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来源:好诊疗    发布时间:2019年08月26日 00:58:25    编辑:admin         

Italian politics意大利政治The ex-Cavaliere is back on his horse骑士归来A favourable court judgment for the former prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi, may help Matteo Renzi shake up Italy对于前总理西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼让人信的判决可能会帮助马泰奥·伦齐掌控意大利FEW events in Italys recent history have had a more crushing effect on morale than the wrecking of the Costa Concordia, an Italian-owned and skippered liner that capsized off the island of Giglio in January 2012. The giant vessel foundered with the loss of 32 lives as Italy, battered by years of economic stagnation even before the euro-zone crisis, seemed bound for default on its vast public debts. Silvio Berlusconi had just resigned as prime minister, internationally derided for his “Bunga Bunga” sex parties and relationship with a young Moroccan, Karima El-Mahroug. Confirmation that the Costa Concordias captain, Francesco Schettino, had left the ship before completing its evacuation prompted a bout of mortified soul-searching.在意大利近几年的历史上,很少有事件的轰动性能超过2012年1月意属豪华邮轮Costa Concordia 在吉廖岛附近触礁沉没的事故。这艘满载财富的邮轮同时也带走了32个意大利人的生命,由于多年来一直遭受经济停滞的影响,意大利在欧元区危机爆发之前就似乎已经开始拖欠巨额的债务。不过前总理西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼的事件显然是个例外,当时他已经辞去了总理一职,全世界都在嘲笑他荒诞的性爱聚会以及他和洛哥雏妓卡莉玛·艾尔·马罗格。可以确认的是,在邮轮完成疏散之前,船长已经提前逃离了邮轮,这一行为引起了人们对于人性的深刻反省。The removal from Giglio on July 23rd of the refloated, if rusty, hulk was thus more than a triumph of salvaging skill and technology: it eased a huge symbolic weight from the national psyche. And it coincided with what Matteo Renzi, the newish prime minister, called “the start of a process of profound change”. On the same day,Italys upper house began voting on amendments to a bill to reduce the senate from 315 members to 100 and fill it with lawmakers from municipal and regional government or presidential appointees rather than elected representatives. The reform will remove a big obstacle to effective government inItaly: the “coequal” powers of its upper and lower houses, which result in legislation frequently bouncing between chambers. The proposed new senate will have drastically reduced legislative powers.对于吉廖岛附近沉船的转移从7月23日船只再度浮出水面时开始,如果一切顺利,这堆笨重的废铁就不仅仅象征着救灾技术的巨大成功:同时也让整个国家的精神如释重负。同时这也和新晋总理马泰奥·伦齐宣扬的“伟大变革的开始”保持一致。同一天,意大利上议院开始就关于将参议院315个席位减少到100个的提案进行投票,该提案还将在参议院中增加来自地方立法机构,政府或者是总统指定的一些人员,而不是像之前那样全部通过选举产生。这些改革将会为建立强而有效的意大利政府扫除很多障碍。而对于上下议院权力的平衡行为最常导致的结果就是议院之间关系的动荡。而新推行的一系列政策将彻底削弱立法机构的权力。For some critics, particularly in the populist Five Star Movement, this is a lurch towards authoritarian government. Others complain the reform enhances the influence on national politics ofItalys often corrupt regional governments. Recent days have seen claims that the deputy governor of Lombardy gave a consultancy contract worth 16,000 a year to his chauffeur and the arrest of a former governor of neighbouring Veneto, accused of taking millions for licences to build the barriers that will protect Venice from flooding.对于一些家来说,这些改革意味着形势陡然转向独裁主义政府。其他人则抱怨这些举动可能会对国家政治中一直存在的地方政府贪污现象带来不好的影响。近期我们已经能看到不少负面报道了,诸如伦巴第大区的副总裁将一个年薪1.6万欧元的顾问职位交给了他的私人司机,还有对邻近的威尼托区前管理者的逮捕,罪名为擅自挪用了用于修建防洪设施的资金,且数额高达数百万之巨。Some also argue that Mr Renzi should have secured a broader consensus before submitting his bill to parliament. Around 7,850 amendments have been tabled in the senate alone. Maria Elena Boschi, the minister sponsoring the bill, claimed the amendments would “make us work an extra week and lose a bit of holiday”. But the reform has much further to go than the Costa Concordia. Ansa, a news agency, calculated that vetting the senate amendments could take three months. Then the bill must go to the chamber, and again to both houses. Another objection, surprisingly rarely heard inItaly, is that its legislators time might be better spent on its still-moribund economy: last week, the Bank of Italy forecast GDP growth of just 0.2% for this year.同时还有部分人主张伦齐应该在将修正案提交之前获得更多的持。现在已经有大约7850个修正案提交到了参议院。参议院官员玛利亚·艾琳娜·施在持这些议案的同时表示“这将会让我们额外多工作一周时间并且失去一些假期。”但是相比对Costa Concordia 邮轮的施救行动而言,改革需要更多的时间来完成。新闻机构Ansa表示整个改革将用掉大约3个月的时间。这些提案必须先移交到内阁,接着再次回到上下议院进行讨论。另一种令人震惊且稀有的反对言论表示,意大利立法机构应该更着重于奄奄一息的经济状况—上周,意大利国家的报表预测今年的国内生产总值仅有0.2%的增长率。The proposed reform is the fruit of a pact in January between Mr Renzi and Mr Berlusconi, who still leads the second-biggest party in the senate. The bills prospects of approval were greatly enhanced when, on June 18th, a court inMilanupheld the media tycoons appeal against his convictions for allegedly paying for underage sex with Ms El-Mahroug and misusing his authority to try to conceal their relationship. Seen through the eyes of Mr Berlusconi and his supporters, who regard the judges as puppets of the left, the successful appeal showed Mr Renzi was honouring his side of a bargain implicit in the January deal.这些提出的改革措施实际上是1月份伦齐与贝卢斯科尼之间协议的过时。即便麻烦缠身,贝卢斯科尼依然领导着参议院中第二大的政党。在6月18日,米兰法庭表达了对广大媒体团关于贝卢斯科尼指控的上诉后,这些提案通过的几率大大增加。在贝卢斯科尼和他的持者看来,这些判决无疑是受左翼政党控制的,而这次成功的上诉则是伦齐在极力维持他在一月份与贝卢斯科尼之间达成的协议。Mr Berlusconi had been sentenced to a year in prison on the vice charge, and six for abusing his position. That he was acquitted of the first charge was unsurprising: even some of his critics thought the evidence was inconclusive. But although many felt his sentence on the other charge was excessive, few expected an acquittal. It is widely accepted that the then prime minister telephoned police inMilanto get Ms El-Mahroug released after she was detained, suspected of theft. The former prime ministers lawyer said the verdict went beyond his “rosiest expectations”. Mr Berlusconi was “deeply moved” and even praised the “vast majority of judges”.贝卢斯科尼因为不道德的行为被判处一年监禁,因滥用职权被判6年。一点也不让人惊讶,他的首要指控被宣布无罪,即便是一些批判他的人也认为那些所谓的据是模棱两可的。但是,尽管所有人都觉得对于他其它罪行的判决有点过于严厉,但是几乎没有人希望他能无罪释放。众所周知,在那位雏妓因为偷窃而被米兰警方拘留时,贝卢斯科尼曾致电当地警局要求释放该女子。前总理的律师表示,陪审团的裁决已经超乎了他最“美好的期盼”,贝卢斯科尼也被“深深感动了”甚至还赞扬了“大部分公正的法官。”The court has yet to give its reasons, but the way it framed its ruling suggested it had no option but to clear Mr Berlusconi of the misuse of authority charge. In 2012, barely noticed by the public and scarcely reported in the media, Mario Montis government, which succeeded Mr Berlusconis, abolished the offence for which the former prime minister had been indicted. In its place, two new ones were created, together with a gap between them into which, Mr Berlusconis lawyers argued, his conduct fell. As some commentators now recall, Mr Montis government relied for survival on the support of Mr Berlusconis followers.法院还未给出了自己的理由,但是它的裁决表明了它除了能洗清贝卢斯科尼渎职的罪名之外并有其他的能力。2012年,很少有公众和媒体注意到马里奥·蒙蒂的政府成功掩护贝卢斯科尼销毁了法院对他的两项指控。所以现在一些者回想起来认为蒙蒂的政府是要依靠贝卢斯科尼的党羽们才能苟延残喘。The 77-year-old Mr Berlusconi cannot run for public office again because of another conviction for tax fraud, which also led to his being stripped of his knighthood. And the prosecutors in the ‘Ruby case are likely to seek a final ruling from the supreme court, which could yet decide that the former prime minister is guilty of one or other offence. But the decision of the Milancourt has nevertheless given Mr Berlusconi renewed influence over the fortunes of Italy. As Il Messaggero, a Rome daily, put it, lex Cavaliere rimonta a cavallo, the ex-knight is back on his horse.不过77岁的贝卢斯科尼依然不能正式回归政治,因为他同时还因为一些税务问题遭到指控,这同时也剥夺了他的“骑士身份”。同时,“粉红事件”的公诉人有可能转而向最高法院寻求最终判决,因为最高法院依然裁定前总理因为一个或更多的原因有罪。不过,无论如何米兰法院的判决都帮助贝卢斯科尼再次赢得了对意大利未来的影响力。就如一份罗马日报—Il Messaggero 表达的那样:骑士马前复出,落魄骑士再度归来。 /201408/319089。

Business商业报道EU telecoms regulation欧盟电信规制Kroes control克洛伊持大局The digital commissioner proposes a single market to speed up Europe数字委员会提出单一市场来加速欧洲电信网络EUROPE wasnt always a digital laggard.欧洲也不总是一个数字界落后者,Its telecoms operators were far quicker than Americas to build 3G mobile-telecoms networks.就拿建立3G手机电信网络来说,欧洲的电信营业商比美国的要快很多,Nokia once made the worlds coolest mobile phones.且诺基亚也曾生产过世界最酷的手机。But the old continent has fallen behind. Only a quarter of the European Unions people have access to new 4G networks, according to the European Commission.只是古老的欧洲大陆还是落后了。据欧委会信息,欧盟内仅有四分之一国民能使用4G网络。In America a single company, Verizon, reaches nine out of ten.而美国的威瑞森电信,其电信网络的覆盖率达到十分之九。South Koreas broadband speeds leave Europe standing.韩国的宽带速度也远超欧洲。Apple and Samsung make todays palmfuls of desire.苹果,三星促使了今天人们对于网速的渴求。Neelie Kroes, the commissioner overseeing Europes digital agenda, thinks crisper connectivity would be a boon not just for the EUs telecoms industry and its consumers but for the unions entire economy, from transport to health care.欧洲的数字议程由欧委会委员尼莉叶·克洛伊监管着,她认为较弱的连接不仅对欧盟电信行业和其使用者有好处,整个欧盟的经济,从运输到医疗都能受益。On September 11th Ms Kroes published a plan, in the shape of a draft regulation, to bring Europe up to speed.9月11日,克洛伊女士以草案形式拟出一项提议来加速欧洲电信网络,The regulation is subject to approval by both the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.并得到了欧洲议会和部长理事会的认可。Ms Kroes proposes a single market in an industry that still runs on national lines.克洛伊女士提议以务国内线路为主,在通信行业内实行单一市场。Plenty of operators serve several EU countries.在欧洲,大量的电信运行商同时为几个欧盟国家务,But none operates in more than half of the 28 states, each of which has its own regulator and rules.但是对于欧盟里,拥有自己规章制度的28个国家,没有哪一个运行商的客户国超过一半。The prices that network owners may charge competitors to rent copper wires vary by a factor of three.网络持有者对竞争者们网线收费价格的变动受三个因素的影响,Spectrum prices for 4G vary by a factor of 50.4G的光谱价格的变动因素增加到4倍,Retail prices differ widely too.零售价格也大不相同。Europeans pay extra to make calls to other EU countries or to use their phones abroad.欧洲人打垮国电话或者在国外使用手机都会被收取额外费用。Many travellers turn off data roaming to avoid being stung.许多游客会选择关闭漫游以避免额外收费。The commissioner wants to make it easier for telecoms operators to enter new markets.克洛伊希望能让电信运营商进入新的市场变得简单一点,A license in one country should be good in all.一个国家的许可也能够在他国通用。Future allocations of spectrum should be standardised,to make a pan-European business easier to plan.将来光谱的配给应标准化,以使泛欧洲商业能简单计划,Regulators should also facilitate sharing and trading of spectrum.而监管者也需帮助光谱的分享和交易。But the idea is not to favour entry regardless of all else.但是这个构想不是偏好某一项而不顾其他。To encourage investment in fast fibre-optic broadband,Ms Kroes recommends stabilising the prices that incumbent operators can charge entrants for renting older, slower copper wires.为了鼓励在以光导纤维为主体的快速宽带的投资,克洛伊女士建议增加现有运行商对新入网者在租用更老,更慢网线的费用。If fees are too low, entrants will undercut the whizzy new networks.如果费用过低,新入网者就会减少使用新网络的人。For consumers, the most eye-catching proposal is to scrap roaming fees, as Ms Kroes has long wanted to do.对使用者而言,提议中最吸引眼球的就是免掉漫游费,这也是克洛伊女士一直希望看到的。Operators will be encouraged to allow them to roam like at home—paying nothing extra for data or calls when they are abroad.运营商受到鼓励,允许那些游客像在国内一样使用网络,不会因为漫游或者跨国电话而被多收费。Companies with such deals will escape another rule, obliging them to let customers use another provider when they travel.而采取了本项提议的公司也免除了另外一项制度,即使用者在旅游时不必更换运营商。Calls from home to other EU countries will be charged at domestic rates.跨国电话也将按国内标准收费。Ms Kroes also says she will protect net neutrality.克洛伊女士还表示,她会保护网络中立,By this she means banning operators from blocking services, as some mobile firms do to internet voice calls, for example.也就是说,禁止运营商妨碍务,就像有些手机公司对网络语音通话所做的。But she will allow operators to charge more for better service, such as higher speed.但是对于更好地务,运营商可以收取更高费用,例如,更快的网速。This is also a thorny subject in America:这也是美国电讯通信的一大痛:lawyers for Verizon and the Federal Communications Commission, a regulator, had a preliminary skirmish in court this week.本周,威瑞森电信的律师代表跟监管机构,联邦通信委员会在法庭发生小争执。Consumers will doubtless be delighted at not having to fork out for checking e-mail or consulting online maps whenever they cross a border.毫无疑问,使用者会很开心,无论什么时候出国查收e-mail或者翻阅网络地图,也不用付费了。Mobile operators are grumbling at that. Incumbent broadband firms should like the copper-price idea.移动运营商却是对此有些牢骚,而现有的宽带公司应该是喜欢铜线方案的。Ms Kroes is right that Europes telecoms markets are too fragmented.对于欧洲电讯通信行业的碎片性,克洛伊女士的观点很正确,But pan-European licensing may not help much.但是泛欧洲许可并不能起很大作用。Most operators and analysts think that mergers inside borders are a likelier route.大部分运营商和分析家认为,更有可能实行国内合并这一方案。Several deals have been agreed or mooted in recent months, notably in Germany where, if regulators allow Telefónica of Spain to buy Dutch-owned e-Plus, the number of mobile operators will be reduced from four to three.近几个月来,一些观点已经获得同意或者提出了,尤其是在德国,如果德国的监管机构允许西班牙电信购买荷兰持有的e,那么移动运营商的数目会有4减少到3。In more concentrated markets Europes operators would probably be more profitable.在更加集中的市场,欧洲的运营商很可能获利,That, they argue, would give them the incentive to build the infrastructure Europes politicians demand.有人分析说,这是因为在这样的市场氛围里,运营商会更加有动力去建立基础的欧洲政治家们的需求。The snag is that this might mean higher prices, too: Americans may have faster networks, but they pay a lot more.但问题是,这也意味着更高价格。美国人能拥有更快的网络,但是他们付的也更多,On that, Europes regulators are likely to be much less keen.欧洲监管机构不太可能喜欢这种方式。 /201309/256725。

Well, you know what they say.人们常说,A woman will marry the manwho reminds her of her father, and a man will marry a womanwho reminds him of his mother.女人会嫁给让她想起自己父亲的男人,男人会娶让他想起自己母亲的女人。Well were hardly the only animals to choose mates based onour early social interactions.当然,人类并不是唯一以早期的社会交往为基础选择配偶的物种。In fact, though worlds away fromus as a species, some female wolf spiders also make theirmating choices on the basis of familiarity.实际上,同看整个世界,除了人类这一物种外,雌性狼蛛也是以熟悉程度来选择配偶的。Male wolf spiders run the gamut in physical appearance.从外形上看,雄性狼蛛形形色色。They can vary in color and in hairiness.他们的颜色及绒毛都各不相同。Whats interesting is that there isnt a general preferred look among females,有趣的是,雌性狼蛛在选择配偶时根本没有什么偏爱的外形特征。but instead, femalesprefer males who look like males they encountered when they were young and sexually immature.相比而言,雌性狼蛛更喜欢选择那些看起来像是她们在年轻的时候或尚未性成熟时所遇到过的雄性狼蛛作为配偶。In fact, some female wolf spiders prefer familiarity to the extent that they will often eat a malesuitor that doesnt fit that profile.事实上,雌性狼蛛偏爱“熟人”已经到了这样的地步—她们通常会将那些陌生的“追求者”吃掉。The wider her range of familiarity with different looking males,the more discriminating a female is, and thus more likely to devour a male who looks unfamiliar.雌性狼蛛所碰到的外形不同的雄性狼蛛越多,她的辨识能力越强,她吃掉外形陌生的雄性狼蛛的几率就越高。The influence social experience has on the female wolf spiders mating choice is almost unheard ofamong invertebrates.在无脊椎动物这一群体中,社会经验对雌性狼蛛择偶的影响可说是闻所未闻的。This spider challenges what we thought we knew about arachnids andinvertebrates.狼蛛的这一特性也挑战了人类对蛛形纲动物及无脊椎动物的认知。201406/302918。

Not much is clear.不是非常清楚。Spending time with him has been an opportunity to relish.与他共同度过一段时光已经是一次释怀的机会。So often is the traveler experiences can seem a little package,所以旅行者的经历通常被看作是一个小包裹,but as Jaco leads me up the bare rocks to our final viewpoint,但是随着领导杰科带我跋山涉水最终来到一处景点。theres no doubting what a wild and unpackaged destination South Africa can be.毫无疑问南非就是野生及天然的理想目的地。Look at these views!看看这些美景!One of my favourite places.这是我最喜欢的地方之一。Not difficult to see why.美不胜收。Look there, you can see the camp.Yeah.看那里,你可以看到营地。You can see the was staying.你可以看到。Best of all, you can see all just voluntary area.最好的是,您可以看到所有的自愿地区。You know, its just less.你知道,这只是更少。This vast vista untouched by the modern world is the pinnacle of my journey into the wilderness.这片现代世界未曾涉足的巨大的地区就是我到野外去的旅程。201308/253632。