打击富农并推行农业集体化。这个造成500万到700万人死于可怕大饥荒的举动,在科特金看来,只能用“共产主义意识形态的思想桎梏”来解释。如果斯大林像一些人那样只顾谋权,他就不会发动这样一场毁灭性的运动。“在大规模叛乱、大规模饥荒、人吃人现象、全国范围的屠宰家畜潮、以及前所未有的政治不稳定面前,斯大林还是没有退缩,”科特金写道。苏联历史上这悲剧的一幕是第二卷的重点。So keen is Kotkin to explain the historical context in which Stalin rose to power that the main protagonist is – at times – strangely absent from the narrative in Volume One. But by the end of the book, Stalin has emerged as the dictator of the Kremlin and will doubtless dominate proceedings throughout the rest of this magnificent biography. This reviewer, at least, is aly impatient to the next two volumes for their author’s mastery of detail and the swagger of his judgments.科特金急于解释斯大林掌权过程中所处的历史背景,以至于在第一卷中,斯大林本人有时会从叙述中消失,这显得有些怪异。但在这卷书的末尾,斯大林已经成为执掌克里姆林宫的独裁者,毫无疑问将是这部宏伟传记接下来叙述的主角。至少,作者驾轻就熟的细节把控和自信的论断,已经让笔者本人迫不及待地想要阅读接下来的两卷。 /201412/348062。

  How to make the perfect omelette Arnold Bennett如何制作美味的阿诺德·贝内特煎蛋EGGS 煎蛋You might think that the omelette part of proceedings was relatively straightforward, but even here, there is room for innovation. While Hugh Fearnley-hittingstall and Nick Fisher#39;s River Cottage Fish Book instructs ers to cook the eggs ust as you would any omelette, most other recipes simply pour the egg in and leave it to set, rather than going for the classic stir and tip technique. Even more unusually, Marcus Wareing, who claims the dish was he first thing I put on the when I took over at the Savoy Grill, goes for two layers of softly set scrambled eggs instead.你可能认为炒蛋的过程相对而言比较简单,但是这里仍然有可以创新的空间。烹饪大师休.弗恩利.惠汀斯托和尼克·费舍尔编写的《 河边小住 》(《River Cottage Fish Book》)这本书指导着读者煎蛋。就像你做任何炒蛋一样,大多数食谱只是倒蛋,把它放好,而没有采用经典的搅拌技术。更不同寻常的是,马库斯.沃宁声称他做这道菜时第一件事,便是拿出适合于两层炒鸡蛋的萨沃伊烤架。 THE FISH 鱼的制作The dish was originally made with smoked haddock, stocks of which were probably in a healthier state in Bennett day. But, as River Cottage observes, it works with almost any smoked, firm white fish, including pollack if you can get hold of it. That fish should be poached very gently indeed, so it remains soft and juicy.这道菜本来是用烟熏鳕鱼,将其放置在班尼特天气情况相对较好的一天里。但是《 河边小住 》(《River Cottage Fish Book》)却表示,几乎可以用任何烟熏的白色硬体鱼类,当然如果你能抓住的话,鳕鱼也行。烹饪过程也应尽量采用小火慢炖。所以它能够保持柔软多汁。THE SAUCES 酱汁This is where things start to get really interesting. According to Simon Hopkinson and Lindsey Bareham’s book The Prawn Cocktail Years, the original recipe is topped with a mixture of hollandaise and bechamel sauces cut with whipped cream. Not only does this require an entire battery of pans and take nearly an hour, but, though delicious, the results are so rich and thick that we struggle to finish one. I would recommend a trip to the Savoy to enjoy one made by someone else, but at home, I’m not sure this is the best option.这就是事情开始变得有趣的地方。西蒙霍普金森和林赛贝尔塞姆合著的书《 鸡尾酒虾年 》(《The Prawn Cocktail Years》)提到原来的秘诀是在顶部淋上奶油酱和调味酱混合包。这不仅需要平底锅集中的电量,还需花费近一个小时,但由于我们竭尽全力做出这道菜,结果也是那么的让人满意。然而我建议你去萨瓦享受别人做的,我相信自制绝不是你最好的选择。CHEESE 奶酪The Savoy and Kerridge recipes are finished with parmesan, River Cottage and Marcus Wareing go for cheddar and Emina suggests gruyere. Cheddar is a little too aggressively cheesy for my liking in such a rich, fishy dish, while the gruyere, though better, is rather sweet. 意大利干酪配萨帕尔玛和凯里吉食谱,埃米纳建议去切达配《 河边小住 》(《River Cottage Fish Book》)和马库斯.沃宁食谱。我喜欢的在这样一个丰富的鱼菜中添加有些刺激的奶酪味的切达干酪,而格律耶尔干酪,虽然更好,却太甜。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/380402

  

  ORLANDO, Fla. — One morning recently, a dozen college students stepped out of the bright sunshine into a dimly lit room at the counseling center here at the University of Central Florida. They appeared to have little in common: undergraduates in flip-flops and nose rings, graduate students in interview-y attire.佛罗里达州奥兰多——近日的一个早晨,十几名大学生从明媚的阳光中走入中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida, U.C.F.)心理咨询中心所在的昏暗房间。乍一看,这些学生身上完全没有共同点:本科生踢拉着人字拖,穿着鼻环;研究生则衣着正式如同正准备参加面试。But all were drawn to this drop-in workshop: “Anxiety 101.”但他们都是被该中心开办的随到随加入的研讨会——“焦虑症101(Anxiety 101)”吸引而来。As they sat in a circle, a therapist, Nicole Archer, asked: “When you’re anxious, how does it feel?”大家围成一圈坐了下来,治疗师妮科尔·阿谢尔(Nicole Archer)问道:“当你焦虑的时候,具体有什么感觉?”“I have a faster heart rate,” whispered one young woman. “I feel panicky,” said another. Sweating. Ragged breathing. Insomnia.“我会心跳加速,”一个年轻女子小声说。“我感到恐慌,”另一个说。还会冒汗,呼吸急促,失眠。Causes? Schoolwork, they all replied. Money. Relationships. The more they thought about what they had to do, the students said, the more paralyzed they became.那么,焦虑的原因有哪些呢?课业,所有的学生都给出了这一;此外还有金钱和人际关系等。越是想着他们必须要做的那些事,他们就越是什么都干不成。Anxiety has now surpassed depression as the most common mental health diagnosis among college students, though depression, too, is on the rise. More than half of students visiting campus clinics cite anxiety as a health concern, according to a recent study of more than 100,000 students nationwide by the Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State.目前,焦虑症已经超越抑郁症成为大学生中最常见的心理健康问题(不过抑郁症也在增加之中)。宾夕法尼亚州立大学的大学生心理健康中心(Center for Collegiate Mental Health at Penn State)近期的一项研究调查了全美的10万多名大学生,发现一半以上的学生到校园诊所就诊时提到了焦虑问题,并视其为健康隐患。Nearly one in six college students has been diagnosed with or treated for anxiety within the last 12 months, according to the annual national survey by the American College Health Association.美国大学健康学会(American College Health Association)的年度全国调查显示,近六分之一的大学生在过去的12个月内曾被诊断为焦虑症或因焦虑症接受过治疗。The causes range widely, experts say, from mounting academic pressure at earlier ages to overprotective parents to compulsive engagement with social media. Anxiety has always played a role in the developmental drama of a student’s life, but now more students experience anxiety so intense and overwhelming that they are seeking professional counseling.专家称焦虑症的原因多种多样,从早年积累下来的学业压力、家长的过度保护到对社交媒体的强迫性依赖等等不一而足。一直以来,焦虑情绪都在从不同程度上影响着学生的成长历程,但现在,越来越多的学生感到这种情绪已经让他们不堪重负,以至于需要寻求专业心理辅导的帮助。As students finish a college year during which these cases continued to spike, the consensus among therapists is that treating anxiety has become an enormous challenge for campus mental health centers.由于学年结束此类病例的数量持续飙升,所以治疗师们达成共识,认为治疗焦虑症已成为校园心理健康中心面临的一项巨大挑战。Like many college clinics, the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services at the University of Central Florida — one of the country’s largest and fastest-growing universities, with roughly 60,000 students — has seen sharp increases in the number of clients: 15.2 percent over last year alone. The center has grown so rapidly that some supply closets have been converted to therapists’ offices.中佛罗里达大学拥有约6万名学生,是全美最大、也是发展最快的大学之一。与许多校园门诊一样,该校的心理咨询和务中心(Center for Counseling and Psychological Services)的客户数量也在急剧增加:仅去年一年就增加了15.2%。由于发展太过迅速,该中心的一部分储物间都被改造成了治疗师的办公室。More students are seeking help partly because the stigma around mental health issues is lessening, noted Stephanie Preston, a counselor at U.C.F.U.C.F.的咨询师斯蒂芬妮·普雷斯顿(Stephanie Preston)指出,前来求助的学生有所增加,一部分原因是人们已经渐渐不再以心理健康问题为耻了。Ms. Preston has seen the uptick in anxiety among her student clients. One gets panic attacks merely at the thought of being called upon in class. And anxiety was among a constellation of diagnoses that became life-threatening for another client, Nicholas Graves.普雷斯顿发现,在她的学生客户中,焦虑症正在增加。有一个学生仅仅因为想到会在课堂上被点名就恐慌发作。对于她的另一个客户尼古拉斯·格雷夫斯(Nicholas Graves),焦虑症是危及他生命安全的一系列疾病之一。Two years ago, Mr. Graves, a stocky cinema studies major in jeans, a T-shirt and Converse sneakers, could scarcely get to class. That involved walking past groups of people and riding a bus — and Mr. Graves felt that everyone was staring at him.格雷夫斯是电影研究专业的学生,他身材矮胖,喜欢穿牛仔裤、T恤和匡威运动鞋。两年前,他几乎无法正常去上课——因为路上要走过人群并乘坐公共汽车,而他总觉得每个人都在盯着他看。He started cutting himself. He was hospitalized twice for psychiatric observation.他开始割伤自己,也曾两次住院接受精神科观察。After some sessions with Ms. Preston, group therapy and medication, Mr. Graves, 21, who sat in an office at the center recently describing his harrowing journey, said he has made great progress.格雷夫斯现年21岁。最近某次他坐在该中心办公室里描述他在路途上的悲惨经历时,他表示经过与普雷斯顿谈话数次,又接受了小组治疗和药物治疗之后,自己已经取得了重大的进步。“I’m more focused in school, and I’ve made more friends in my film courses — I found my tribe,” he said, smiling. “I’ve been open about my anxiety and depression. I’m not ashamed anymore.”“现在我在学校更能集中注意力了,还在电影课上交到了更多的朋友——我找到了我的圈子,”他微笑着说。“我没有避讳我的焦虑症和抑郁症,我也不再因它们而感到羞愧了。”Anxiety has become emblematic of the current generation of college students, said Dan Jones, the director of counseling and psychological services at Appalachian State University in Boone, N.C.阿帕拉契州立大学(Appalachian State University,位于北卡罗来纳州布恩市)心理咨询与务中心的主任丹·琼斯(Dan Jones)说,焦虑已成为当代大学生的典型标志。Because of escalating pressures during high school, he and other experts say, students arrive at college preloaded with stress. Accustomed to extreme parental oversight, many seem unable to steer themselves. And with parents so accessible, students have had less incentive to develop life skills.包括他在内的专家表示,由于高中期间的压力不断增大,学生本身就是带着压力进的大学。很多学生都习惯于父母无微不至的监督,几乎没有自制能力。而且,由于家长总在身边,学生们普遍缺乏学习独立生活技能的动力。“A lot are coming to school who don’t have the resilience of previous generations,” Dr. Jones said. “They can’t tolerate discomfort or having to struggle. A primary symptom is worrying, and they don’t have the ability to soothe themselves.”“很多学生都不具备前几代人身上的那种坚韧品格,”琼斯士说。“他们无法忍受任何不适,也不愿意去努力奋斗。一个主要的症状就是焦虑,而且他们也缺乏安抚自己情绪的能力。”Social media is a gnawing, roiling constant. As students see posts about everyone else’s fabulous experiences, the inevitable comparisons erode their self-esteem. The popular term is “FOMO” — fear of missing out.社交媒体是一个折磨人的、令人不安的存在。当学生看到其他人发布的讲述自己精经历的帖子时,不可避免的攀比心理会削弱他们的自尊。对此,流行的说法叫做“社交控(FOMO, fear of missing out)”。And so personal setbacks that might once have become “teachable moments” turn into triggers for a mental health diagnosis.于是,原本应成为“受到启迪的契机”的个人挫折变成了心理健康问题的诱发因素。“Students are seeking treatment, saying, ‘I just got the first C in my life, my whole life just got shattered, I wanted to go to medical school and I can’t cope,’” said Micky M. Sharma, president of the Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors and head of Ohio State University’s counseling center.美国大学校院心理辅导中心主任协会(Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors)主席,俄亥俄州立大学(Ohio State University)心理咨询中心的负责人米基·M·夏尔马(Micky M. Sharma)说:“学生们来寻求治疗时说着:‘我刚得了这辈子的第一个C,整个人都不好了,我想进医学院啊怎么办,我受不了了。”Anxiety is an umbrella term for several disorders, including social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia. It can accompany many other diagnoses, such as depression, and it can be persistent and incapacitating.焦虑症是几种疾病的总称,包括社交焦虑障碍(social anxiety disorder)和广场恐怖症(agoraphobia)等。它可伴有抑郁症等许多其它疾病,并可能持续存在并使患者丧失正常的行动能力。Students who suffer from this acute manifestation can feel their very real struggles are shrugged off, because anxiety has become so ubiquitous, almost a cliché, on campus.急性焦虑症发作的学生常感到别人对自己的痛苦和困扰不屑一顾,因为在大学校园中,焦虑症已变得如此普遍,人们已经见怪不怪了。Alexa, 18, has been treated for an anxiety disorder since middle school, when she was still feeling terrorized by monsters under the bed. She has just finished her freshman year at Queens College in New York.亚历克莎(Alexa)在初中时仍会被“床底下的怪物”吓坏,从那时起她就开始接受焦虑症治疗。如今18岁的她刚刚在纽约的皇后学院(Queens College)念完大学一年级。If she had a severe episode during a test, afterward she would try to explain to her professors what had happened but they would dismiss her. “They’d say, ‘Your mind isn’t focused,’ or ‘That’s just an excuse,’ ” said Alexa, who wrote her college application essay about grappling with the disorder. She asked not to be fully identified for privacy reasons.要是她在考试期间出现严重的焦虑症发作,之后她就需要试着向教授们解释缘由,但他们很可能并不买账。“他们会说:‘你只是思想不集中,’或者‘你不过是在找借口,’”亚历克莎说,她把自己与焦虑症斗争的经历写在了大学入学申请书里。为保护个人隐私,应她的要求隐去了她的部分身份信息。More often, anxiety is mild, intermittent or temporary, the manifestation of a student in the grip of a normal developmental issue — learning time management, for example, or how to handle rejection from a sorority.不过,在更多的情况下焦虑症状都比较轻微,呈间歇性或临时性,常表现为学生因正常的个人发展问题而苦恼,例如,学习管理时间,或被女生联谊会拒绝后应如何进行心理调适。Mild anxiety is often treatable with early, modest interventions. But to care for rising numbers of severely troubled students, many counseling centers have moved to triage protocols. That means that students with less urgent needs may wait several weeks for first appointments.轻度的焦虑症常可以通过早期、适度的干预来进行治疗。但是,鉴于受到严重困扰的学生人数不断上升,许多咨询中心都采取了分诊措施。这就意味着,情况不太严重的学生们可能需要等待数周才能第一次约见咨询师。“A month into the semester, a student is having panic attacks about coming to class, but the wait list at the counseling center is two to five weeks out. So something the student could recover from quickly might only get worse,” said Ben Locke, associate director of clinical services at Penn State University and the lead author of the Penn State report.“开学一个月后,一个学生准备去上课的时候恐慌发作,但心理咨询中心的候诊名单已经排到二到五周之后了。结果该学生本来很快就可以摆脱的一些阴影可能就进一步恶化了,”宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State University)临床务部的副主任,宾州州立大学报告的主要作者本·洛克(Ben Locke)说。By necessity, most centers can only offer individual therapy on a short-term basis. Ms. Preston estimates that about 80 percent of clients at U.C.F. need only limited therapy.从必要性来看,大多数心理咨询中心只提供短期的个性化治疗就可以了。普雷斯顿估计,在U.C.F.,大约80%的客户只需要接受有限的治疗。“Students are busting their butts academically, they’re financially strapped, working three jobs,” she said. “There’s nothing diagnosable, but sometimes they just need a place to express their distress.”“学生们已经被学业忙得焦头烂额,他们经济拮据,说不定要打三份工,”她说。“他们并不需要什么诊断,有时候,他们只是需要有个地方来发泄一下忧虑的情绪。”Even with 30 therapists, the center at U.C.F. must find other ways to reach more students — especially the ones who suffer, smoldering, but don’t seek help.尽管U.C.F.的心理咨询中心配有30名治疗师,但他们仍需找到其他方式来帮助更多的学生,尤其是那些正遭受着痛苦却闷在心里,不愿意寻求帮助的学生。Like many college counseling centers, U.C.F. has designed a variety of daily workshops and therapy groups that implicitly and explicitly address anxiety, depression and their triggers. Next fall the center will test a new app for treating anxiety with a seven-module cognitive behavioral program, accessible through a student’s phone and augmented with brief conferences with a therapist.像许多大学的心理咨询中心一样,U.C.F.也设置了多种日常研讨会和治疗小组,以直接或间接的方式解决焦虑、抑郁问题及其触发源。明年秋天,该中心将对一种新的拥有七个模块的认知行为疗法应用程序进行测试,学生可以通过手机获取该应用,并可与治疗师进行简短的视频谈话。It also offers semester-long, 90-minute weekly therapy groups, such as “Keeping Calm and in Control,” “Mindfulness for Depression” and “Building Social Confidence” — for students struggling with social anxiety.它还将提供持续整个学期,每周90分钟的小组治疗,例如为疲于应付社交焦虑症的学生开设的“保持冷静和自控”、“抑郁症的正念冥想治疗”和“构建社会信任”疗程等。The therapists have to be prepared to manage students who present a wide array of challenges. “You never know who is going to walk in,” said Karen Hofmann, the center’s director. “Someone going through a divorce. Mourning the death of a parent. Managing a bipolar disorder. Or they’re transgender and need a letter for hormone therapy.”治疗师必须做好准备以应对学生五花八门的问题。“你永远不知道走进咨询室将会是怎样一个人,”该中心的主任卡伦·霍夫曼(Karen Hofmann)说。“有人正在办离婚,有人沉浸在丧父/丧母的悲痛中,有人正接受躁郁症(bipolar disorder)治疗,又或者,来者是个变性人,需要你开个明以进行激素治疗。”Indeed, Dr. Locke and his colleagues at Penn State, who have tracked campus counseling centers nationwide for six years, have documented a trend that other studies have noted: Students are arriving with ever more severe mental-health issues.事实上,洛克士和他在宾夕法尼亚州立大学的同事们追踪全美的校园心理咨询中心已有六年之久,他们实了其他研究早已发现的一个趋势:前来就诊的学生的心理健康问题日益严重。Half of clients at mental health centers in their most recent report had aly had some form of counseling before college. One-third have taken psychiatric medication. One quarter have self-injured.心理健康中心的客户有一半在其最近的报告中称他们在上大学之前就已经接受过某种形式的心理辅导。有三分之一曾接受过精神科药物治疗。四分之一存在自伤行为。The fundamental goal of campus counseling centers is to help students complete their education. According to federal statistics, just 59 percent of students who matriculated at four year colleges in 2006 graduated within six years.校园心理咨询中心的根本目的在于帮助学生完成学业。根据联邦政府的统计,在2006年被四年制大学录取的学生中,在六年内毕业的只占59%。Studies have repeatedly emphasized the nexus between mental health and academic success. In a survey this year at Ohio State’s center, just over half of the student clients said that counseling was instrumental in helping them remain in school.众多研究一再强调心理健康和学业成功之间存在关联。今年在俄亥俄州立大学心理咨询中心进行的一项调查中,只有刚刚过半的学生客户认为心理辅导有助于他们避免辍学。Anxiety-ridden students list schoolwork as their chief stressor. U.C.F.’s center and after-hours hotline are busiest when midterm and final exams loom. That’s when the center runs what has become its most popular event: “Paws-a-tively Stress Free.”深受焦虑症之苦的学生们将课业列为首要的压力源。U.C.F.的心理咨询中心及其非工作时间热线都是在期中和期末考试迫近时最为繁忙。在这种时候,该中心就会开展他们最受欢迎的活动:“治疗犬减压法(Paws-a-tively Stress Free)”。The other afternoon, just before finals week, students, tired and apprehensive, trickled into the center. The majority were not clients.期末考试周前的一个下午,疲惫而惶惑的学生们陆续走进了心理咨询中心。其中大多数都不是该中心的客户。At a tent outside, their greeter was the center’s mascot and irresistible magnet: a 14-pound Havanese, a certified therapy dog whom many clients ask to hold during individual sessions, stroking his silky white coat to alleviate anxiety.等在室外帐篷处,带着不可抗拒的吸引力欢迎他们的是该中心的吉祥物——一条14磅重的哈瓦那犬。这是一条经过认的治疗犬,该中心的很多客户都要求在他们的个人疗程中跟它待在一起,抚摸着它柔滑的白色皮毛以缓解焦虑。“Bodhi!” they called, as he trotted over, welcoming them to his turf with a friendly sniff.“菩提!”学生们叫道。它一路小跑过来,友好地嗅嗅他们,欢迎他们来到它的草坪。For the next two hours, some 75 students visited the center, sitting on floors for a heavy petting session with therapy dogs.在接下来的两个小时中,约75名学生参观了中心,并坐在地板上与治疗犬们共同完成了“亲密爱抚疗程”(heavy petting session)。They laughed at the dogs’ antics and rubbed their bellies. They remarked on how nice it was to get a study break.学生们被的滑稽动作逗得捧腹大笑。他们都说能从学业中得到片刻喘息实在太美好了。On the way out, the students were handed a smoothie and a “stress kit,” which included a mandala, crayons, markers, stress balls and “Smarties” candy.在离开的路上,工作人员向学生们递上了水果冰沙和“压力工具盒”,里面放着曼荼罗绘(mandala)、色蜡笔、记号笔、压力球和“Smarties”糖什么的。Also tucked into the kit was a card with information about how to contact the center, should they ever need something more.工具盒里还塞了一张信息卡,告诉学生们如果他们需要更多的帮助,应如何与该中心取得联系。 /201506/379322

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