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呼兰区人民医院四维彩超多少钱五常市治疗子宫内膜炎哪家医院最好的Science and technology科学技术Crowdfunding science集资科技Many a mickle makes a muckle积跬步致千里These days, anyone can be a scientific philanthropist眼下人人都是科技慈善家NECESSITY, so the proverb has it, is the mother of invention.有句谚语说得好:没有需求,就没有发明。And science is nothing if not inventive.科技失去了创新,就变得一文不值了。So, as conventional sources of money get harder to tap, some of sciences more creative minds are turning elsewhere.所以,当无法轻易获得传统的经济持时,一些有创造力的科研人员便开始寻求新的资金来源。Philanthropic sponsorship of science, particularly in the form of expensive pieces of kit such as large telescopes, or sponsorship for expeditions to far-off places, has been around for centuries.科技慈善资助已有几个世纪的历史,资助形式多为捐赠大型光学望远镜之类的昂贵仪器,或者是为偏远地区的探险提供赞助。But the internet now permits what might be thought of as microphilanthropy.不过在网络的帮助下,如今微慈善也成为可能。Through a technique called crowdfunding, in which members of the public donate small sums to projects they like the look of, the possibility of scientific philanthropy has been extended to those of more slender means.基于一种名为众基金的技术,公众可以给他们看重的项目捐赠小额资金,科技慈善事业已扩大到微薄资金来源。On October 4th, for example, Ethan Perlstein, a pharmacologist at Princeton University, launched a bid on a site called RocketHub to collect 25,000 to study the effect of drugs such as methamphetamine on the brain.例如,普林斯顿大学的药理学家伊桑?浦斯汀,10月4日就在一家名为火箭中心的网站公开招标,募集25000美元的资金用于研究甲基苯丙胺等药物对大脑疾病的疗效,He has until November 18th to raise the money.招标将截止于11月8日。Kristina Killgrove, an anthropologist at the University of West Florida, has aly raised over 12,000 on RocketHub to examine the DNA of Roman skeletons.克里斯蒂娜科尔戈薇是西佛罗里达大学的一名人类学家,她就通过火箭中心网站募集了12000美元用于自己对罗马骸骨的DNA检验。And on another crowdfunding site, Petridish, the California Academy of Sciences offered to name any new species of ant discovered during a conservation project in Madagascar after those who donate more than 5,000 to the enterprise.培养皿网是另一个融资网站,加州科学院就因为通过该网站获得了5000多美元的项目基金,他们完成了为马达加斯加保护项目中发现的蚂蚁新物种命名的工作。Although the crowdfunding of science is not raising the sorts of sums sometimes attracted by those with ideas for things like games, it has aly spawned a couple of specialised platforms of its own.尽管科技融资不再是只有类似的项目才能拿得到资金,但融资过程还是形成了自己的专业平台。Petridish is one.培养皿网就是一例。Another is called Microryza.Microyza也是一个代表网站。And academic institutions are starting to follow the lead taken by the CAS.学术机构都开始模仿加州科学院,募集资金。The University of California, San Francisco, has made a deal with a site called Indiegogo that will allow the universitys charitable status to make money donated via Indiegogo tax deductible.加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校与Indiegogo网站达成协议,提高了他们的会员慈善等级,可以使经网站募集的资金免税。It will launch the first such project later this month.这个月晚些时候将启动他们的第一个项目。Donors can expect no revenue if a crowdfunded science project is successful, of course.捐赠人肯定没想着融资的科学项目成功后他们会获得任何收入。But they can expect to be kept up to date with progress.但他们可以获悉实验的进度。Dr Perlstein has promised to upload all data from his experiments onto a website, for his sponsors to look at.浦斯汀士就承诺会把实验中的所有数据上传到网站,供捐赠人查阅。And even those who are not immortalised in the myrmicine literature, as the CAS proposed, may still get a warm glow from the feeling that they are making a contribution to the advancement of knowledge in a way which was previously open only to philanthropists with rather fatter wallets.在加州科学院的项目里,即使这些捐赠人不会因切叶蚁属文献而流芳千古,但能让他们看到自己为知识进步做出了贡献感到欣慰,因为之前,这种方式只属于那些钱包更鼓的捐赠人。 /201401/271442哈尔滨红十字中心医院挂号网 When you have an itch, you scratch it.痒痒就挠挠。What could be more simple than that? 还有什么比这更简单的吗?Scratching itches is one of our most basic instincts, one which we share with many other animals.挠痒是我们与许多其他动物共同具有的最基本的本能之一。Have you ever stopped to wonder, mid-scratch, exactly why scratching is so effective against itching?但你是否在挠舒的同时停下来想过,为什么抓挠能治痒?Well learn the itchy truth, on todays Moment of Science.我们将在今天的《科学一刻》节目中了解有关发痒的事实,。On the most basic level, scratching is a way to remove whatever irritant might be causing the itch in the first place.从最基本的角度上看, 抓挠首先是一种去除任何可能会导致瘙痒刺激的方式。If an insect is biting you, or you have a patch of dead, flaking skin, scratching has a good chance of getting rid of it.如果一只昆虫咬了你,或者你有一块死皮,皮肤剥落,抓挠很有可能将它弄掉。In this case, its pretty obvious why the scratching works.这样的情况很明显说明了为什么抓挠会有效。Much of the time we scratch, however, it seems to be somewhat after the fact.大部分时间我们总是在真正痒了之后才会去抓挠。Perhaps the mosquito has aly bitten us and flown away, and we are left scratching at the swelling bite.也许蚊子已经吸完血飞走了我们才会抓挠被叮咬的肿胀部分。Clearly this wont get rid of the mosquito.很明显,这不会摆脱蚊子。Is there any good reason for this kind of scratching, or is this just an over-zealous instinct that doesnt realize its too late?但这种抓挠有什么好的理由,或者只是一种不知道太晚的过度本能吗?Actually, this kind of scratching can serve two additional functions.实际上,这样的抓挠可以起到两个额外的作用。First, it can stimulate the irritated tissues and cause extra blood to flow to them.首先可以刺激激扩张组织,使额外的血液流动。This can help your immune system remove whatever itchy substances might be below your skin.这可以帮助你的免疫系统清理在你皮肤下任何可能发痒的物质。Second, it can trick your brain into ignoring the annoying itch.其次是可能会欺骗你的大脑忽略这恼人的痒痒。Your nervous system can generally process only one stimulus from a given area of your skin at a time.你的神经系统通常只能处理一次皮肤特定区域的刺激。If you scratch at an area that itches, this new, greater stimulus can override the itching, effectively blocking it out.如果你抓挠很痒的部位,这种新的、更大的刺激可以覆盖瘙痒,有效地阻止它。 201312/270628哈尔滨阳光医院地址

哈尔滨省三院支持刷信用卡吗Business商业报道Steelmaking in France法国的钢铁制造Cross over Lorraine聚焦洛林The closure of a steelmaking plant annoys the new president钢铁厂的关闭令新总统烦恼AMONG the first visitors to the Elysee Palace after Franois Hollandes victory in the French presidential election last month were trade-union leaders from ArcelorMittals steel factory at Florange, in Lorraine. 上个月Franois Hollande赢得法国总统选举后爱丽舍宫的第一批访客中就有来自洛林Florange地区Arcelor Mittal钢铁厂的工会领袖。The region is the crucible of Frances traditional heavy industry: 此地是法国传统重工业的熔炉:people have been making iron in Lorraine for more than 300 years. 人们在洛林炼铁已超过300年。But the blast-furnace fires started to go out last year when recession slashed demand for steel and forced Arcelor Mittal, 但是当去年的衰退严重削弱了钢铁的需求时,高炉的炉火开始熄灭,the worlds biggest steelmaker by some distance, to start closing its least efficient plants. 几乎是世界最大的钢铁厂ArcelorMittal被迫开始关闭它效率不高的工厂。By October both Floranges furnaces had been snuffed out, supposedly for a year. 10月份时Florange的高炉已经停产,估计持续一年。Last month the company said they would stay cool for another six months.上个月公司说他们将再停炉6个月。The unions fear that they will never be fired up again and that steelmaking on a symbolic site will come to an end. 工会担心公司再也不会恢复生产,具有象征意义的钢铁制造区将终结。After the union leaders visit Mr Hollande asked Arnaud de Montebourg, the minister for productivity, 与工会领袖会晤后,Hollande先生要求生产部长Arnaud de Montebourg 找一个专家评估Florange的前景,to get an expert to review the prospects for Florange and to request the governments of Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and Spain to “act together vis-a-vis ArcelorMittal”—whatever that means.同时要求比利时,德国,卢森堡和西班牙“共同行动vis-a-vis ArcelorMittal”-不管那意味着什么。Union fears are probably well founded: 工会的担心可能成真:ArcelorMittal has labelled Florange and its plants at Liege, in Belgium, “non-core”. ArcelorMittal已经把Florange和它在比利时Liege的工厂标记为“非核心”。The company has aly started the cumbersome, two-year process needed under Belgian labour law to close Liege permanently. 公司已经开始周转不灵,按比利时劳动法永久关闭Liege需要2年时间。Although it describes the Florange shutdown as temporary, it plainly wants to close that plant for good too, although it is loth to say so in public.尽管Florange的关闭被说成是暂时的,但很明显公司也想永久关闭该工厂,只是它不愿公开这么说。With overcapacity in Europe and consolidation worldwide, only modern, coastal steelworks can compete. 随着欧洲生产过剩和世界范围内的兼并,只有现代化的,位于海边的钢材有竞争力。Older, inland sites, originally built atop iron-ore mines, are now seeing the world pass them by. 较老的,位于内陆的,起初建在铁矿附近的钢厂现在已经落伍了。Pressure to close less efficient plants has increased since Arcelor and Corus, both European firms, were merged into the global Mittal and Tata empires in the past five years and since recession put an end to a steel boom.自从两家欧洲公司Arcelor和Corus在过去5年被global Mittal和Tata帝国合并,自从衰退结束了钢铁业的繁荣,关闭效率低下的工厂的压力增加了。But the Florange site has more than just blast furnaces: 但是Florange不仅仅有高炉: they employ only about 500 workers out of a total of 2,700. 高炉只雇佣了总数2700人中的500人。The rest are in rolling mills that prepare finished steel for the car and construction industries or in research and development. 其余的人轧钢厂工作,轧钢厂生产用于汽车,建筑工业的精炼钢,其中一部分人从事研发工作。With the blast furnaces shut, steel slabs are shipped inland from the companys coastal furnaces at Dunkirk. 高炉被关闭后,钢厚板由公司位于敦刻尔克的海边钢厂运到内陆来。But that in turn is less efficient than doing everything at integrated coastal sites, such as Dunkirk, which import ore at one end and roll out finished steel at the other. 但是那样做与把所有工作都集中于沿海地区相比低效,比如在敦刻尔克,一端输入铁矿石,另一端产出精炼钢。So the fear is that in the long term even the rolling mills at Florange are doomed.因此令人担心的是长期而言Florange轧钢厂的关闭是不可避免的。Since the first blast furnace closed last summer the workers have been mounting periodic protests in Florange and in Paris. 自从去年夏天第一座高炉关闭以来,工人们定期在Florange和巴黎举行抗议。The accession of Mr Hollandes Socialist government has brought them powerful friends, or at least demonstrative ones: Hollande先生的社会党政府的上任使他们有了强大的朋友,或至少表明了这一点:Aurelie Filippetti, the minister of culture, turned up outside the mill to toast the protesters with champagne.文化部长Aurelie Filippetti出现在工厂外用香槟向抗议者敬酒。Meanwhile, Arcelor Mittal says it has had no contact with the Elysee Palace. 同时,ArcelorMittal表明他没有接触爱丽舍宫。The company, which has its headquarters in London and Luxembourg, employs 300,000 people—20,000 in France, where it is a leading foreign investor. 公司分别在伦敦及卢森堡拥有总部,共雇用了300,000人-20,000人在法国,对法国是个重要的投资者。Its foreign ownership may be one reason why it is under fire from the new government, but French firms could also be shot at, 它的外国投资者身份可能是它被新上台的政府攻击的一个原因, once this months parliamentary elections are out of the way. 但是一旦这个月的议会选举出现异常,法国公司同样可能被攻击。PSA Peugeot-Citren, Air France-KLM and Carrefour are on a long list of firms said by unions to be preparing to announce mass redundancies.PSA Peugeot-Citren, Air France-KLM和Carrefour公司都在工会传出的准备进行大规模裁员的一长列的公司清单中。 /201307/247557哈市阳光医院网上挂号 七台河市人民医院在线咨询

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