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芜湖市中医医院男科专家挂号芜湖男科哪家医院简介弋江区人民医院治疗龟头炎多少钱 芜湖第一人民医院治疗早泄多少钱

三山区妇幼保健人民中医院泌尿外科Jaco likes to compare experiences like this to climbing a pyramid. 杰科喜欢比较像这样爬金字塔经验。As you leave the outside world, 当你远离外面的世界,you gradually shut the accessories and comforts of normal life, 你逐渐远离正常生活的闲逸舒适,progressing to reach this remote spot of isolation in the Kruger.进而来到克鲁格这个遥远如世外桃源的独立地方。But unfortunately, life doesnt work like that. 但不幸的是,生活可不能这样。You cant stay at the top of forever. 你不能总是坐拥美景。Thats about rebalancing life. 这是关于重新平衡生活。You know what goes up must come down.你知道既然上去就必须想办法下来。So, right now, lets enjoy it. 那么,现在,让我们享受。We are on the peak.我们正位于顶峰。So its a big bless you can talk you can do that.这是神圣的祝福,你可以谈天,你可以做想做的事情。Thank you, Jaco. 谢谢你,杰科。Thanks for bringing me onto the top of your pyramid.My pleasure.谢谢带我来到你的金字塔的顶部。荣幸之至。The term, a unique experience, is quite musty and wellworn, 这一次独特的经验,虽然是必须之旅,而且平凡,but there is no doubt that the volet trail is incredibly special. 但毫无疑问,我们的旅程是一次独一无二的特殊之旅。You dont know what youre going to experience, 你不知道自己准备经历什么, what youre going to see, what animal you may encount, and its a liberating freedom. 你会看到什么,你可能会遇到什么动物,这是完全解放的自由。Jaco said to me, when you drive through this country, 杰科对我说,当你开车穿过这个国家,you see the land, but you feel the post of Africa through the soil.你看到的是大陆,但通过土壤能感觉到整个非洲。201308/253634繁昌县前列腺炎多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Marine biology海洋生物学Scents and sensibility气味与识别Turtles love a smell that humans loathe. For them, it means dinner海龟喜欢一种人类讨厌的味道,对它们来说,这表示大餐JELLYFISH may not be most peoples idea of a tasty snack, but if you are a loggerhead turtle, they are top of the .水母或许不符合大多数人对于美味小食的定义,但如果你变成一只红海龟,水母便成了顶级美食。Though jellyfish can swim, they are not exactly the greyhounds of the ocean, so they are easily caught.虽然水母可以游动,但它们可算不上海洋中的快艇,所以要逮它们很容易。And since munching a large jellyfish can keep a turtle going for days, loggerheads love them when they can find them.而吃上一只大水母能让一只海龟维持好几天,所以红海龟一旦发现水母便会大快朵颐。Yum!味道好极了!The best place to do so is in an upwelling zone.上升流区是海龟大快朵颐的最佳地点。This is an area where the winds action draws cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface.在这种区域里,水流会在海风的作用下将富含营养物质的冷水带到海洋表面,That encourages the growth of planktonic algae, and thus of everything that feeds on such plankton, or feeds on what feeds on them—including jellyfish, and also various molluscs and crustacea that loggerheads enjoy as an appetiser.这有利于浮游藻类生长,因此也有利于以这些浮游生物为食的动物,或以这些动物为食的动物生长,包括水母,还有各种各样的软体动物和甲壳动物,这些都是红海龟的最爱。And upwelling zones do, indeed, attract turtles.所以上升流区确实会吸引海龟,But nobody knows how, for such zones are scattered, local and often temporary phenomena, and locating them in the wide expanse of the sea is hard.但没人知道海龟是怎样找到上升流区的,这些区域都是局部性的,非常分散,且常常只是暂时现象,要想在宽广的海洋中找到它们绝非易事。Courtney Endres, a biologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, however, thought the reptiles might be smelling such zones from afar.然而考特尼恩德斯认为两栖动物离很远便能通过气味察觉到上升流区,她是美国北卡罗来纳州立大学的一名生物学家。She knew from an experiment she conducted a few years ago that loggerheads have a good sense of smell.她是从几年前进行的试验中发现红海龟拥有良好的嗅觉。She also knew, because passing sailors frequently comment on the fact, that upwelling zones tend to stink.她还了解到上升流区往往会发出异味,因为经过上升流区的水手们经常会提到这一事实。Specifically, they stink of cabbages.明确的说,是卷心菜的异味。That is because many planktonic algae, when crunched up during the process of being eaten, release a substance called dimethylsulphoniopropionate.这是由于浮游藻类在被吃掉的过程中被咬碎时,会释放出一种叫做硫代甜菜碱的物质,This quickly degrades into another chemical, dimethyl sulphide, which generations of those subjected to unimaginative school lunches will instantly recognise.该物质很快会降解为另一种化学物质-二甲基硫化物,闻到这种物质产生的气味会立刻让人想起千篇一律的学校午餐的气味。But to loggerheads it is the smell of a banquet.但这对红海龟来说是盛宴的气息。Ms Endres and her colleague Kenneth Lohmann showed this by collecting 11 loggerhead hatchlings from local beaches and testing them to see which smells most interested them.恩德斯及其同事肯尼斯罗曼通过实验表明了这点。她们在当地海滩上抓了11只红海龟的幼龟,并测试它们对哪种气味最感兴趣。The young turtles were each put in a tank of seawater that had various scents blown across its surface.每只幼龟被分别放入一个装有海水的水缸中,并将各种各样的气味吹过水面,These included cinnamon, jasmine, lemon—and dimethyl sulphide.包括肉桂,茉莉,柠檬,以及二甲基硫化物。When a turtle came up for air , the researchers recorded how long it sniffed around.当海龟到水面上换气时,研究人员记录了它们露出水面的时间。They found, as they report in Experimental Biology, that the animals spent an average of five seconds breathing air scented with lemon,jasmine or cinnamon, all pleasant odours from a human point of view.他们发现,从人类的角度上看,柠檬,茉莉,或肉桂都是很悦人的气味,而海龟在呼吸含有以上气味的空气时,平均只在水面停留了五秒钟,That was no different from the amount of time they spent at the surface when no scent was used at all.与在其呼吸没有气味的空气时的停留时间没什么不同。When the air was scented with dimethyl sulphide, however, they spent an average of ten seconds breathing in the stinky scent of cabbages—or upwellings.然而在空气中含有二甲基硫的气味时,海龟在这种散发着卷心菜或者说上升流异味的空气中平均停留了十秒钟。该报道刊登在《实验生物学》上。That does not prove that loggerheads smell their way to the table, of course. But it makes the hypothesis plausible.当然,这并不能明红海龟能顺着气味找到它们的餐桌,但是这让以上假设似乎可以说得通。For turtles, it seems, the perfumes of Araby hold little charm.看来阿拉伯香水对海龟也不会有什么吸引力,The scent of cabbages, by contrast, is as attractive as the odour of roasting chicken is to a hungry human.相比之下,卷心菜的气味之于海龟的吸引力就像烤鸡之于饿汉。 /201401/274511芜湖市三山区人民医院泌尿外科

芜湖治前列腺炎Science and technology科学技术Psychology心理Not fair!太不公平啦!Exactly when is something perceived as not fair?究竟在什么情况下人们会觉得不公平?AS THE bankster phenomenon has so eloquently illustrated,Homo sapiens is exquisitely sensitive to injustice.强盗家的现象已经有力地明,人类对于不公平是敏感至极的。Many people grudgingly tolerated the astronomical incomes of financial traders, and even the cosmological ones of banks chief executives, when they thought those salaries were earned by honest labour.过去,许多人对于操盘手高到天上去的收入,甚至是高管天文数字一般的薪酬,虽愠愠不平,但尚能忍耐,他们曾以为这些收入是靠诚实劳动赚来的。Now, so many examples to the contrary have emerged that toleration has vanished.但如今,随着大量反例的出现,公众的忍耐已经不复存在。Surprisingly, however, the psychological underpinnings of a sense of injustice—in particular, what triggers willingness to punish an offender,然而让人惊讶的是,心理学上对于不公平感的成因尚未能做出很好的解释,even at a cost to the punisher—have not been well established.尤其是为何人们不惜付出代价也要惩罚侵犯者。But a recent experiment by Nichola Raihani of University College, London, and Katherine McAuliffe of Harvard, just published in Biology Letters, attempts to disentangle the matter.但是,英国伦敦大学学院的尼古拉·雷汉尼和哈佛大学的凯瑟琳·麦考利夫最近进行的一项实验尝试对这个问题抽丝剥缕,这一实验的结果发表在了最近的《生物学快报》上。Dr Raihani and Ms McAuliffe tested two competing hypotheses.雷汉尼士和麦考利夫女士对两种对立的猜想进行了验。One is that the desire to punish is simple revenge for an offence.第一种猜想认为,惩罚侵犯者的欲望只是一种报复心理。The other is that it is related to the offences consequences—specifically, whether or not the offender is left better off than the victim.另一种猜想则认为这与侵犯的结果有关—具体来说,即侵犯者的境况是否比受害者更好。Until recently, the temptation would have been to advertise for undergraduate volunteers for such a project.一直到最近,像这样的项目往往会通过广告吸引大学生志愿者。Instead, Dr Raihani and Ms McAuliffe decided to follow a new fashion in psychology and recruit their human guinea pigs through a system called Mechanical Turk.但是雷汉尼士和麦考利夫女士决定采取心理学界新近流行的一种方法,借由一个叫做机械土耳其的系统招收他们实验的小白鼠。This arrangement, run by Amazon, a large internet firm, pays people registered with it small sums of money to do jobs for others.这一系统由网络巨头亚马逊公司组织,注册用户为别人工作后可以领到小额的酬劳。That allowed the two researchers not only to gather many more volunteers than would have been possible from the average student body,通过这个系统,两位研究者不仅找到了比普通学生群体更多的志愿者,but also to sp the profile of those volunteers beyond the halls of academe and beyond the age of 21.还得以将志愿者的范围扩大到了学术界以外和21岁以上的人群。Dr Raihani and Ms McAuliffe asked their Turkers to play a game.雷汉尼士和麦考利夫女士请参与实验的特客玩了一个游戏。In it, the volunteers were paired and given small sums of money.在游戏中,志愿者以两人一组一一配对,并各自获得一小笔钱。One member of a pair could then take a predefined sum from the other, or not, as he chose.组里的一名志愿者可以选择是否从另一名组员那里拿走预定数量的钱。After that the other could, at a certain cost to himself, impoverish his opponent to a greater degree.之后,另一位组员在自己付出一定代价的前提下,可以大量减少对方的财产。The first player might receive ten cents, 30 cents or 70 cents.每一组的游戏者甲最开始可能会收到10美分、30美分或是70美分作为起始财产。The second player always received 70 cents.而游戏者乙则总会收到70美分。The first player was then allowed to take 20 cents of the second players money.然后甲被允许先从乙处取走20美分。Finally, the second player could reduce the first players total sum by 30 cents,最后乙可以选择使甲的财产减少30美分,but at a cost of ten cents to himself—in other words, he lost money too by doing so.但是作为代价他自己也必须拿出10美分—换句话说,这么做乙自己蒙受了损失。The crucial point of the game is that in all three cases the second player suffers the same absolute loss if the first chooses to take money from him.这个游戏最关键的一点在于,无论甲的起始财产是多少,只要甲选择拿走乙的钱,乙都要蒙受完完全全的损失。The offence, in other words, is identical.也就是说,不论哪种情况,乙所受到的侵犯总是一样的。But in the first version of the game he remains ahead if he does not retaliate,但在第一种情况中,如果乙不采取反击,他还能保持领先,in the second he comes out equal, and in the third he ends up behind.第二种情况下甲乙平局,而第三种情况中,乙则会以落后告败)。The upshot was that in the first two cases about 15% of second players chose to retaliate if they had money taken.游戏的结果显示,在前两种情况中,只要钱被拿走,15%扮演乙的志愿者会选择反击。This was more or less the same as the number in all three versions of the game who retaliated even though they did not have money taken.而综合三种情况来看,乙在钱没有被拿走的前提下依然选择向对方进行反击的现象也大概占15%。In the third version,但在第三种情况中,though, more than 40% of second players retaliated when money was taken from them—even though the outcome was still that the first player ended up ahead, with 60 cents to the second players 40 cents.一旦钱被拿走,超过40%扮演乙的志愿者会采取反击—即便甲仍然会以60美分比40美分的优势取得游戏的胜利。On the face of things, this result suggests that what really gets peoples goat is not so much having money taken,乍一看,这样的结果意味着真正让人感到愤恨的不是自己的钱被拿走,but having it taken in a way that makes the taker better off than the victim.而是拿走钱的人在拿走钱后财产比受害者多。That will clearly bear further investigation,显然这个结论需要更多的调查加以明,for example by looking at the case where the first player begins the game better off than the second.比如假如从一开始甲的钱就比乙多,结果会如何。It is intriguing, though, that even such trivial sums of money can provoke thoughts of revenge.有意思的是,就是这么不起眼的几十美分也能激发人的报复心理。In light of this, the fate awaiting those astronomically paid bankers could be a particularly nasty one.从这一点看来,等待着那些拿着超高薪待遇的家们的命运颇为险恶。 /201307/250318 The story of human evolution goes something like this:人类进化的过程大概是这样:Millionsof years ago, homo sapiens began to evolve from the prehistoric ancestor we share with ourmonkey cousins.数百万年以前,我们和猿类共同的史前祖先开始进化成智人。First, we evolved the ability to walk upright.最初,我们进化到能够直立行走。Then we began fabricating moreelaborate tools.然后,我们开始制造更为复杂的工具。Finally, around 50,000 years ago,最终,大约在五万年前,we emerged as more or less fully modernhumans with large, fully human brains.人类以与现代人差不多的样子出现了,拥有大而完全的人类大脑。And since then, our craniums and the brains they harborhave stayed pretty much the same.自那时起,我们的头盖骨以及它所保护的脑部几乎保持不变。Except that, according to one study, the skulls of some Americans have actually grown over thepast 120 or so years.除此以外,一项研究称在过去的一百二十多年的时间里一部分美国人的颅骨确实增长了。Specifically, skulls have become larger by about eight millimeters, or a thirdof an inch.具体说来,颅骨增大了约八毫米或三分之一英寸。Which may not sound like much, but the growth theoretically allows for additional brainmatter roughly equivalent to the size of a tennis ball.听起来似乎不多,但这个增长理论上能容下差不多相当于一个网球大小的额外的脑容量。Now, before we go any further, we need to deal with a tricky detail of the study,现在,在我们继续分析之前,我们需要关注这项研究中的一个棘手的问题,namely, that theresearchers looked almost exclusively at skeletons of white Americans.也就是:研究者几乎排除性地只观察了美国白人的骨骼。Why? Because, historically,mainly white Americans had donated skeletons to the collections the researchers studied.为什么?这是源于历史上主要是 美国白人向研究人员捐献了骨骼以供研究之用。So whileit may be the case that the skulls of Americans of many ethnicities have grown, the studyprovides evidence only for one group.因此,虽然由多种族组成的美国人的颅骨可能都在增大,但这份研究仅提供了其中一个群体头颅增大的据。In any case, its not at all clear that larger skulls have translated to larger brains or to greaterintellect.何况,更大的颅骨是否意味着更大的脑部以及更高的智慧,这仍是未知之数。Its also not clear why the skulls the researchers looked at got bigger.并且,研究人员所观察的颅骨增大的原因也仍不清楚。American life haschanged so much over the past century and a half that it will take years of research to begin toidentify possible causes.美国人的生活在过去的一个半世纪发生了如此巨大的变化以至于我们需要多年的研究方能确定可能的原因。But, nevertheless, the observation is interesting as another detail in the complex story of humanevolution.但是,尽管如此,作为人类复杂的进化史上的一个新的发现,这项观察结果还是很有意思的。 201403/280530芜湖冶疗早泻聊镜湖区妇幼保健人民中医院泌尿科咨询

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