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Being a teenager is hard. And so is living with one, Im told.我被告知 作为一个青少年不容易 和青春期的人在一起生活也不容易No human gets to escape this moody, angsty, confusing phase没有人能逃避开这段情绪化的 焦虑的 迷茫的时期And interestingly, such an extended adolescence is unique to humans.有趣的是 这样一段延长的青春期是人类独有的Other animals grow up a lot faster than we do.其他的动物成长速度比我们快得多And you may think our teen years are just about streamlining bodies for baby making,你也许认为我们的青少年期只是在长身体以繁衍后代but as it turns out, the storm of sex hormones that we associate with the teenage years,但事实明 青春期时性荷尔蒙的大爆发are only a small part of whats really going on in the teenage body.只占那时身体变化的一小部分Most of the action, it turns out, is happening in the brain.大部分的变化 发生在大脑Until fairly recently, we thought that the brain finished the nuts and bolts of its development,直到最近 我们还认为大脑已基本发育完全by the time we started kindergarten. But really,在我们开始上幼儿园的时候 但事实上when puberty starts, it undergoes massive remodeling.当进入青春期 大脑会开始大规模地重塑This amounts to several years of neural growing pains, as well as the这意味着长达数年的神经成长的烦恼other more visible growth thats going on all over your body. So take heart!以及其它你身体上下更易见的成长变化 所以振作起来!Whether youre going through it now, or about to go through it,不管你是正在经历青春期 还是正要经历or count yourself among the veterans of that turbulent decade,或是认为自己在那混乱的十年里已是个老手know that the result of the teen years is a stronger, faster, more sophisticated brain.你要知道最后你将有一个更强壮 更快速 更精密的大脑If there were someone that told me twenty years ago...如果二十年前有人这样告诉我就好了……Lets start with that obvious scapegoat of adolescent anguish, hormones.让我们从看上去是导致青春期烦恼的罪魁祸首 但其实是“替罪羊”的 荷尔蒙 说起That word itself, is kind of a lazy shorthand that people use这个单词本身 即是一种偷懒的简易表达to describe the chemicals that some glands secrete, that can affect our behavior.是人们用来描述从一些腺体分泌的 可以影响我们行为的化学物质But the fact is, hormones have all kinds of jobs that have nothing to do with where you grow hair,但事实是 荷尔蒙有诸多作用 但不能决定你在哪里长毛发or what turns you on, or whether you feel glum for no apparent reason不能使你“性奋” 也不会让你不明原因地觉得沮丧Hormones keep your heart beating, and your body hydrated, and they make your organs grow,荷尔蒙使你的心脏保持跳动 保持身体水分 使器官生长and make you grow bone, and muscle, and skin!使你生出骨头 肌肉与皮肤What people actually mean when they talk about teenage hormones, are sex hormones.当人们谈论“青春期荷尔蒙”时 他们实际上指的是性荷尔蒙And yes, puberty involves a whole series of sex hormones storms,是的 青春期包含一整个系列的性荷尔蒙爆发the first of which actually kicks in before youre outta Primary School.最早的性荷尔蒙分泌实际上在你小学毕业前就已开始Thats when the Adrenal glands start secreting androgens, which triggers the growth那时肾上腺开始分泌雄激素 从而引起in activity of the skins sebaceous glands, making skin more oily.皮脂腺的生长加速 使皮肤变得油腻Soon enough, more apocrine or sweat glands get activated increasing body odor.很快 更多的分泌腺或汗腺活跃使得身体气味增加Then comes the waves of hormonal agents that start activating the gonads.然后大量的荷尔蒙开始促进生殖器官的发育For boys, this influx of luteinizing hormones from the pituitary gland, get testosterone from the testes,对于男孩 从脑垂体大量涌入的促黄体生成素 促进睾丸大量分泌睾丸素and suddenly, that guy has up to fifty times more testosterone than he did before puberty.一下子 那家伙获得了比青春期前多50倍的睾丸素This also changes the shape of the male body, promoting hair growth, and building up lean muscle mass,这也改变了雄性的身体 促进毛发生长 塑造肌肉线条just as the increased presence of estrogen in girls rearranges the deposition of their fats,就像女孩们体内增加的雌激素 保持身体水分 使器官生长stimulating the growth of breasts. Humans are actually lucky to experience the craziness of puberty only once,促进胸部的增长 人类很幸运 只用经历一次青春期的疯狂many other animals undergo multiple similarly intense hormonal rodeos as they enter sexually active periods,很多动物在进入发情期时 要经历数次类似的紧张的荷尔蒙起伏变化sometimes called the rot or heat, every new breeding season.有时可称为“堕落或疯狂”Some male species completely stop eating during their breeding period, because theyre just that sex crazed.在繁殖期一些雄性品种会完全停止进食 它们只是为性疯狂And yet all that said, teens are far less ruled in their hormones than you might think.然而说了那么多 荷尔蒙对青少年的控制并没有你想的那么大There are other factors that play here.还有其它的因素在影响For example, your favorite moody teen may be by turns punchy, angry, depressed, or in a zombie like fog,比如 你那处于青春期的情绪化的宝贝 也许变得寡言 愤怒 沮丧 或像僵尸一样无神because of their chronic lack of sleep.只是因为长期的缺少睡眠Sleep is vital to everyone, but its specially important for kids and teens, because its during sleep睡眠对每个人都很重要 对小孩和青少年尤其重要 因为在睡眠中that your pituitary gland releases an essential growth hormone, necessary for development.脑垂体会释放一种重要的生长激素 这对于成长很重要A normal sleep cycle driven by circadian rhythm, is regulated by the daytime release of cortisol,一个遵循24小时节律的正常的睡眠循环 由人体白天释放的皮质醇which helps you wake up, and melatonin, which helps you wind down when it gets dark.使人保持清醒 和晚上释放的调节 褪黑激素使人保持平静But this biology of sleep timing changes as we age and as puberty begins, teens sleep clocks get pushed back.但是这个生物钟会随年龄增长和青春期的开始而变化 睡点会推后Most adults start producing melatonin 10 p.m. ish, but one study showed that teenagers大多数的成年人晚上10点开始分泌褪黑激素 但一项研究显示青少年dont start producing melatonin until closer to 1am! This may be because pubertys hormonal frenzy直到凌晨1点才开始分泌褪黑激素!这也许是因为青少年疯狂的荷尔蒙is stalling the release of melatonin, and could partly explain why so many teens stay up late,推迟了褪黑激素的释放 这也可以一定程度上解释为什么那么多的青少年熬夜energized by the night, but had a really hard time rolling outta bed with the alarm.晚上精力旺盛 闹钟响了却起不来床Of course its a bit of a chicken and egg deal, since watching reruns of The Simpsons,当然这有点像先有鸡还是先有蛋的问题了 因为看《辛普森一家》的重播and playing Call o Duty late at night continues to stimulate the brain,或者玩《使命召唤》到很晚 这些都在刺激大脑which may further delay the release of melatonin. Still, some researchers are starting to advocate也许会更一步推迟褪黑激素的释放 所以 有些研究者开始提倡for pushing back high school start times in the morning, in the hopes of having more focused students.将高校的早晨开始上课时间往后调 希望这样有更多集中精力的学生So weve got sex hormones changing the bodies, and a lack o sleep to contend with,那么我们知道了性荷尔蒙会改变身体 以及缺少睡眠对人的影响but increasing evidences suggest that, there is something much bigger at work但是越来越多的据表明 有些事有更大的影响thats making teenagers so teenager-ry. Their brains!使得青少年如此的与众不同 即他们的大脑!It turns out that brains actually take longer than we thought, to fully mature.事实表明 大脑确实需要比我们想象的更长的时间来发育成熟I dont mean physical size - our brains are aly about 95% full-sized by the time were just six -我不是指物理大小—在我们只有6岁时 我们的大脑就已经有成年人95%大小了but more in the sense of the connections inside the brain.我指的是大脑内部的神经连接Adults - for the most part - know how to make decisions by evaluating choices, and weighting consequences.大部分成年人知道如何 通过对比选择 权衡结果做决定They do this with their prefrontal cortex,通过他们的前叶额皮质层which is responsible for controlling impulses and emotions, and forming judgments.这负责控制冲动和情绪 以及形成决定Its neurons chat with the neurons in other regions of the brain,它的神经元与大脑其它的区域的神经元进行交流 responsible for - say it - memory or movement, through synapses.比如说 负责记忆和行动的神经元 这种交流通过突触进行The thing is, teenage brains dont quite work like this yet. The prefrontal cortex may not be fully developed真实情况是 青少年的大脑还没有像这样运作 他们的前叶额皮质层也许无法发育完全until youre mid-twenties, and teen synapses - those ;lines; of communication - are still growing,直到25岁左右 青少年的突触(即脑内神经的交流线路)还在成长中and specializing. Theyre also - slow.细化中 它们同时也 非常缓慢As an adolescent brain keeps developing, its axons - the long ;tail-like; parts of the neurons在一个青少年的大脑成长过程中that transmits signals to other neurons - become more and more insulated轴突 变得越来越不易受影响by a fatty layer called the Myelin Sheath. This padding greatly increases the cells transmission speed,因为被一层厚的称为髓鞘保护膜所包裹 这层包裹大大提升了细胞的传输速度and while it helps adults make faster decisions, it isnt fully formed in teens.这使得成年人做决定时更迅速 却在青少年时期无法完全发育完成These changes occur slowly, beginning at the back o the brain, where the oldest and most fundamental这些变化发生得十分缓慢 开始于大脑的后部 即大脑最古老和最基础的部分brain parts reside, and slowly working its way forward to the more advanced and complicated brain bits.然后逐渐地往更先进和复杂的部分发展The prefrontal cortex is the last to be hooked up and shaped.前叶额皮质层是最后被连接和塑造的So its important to keep in mind, that just because your favorite teenager stayed up until sunrise因此这很重要你要记住 你的宝贝在考试的前一天晚上binge-watching The Walking Dead the night before an exam, it doesnt mean theyre dumb or lazy,无节制地看《行尸走肉》直到天亮 并不意味着他们又蠢又懒their brain are just literally finishing being built.只是因为他们的大脑还在塑造中But at the same time, because all o this brain buildings just starting to peak,同时 因为他们的大脑塑造开始达到顶点this is also, when the brain starts getting thinned out.这也是大脑开始清理多余连接的时候You actually start losing connections that you dont use enough, in a process called synaptic pruning -那些你用得不频繁的连接会消失 这一进程称为突触修剪which has led to a theory that this is kind of a use it or lose it phase.由此引出一种“用进废退”的理论Meaning, adolescence could be an specially important time to use your brain -这意味着 青少年时期对大脑的使用特别重要play an instrument; engage in sports; write poetry; learn language!演奏一种乐器 参加一项体育活动 写诗 学习新语言Because by doing these things, youre helping hardwire those synapses, and giving your brain topiary通过做这些事 这些突触连接会巩固 你的大脑会被修剪成a lovely lasting shape. Whereas if youre sitting around all day playing Candy Crush,一个可爱又持久的形状 而如果你整天都坐着玩《糖果粉碎传奇》those will be the connections that survive, which you dont need...这些有关的连接就会留存下来 尽管你并不需要……This shaping of the teen brain manifests itself in other ways too, like in teenage attitudes.这种对青少年大脑形状的塑造也通过其它方式表达出来 比如他们对外界的看法A group of scientist at the McLean Hospital of Massachusetts, once hooked up a group of adults美国马萨诸塞州麦克莱恩医院的一队科学家 通过核磁共振设备进行观察 曾组织一组成年人and a group of teens, to MRI devices and then asked them to identify a series of expressions和一组青少年 让他们鉴别照片上的成年人脸上的系列表情on photographs of adults faces. Interestingly, while adults correctly identified one expression as fear,有趣的是 当成年人正确地指出一个表情是害怕时the teenagers thought the faces showed anger, surprise, or shock. They werent registering subtleties well.青少年认为那是表示害怕 惊讶 或震惊 他们无法识别这些微妙的差异Not only that, but the MRI images showed that adults and teens responded with different parts of their brains.不仅如此 核磁共振图像显示成年人和青少年是用大脑的不同的部分回应的Adults, use the reasonable prefrontal cortex, while the teens mostly use the gut reaction, emotional amigdala,成年人理所当然地使用前叶额皮质层 而青少年主要使用直觉反应 即主管情绪的杏仁体located farther back in the brain.杏仁体位于大脑的更后面Results like these might help explain why teenagers seem to experience frequent mood swings.这样的试验结果也许可以帮助解释为什么青少年们看起来更易情绪波动For one, they tend to react quickly from the emotional part of their brain,首先 他们倾向于从大脑的情绪部分快速反应without running those reactions by the more rational frontal cortex,而不是用更理智的前叶额皮质层and two, it could be that theyre just mising expressions, and therefore the intentions behind them.其次 有可能他们只是误解了试验的表情 及其后的意图The frontal cortex also helps people relate to, and understand each other,前叶额皮质层也可以帮助人们建立联系 理解彼此and you can imagine what happens when concern is misjudged as anger; or worry, as disappointment.所以你可以想象当关心被误解为生气 或担心被误解为 失望时会发生什么The Fresh Prince has an entire song about it.Fresh Prince就有一整首歌是关于这个的But the truth is, as much as parents just dont understand, teens dont always understand either.但事实是 父母常常无法理解他们的小孩 青少年自己也常常无法理解When the emotional amigdala, and the more rational cortex arent fully hooked up yet,当负责情绪的杏仁体与更理智的前叶额皮质层 还没有完全连结好that can make it hard for teenagers to productively work through emotions.青少年们就很难控制好情绪This kind of reactionary, impulsive behavior may also lead to more risk taking.这种叛逆和冲动行为也许会导致更危险的行为Adolescence is the time when were most likely to experiment with whatever booze, or drugs is available,青少年时期我们最容易体验酒精或毒品and unfortunately, its also the time our developing brains are most vulnerable to lasting effects不幸的是 那也是我们塑造中的大脑最脆弱 会受到永久影响的时期Studies have shown that teens are more likely to become addicted to drugs and alcohol, than adults研究已经表明 青少年比成年人更容易沉迷于毒品或酒精partly because their brains are more attuned to their reward centers.一部分原因是他们的大脑对脑内的奖赏区域更熟悉While the teenage prefrontal cortex is still developing, their Nucleus Accumbens,因为他们的前叶额皮质层还在发育中 他们的“伏隔核”or pleasure and reward zone, forms early on.或“愉悦和奖赏区域”成型更早Neuroimaging studies have shown that when presented with a big potential reward,神经影像研究表明当有大的潜在的奖赏时teen brains light up way more than kids or adults brains, but if the reward was small, teen brains hardly fired at all.青少年的大脑亮起来的区域比小孩或成年人更多 但当奖赏很小时 他们的大脑几乎没有反应So basically, give an adolescent a pat on the back, and youll get a shrug.所以基本上 在一个青少年背后轻拍一下 他只会耸耸肩Give them a hot date or a wining goal, and their brains light up like Vegas.给他们一个火辣的约会或一个令人振奋的目标 他们的大脑会闪亮得像This of course, does not always result in great judgment.基于这样的反应 你不能指望他们能做出多伟大的决定A jacked up thrill-seeking impulse, combined with exquisite pang of peer pressure,一股上涌的寻找刺激的冲动 加上同伴的压力带来的痛苦plus a new drivers license, new sex parts, and access to substances can lead to some not good results.和一个新的驾照 新的性伴侣 再加上毒品 这些足够导致一些不好的结果But still, this long and some times tedious remodeling process that our bodies go through in the teenage years,但是话说回来 我们青春期的身体经历的这个长长的 有时候有些乏味的重塑过程isnt all bad. Many scientists have pointed out that our delayed adolescence并不全是坏事 许多科学家指出 较长的青春期lets our brains keep their flexibility longer, which使得我们的大脑保持灵活更长的时间Yeah, may make teens a little slow, but also more adaptable, as they prepare for the adult world.也许会使青少年长得有点慢 但更能适应随后到来的成人世界In this way, you can see teen impulsiveness as boldness; or independent thinking, and moodiness,从这个意义上说 你可以将青春期的冲动当成大胆 或 独立思考as a source of new found empathy; and excitability, as passion.将感性当作共鸣 兴奋过度当作热情Which means, theres a lot of awesome energy floating around out there y to decrease all kinds of world suck就是说 这些精力旺盛的青春期的人们在 准备改变这个世界的旧有成见Thanks for watching the SciShow, and thanks specially to all of our subscribers on Subbable,感谢观看SciShow 特别要谢谢我们在Subbale上的所有贡献者who make this channel possible!有他们才有这个频道!You can be an honorary associate producer of SciShow, or even pick the topic of a future episode!你也可以成为SciShow的一名荣誉制作者 甚至决定未来某一系列的主题To find out how, go to ;subbable.com/scishow;具体方式 请至subbale.com/scishowAnd you can always find us on Facebook and Twitter, and in the comments below,你也可以在Facebook和Twitter 及其下的部分找到我们and if you wanna keep gettin smarter with us here at SciShow,如果你想和我们一起变得更聪明you can go to ;youtube.com/scishow; and subscribe.欢迎至youtube.com/scishow订阅我们的节目201707/516892Theres definitely some sort of drop-off ahead.前方肯定有急降的水流You can just hear it.Okay, see what I mean?快听 看见了吧I better run.Steady up here.Man.我还是快走吧 站在这里看看 天啊Every now and then, the jungle takes your breath away.Look at that.丛林时常会令人震撼不已 看那里This must be 200 foot straight down, this.这里的垂直距离一定有200英尺And thats just gonna be so slippy, as well.肯定也很滑See where the tree meets the ledge?看见树和壁沿的结合处了吗Might be able to get a vine down there.Try and climb down it.也许下面会长有藤条 试着往下爬One thing theres no shortage of in the jungle,though, are vines.丛林中从不缺少的 就是藤条Im gonna use the vine as a rope.我要将藤条当做绳索用About the thickness of my thumb should take my weight.大约一拇指的粗细就可以禁住我I reckon if I reach the base of this,down there,我觉得如果我到达悬崖的底部 那里tie the vine around that,should take me most of the way down.But you see its a long way.把藤条拴在那上面 这样我就可以一路直下了 不过 这条路可不短The vine should be strong enough,but securing it to the tree in the right way is the key.Okay, thats the end of it.藤条应该足够结实 不过关键是要将其正确地固定在树上 好了 就这么长201609/464368We have a new favorite game around here were gonna play.在这里我们会玩一个最新受我们欢迎的游戏Its called Five Second Rule, and Kevin is gonna say, like, a category,叫做五秒规则 凯文会说 像 一个范畴and we have to say five things--uh, three things in five seconds.然后我们要说五件事情--嗯 三件事情在五秒之内说完Okay. And then as soon as we say it, then you hit that, and Ill go first好的 然后就我们说完 然后你就按铃就像我这样做的just so you see--it goes very, very quickly.就像你看到的是很快 非常快的I need to warm up anyway, so thats great.我需要先热身 这真是太棒了All right. Ready? Ellen, three things you do in front of a fire.好的 准备好了吗?艾伦 在火炉前你会做的三件事You toast marshmallows, you kiss and you have hot cocoa. Nice.烤棉花糖 亲吻还有热可可 很好Oh, that was good. No. Cheating. Cheater. Three people you want to kiss under the mistletoe.哦 那太棒了 不可以 作弊 骗子 你想在槲寄生下亲吻的三个人My boyfriend, Ryan Gosling, and Ryan Gosling again. Ooh. Three people. Ding!我的男朋友 瑞恩·高斯林以及瑞恩·高斯林 喔 三个人 叮!All right. All right. Thats all right. Ellen.可以 可以 那个可以 艾伦Dont give her a point for that! Oh, come on! We all love Ryan!她这样不能给她分!噢 拜托!我们都爱瑞恩I know, but hes not three people. Okay, Ellen. All right.我知道 但是他不是三个人 好的 艾伦 好吧Im competitive. Yeah. Three things you can pinch. Your cheek, your butt, a baby. Nice.我求胜心切 是的 三件你可以捏东西 脸颊 屁股 婴儿 棒I thought you were gonna say ;nipple.; Okay. Beth, besides your nipple, three--我以为你会说“奶头” 好的 贝丝 除了你的奶头 三--Three things you wouldnt want an ant to bite.你不希望蚂蚁咬到的三个部位Oh, um, your toe, your wrist, and your, mm, uh--Ooh. Eye.噢 嗯 脚趾 手腕 还有 嗯 诶--噢 眼睛After the clock. You sure wouldnt want it to bite your eye.超时了 你一定不会希望咬到你的眼睛I kept thinking dirty cause of ;nipple,; and then I couldnt say anything cause its daytime.因为“奶头”这个词一直让我想歪 而且因为现在是白天 所以我啥也不能说Well, we just wouldve bleeped you. All right. All right.嗯 你要是说了我们就消音嘛 好吧 好的Ellen, three things you do on a nude beach.艾伦 你在裸体沙滩上会做的三件事You put sunscreen on, you cover yourself with a towel, and then you run.涂防晒霜 用毛巾盖住自己 然后开始跑Oh, with zero seconds. Oh. Beth, three things you bring on a first date.噢 零秒钟 噢 贝丝 你会在约会那天做的三件事Lipstick, breath mint, condom. Oh, boy.口红 清新的薄荷糖 避套 噢 天哪Well, weve learned a lot about you today.好的 我们今天了解很多关于你的事情201707/516006He innovates a new system for producing cars.他创造性地推出了一套新的汽车生产系统Rather than hand crafting each car one at a time, his are assembled by a line of workers, piece by piece.不是每次手工打造整辆车 而是让工人一个零件一个零件地组装汽车Its called the assembly line and it completely changes manufacturing forever.这就是所谓的组装线 它彻底改变了制造的方式Ford didnt invent mass production. But he perfected mass production.发明批量生产的不是福特 但他完善了批量生产He understood that a complicated product like an automobile could be simplified and could be made less expensive if the same thing was produced again and again and again.他明白一个复杂的产品 比如汽车 可以简化之 如果同样的东西生产了一件一件又一件 那么成本就可以下降Using the assembly line, Ford workers can build cars up to eight times faster than any other automobile factory in the world.使用装配线 福特员工的速度比世界上任何其他汽车制造厂要快八倍What once took twelve hours to assemble, now takes an hour and a half.那些曾经要花十二个小时组装的活 现在只需要一个半小时The innovation allows Ford to standardize the eight-hour workday, five days per week.创新让福特可以将每周五天 每天八小时的工作制度标准化But for Ford to continue to innovate, hell need to win his lawsuit.但是福特继续创新的话 他需要赢得这场官司His fate, like John Rockefellers, now rests in the hands of a federal court.他的命运 和约翰·洛克菲勒一样现在掌握在联邦法院的手中Henry Ford and John D. Rockefeller are two American icons, from different generations, on opposing sides of battle for the countrys future.亨利·福特和约翰·D·洛克菲勒都是美国的标志性人物 他们是两代人 分属决定国家未来的斗争的不同方As the verdicts come in, American business will never be the same.宣判的结果一旦揭晓 美国的商业从此不同201607/455029Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is the main greenhouse gas in climate change.二氧化碳,又叫CO2,是气候变化中温室效应气体的主要成分So how does CO2 get into our atmosphere?co2是如何进入我们大气层的?Well, carbon is part of a cycle. It starts with the sun,碳是循环的一部分,它始于太阳which heats the Earths surface with more energy in one hour than the whole world uses in a year.太阳用很大的能量照射地球表面,一个小时的能量比我们一年的使用量还要多Plants, which are kind of like biological chefs,植物就像是一种生物厨师take that sunlight, and then suck in some CO2 from the air, mix them together, and BAM!利用阳光,吸收空气中的二氧化碳,将它们混合,存储They create a stored form of energy, in the form of carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose.植物在生成碳水化合物时会生成一种可以存储的能量,这个碳水化合物是葡萄糖,蔗糖等等The process is called photosynthesis.这个过程被称为光合作用When animals like us eat those plants, our stomachs convert that food back into energy for our own growth.当动物,譬如我们,吃这些植物时,我们的胃将食物转化为提供给我们生长所使用的能量Greenhouse gases are a byproduct of this process, and are released through waste.温室气体是这一过程的副产品,会通过损耗释放If those plants die, they decompose, and tiny microorganisms break down those carbohydrates如果这些植物死亡,它们会分解,同时微生物再一次分解这些碳水化合物and again, release greenhouse gases as a byproduct.将温室气体作为一种副产品释放As you see, energy originates from the sun. It is then transferred as it moves through the food chain.正如你看到的那样,能量来源于太阳并通过食物链转移But sometimes, carbon based organisms like plants or animals get stuck in the earth.但是,有时候植物和动物等生物体内的碳会被埋到地里When this happens, theyre compressed under tons of pressure,当这种情况出现时,它们会被巨大的压力压缩and turned into carbon-based fossil fuels, like oil, coal or natural gas.然后转化为含碳的化石燃料,譬如石油,木炭,天然气Since the Industrial Revolution, humans have been pulling those fossil fuels out of the ground自从工业革命以来,人们已经挖掘出这些化石燃料了and burning them, activating the stored energy to make electricity and power engines.使用它们,产生可存储的能量,以此能量来发电或者为机器供能But the thing is it also releases millions of years worth of stored CO2 back into the air.但是这也使得数百万年来存储的二氧化碳被释放,重新进去空气中。In addition, humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out CO2. But plants do the opposite.除此之外,人类也会吸入氧气呼出二氧化碳。但是植物恰恰相反Trees suck up huge amounts of CO2, which balances the cycle.树木吸收大量的二氧化碳以平衡碳循环Thus, deforestation reduces the plants that store CO2.因此,森林开采减少了能储存二氧化碳的植物Were attacking the cycle from both sides.我们正在从两方面破坏碳循环Think of it like a computer. A computer can operate a few programs at a time, right?从计算机的角度来思考,一个计算机能够同时执行一些进程,对吧?Normally, when youve finished with a document, you save, and you close it, so as not to overwork the computer.一般来说,当你处理完一份文件,你会保存然后关闭它,只要计算机不是过度工作的Then, imagine you stopped closing your documents. So they were all open at once.接下来,想象你停止关闭文档。它们会立即全部打开Your computer wouldnt be able to process it all.你的电脑将不能处理它It would start to slow down, and then to freeze, and eventually it would crash.它将会开始变慢,接下来卡住,最后它将会崩溃Which might be where our environment is heading if we keep overloading the carbon cycle.如果我们保持碳循环过载的话,我们的环境也会走向同样的结果So is there any way to rebalance the ecosystem?所以有什么办法重新平衡碳循环吗?What about technology? Technology is defined as a technique to solve a problem.技术呢?技术被定义为解决一个问题的技巧And so, sustainable technologies are those whose output is equal to their input.所以可持续的技术就是让它的投入等于产出They do not create negative externalities, such as CO2, in the present or the future.他们不会产生负的外部效应,比如二氧化碳,不管是在现在还是在未来。They sort of cancel themselves out to solve the problem.这在抵消自己的二氧化碳排量上解决了这个问题To achieve this, we need to invent sustainable technologies.为了实现这个目标,我们需要发明可持续技术If we put all the ideas and technologies ever created into one circle,如果我们将全部的想法和技术用来创建一个循环then invention is the pushing of the boundaries of that circle.然后这个发明将推动循环边界的发展And the area outside of the circle is infinite, meaning the potential for invention is limitless.循环外的空间是无限的,这意味着发明创造的可能是有限的Think about some of the incredible clean technologies we have today. All those ideas have one thing in common.想想现今的洁净技术(能源)。所有这些有一点是相同的They all came from people. People innovate. People create.它们都来源于人类,人类创新,人类创造。Its the limitless potential of creative people to build unimagined technologies有创造性的人们发明不可思议的技术,这个可能性是有限的。that is going to stop climate changeand rebalance the ecosystem.这些技术指的是使得气候变化停止,生态系统平衡的技术。And that is something to be hopeful about.虽然可能性有限,但是是有希望的。201706/514399

The scientific community was transfixed.整个科学界惊呆了For decades the coelacanth had been touted as a possible transitional form between fish and tetrapods,几十年来,腔棘鱼一直被奉为鱼和四足动物之间的过渡型物种but no one had really known enough about it. It existed only as a fossil.不过,当时无人对它有足够了解,人们只把它当成是一种活化石Smith proclaimed the coelacanth a transitional formSmith声称腔棘鱼就是过渡型物种and as proof he announced that it would actually walk on the bottom of the sea.为了自圆其说,他提出它应该能在海底行走I have no doubt that this fish crawls about on the bottom quite easily.我完全肯定这种鱼能在海底轻松地爬行Yes, the Professor says the fish is a kind of ancestor of man. Poor fish.是的,教授说这种鱼就是人类的一个祖先,可怜的鱼But he knew he would have to find one alive and walking to prove the coelacanth was the elusive transitional form.可是他很清楚他必须找到另一条活着且能行走的腔棘鱼,以明腔棘鱼确实是难得一见的过渡型物种He looked for 13 years until another one was found, and it didnt walk - it swam.他寻找了13年,最后终于找到了一条,但它不会行走,只会游泳It was just another fish.它只是一条鱼Well it was thrown out. There were quite a lot of nasty letters send to J.L.B. too它被完全否定了,J.L.B.Smith收到了很多写满污言秽语的信件to say that he was having a daydream.说他简直是白日做梦There were still no transitional forms,看来还是没有过渡型物种nothing to show that a fish with fins had walked over land and evolved into our first ancestor with legs,没有什么能说明长着鳍的鱼为何会爬到陆地上,进化成我们最早的长着腿的祖先nothing to silence the creationists and there it rested for 30 years.也没有什么能堵住神创论者们的嘴,这个问题搁置了30多年。201702/492682

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