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2019年07月16日 13:01:32 | 作者:医热点 | 来源:新华社
Being a social butterfly just might change your brain: In people with a large network of friends and excellent social skills, certain brain regions are bigger and better connected than in people with fewer friends, a new study finds.一项最新研究发现,成为一名“交际花”可能意味着改变你的大脑:比起朋友少的人,拥有庞大网友圈和杰出社交能力的人的特定大脑区域更大、联络更发达。The research, presented here Tuesday (Nov. 12) at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, suggests a connection between social interactions and brain structure.11月12日,该研究在神经科学学会的年会上提出,表明社会互动与大脑构造之间的联系。;We#39;re interested in how your brain is able to allow you to navigate in complex social environments,; study researcher MaryAnn Noonan, a neuroscientist at Oxford University, in England, said at a news conference. Basically, ;how many friends can your brain handle?; Noonan said.“我们渴望知道你的大脑如何使你在复杂的社会环境中保持方向感,” 研究员努南在英国的记者招待会上说,她是一名牛津大学的神经学家。简言之,“你的大脑能 ‘招架’多少朋友?” 她说道。Scientists still don#39;t understand how the brain manages human behavior in increasingly complex social situations, or what parts of the brain are linked to deviant social behavior associated with conditions like autismand schizophrenia.科学家仍不清楚大脑是怎样在日趋复杂的社会环境下管理人类行为,或者说,大脑的哪个部分与异常社会行为有关联,比如孤独症和神经分裂症。Studies in macaque monkeys have shown that brain areas involved in face processing and in predicting the intentions of others are larger in animalsliving in large social groups than in ones living in smaller groups.对于猕猴的研究表明,生活在大型社会群体中的猕猴参与面部识别、揣测他人意图的大脑功能区较大。To investigate these brain differences in humans, Noonan and her colleagues at McGill University, in Canada, recruited 18 participants for a structural brain-imaging study. They asked people how many social interactions they had experienced in the past month, in order to determine the size of their social networks.为研究人类大脑的这些差异,努南和她在加拿大麦吉尔大学的同事招募了18名参与者展开了一项结构性脑成像研究。他们询问参与者在过去的一个月内参与了多少社交活动,以确定他们社交网络的大小。As was the case in monkeys, some brain areas were enlarged and better connectedin people with larger social networks. In humans, these areas were the temporal parietal junction, the anterior cingulate cortex and the rostral prefrontal cortex, which are part of a network involved in ;mentalization;—the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts and beliefs to another.与猴子实验结果相符,拥有较大社交圈的人们通常有更大的、联络更发达的大脑。对人类而言,这些区域是颞顶叶交界处、前扣带皮质和侧前额叶皮层,这是部分参与实现“心理化”的神经系统——即分配精神状态、思想和信仰的能力。;These different brain regions are all singing different songs,; Noonan said. ;Networked areas are all singing the same song, and when they#39;re connected better, they#39;re singing more harmoniously with each other.;“不同的大脑区域分工协作,” 努南说,“神经系统整体步调一致,并且当他们联络得更好时,这种协同合作更和谐。”The researchers also tested whether the size of a person#39;s social networkwas linked with changes in white-matter pathways, the nerve fibers that connect different brain regions.研究人员还测试了一个人的社交网络是否与白质通路的改变有关,也就是连接大脑不同区域的神经纤维。Again, they found that white-matter tracts were better connected in people with bigger social networks. ;The nerves were more like a Los Angeles freeway than a country road,; Noonan said.再一次,他们发现拥有更大社交圈子的人的白质纤维束联络更为发达。“这些神经就像是一条洛杉矶超速干道而不是乡间小路。” 努南说。The researchers couldn#39;t say whether social interaction caused these changes in brain structure and connectivity, or whether the brain determined how innately social someone was.研究人员还不能确认社会互动是否导致了大脑结构和连通性的改变,或者大脑是否决定了一个人与生俱来的社交能力的高低。In the case of the monkeys, the researchers dictated the size of the animals#39; social network, so they concluded that social-group size was causing the brain differences.在猴子的案例中,研究者记录了动物的社交网络规模,因此得出结论,社会群体的大小导致了大脑的差异。It can be inferred that a similar process takes place in human brains, but to prove this, long-term studies are needed, Noonan told LiveScience.由此推测,人类大脑也经过了类似的过程,但是这仍需长期研究来明,努南对“生活科学”网站说。The fact that some brain regions may be larger and more connected suggests other regions might be smaller in the brains of the more socially adept, Noonan said.她表示,社交达人特定大脑区域更大、联络更发达的事实还暗示了他们大脑的其他区域可能会更小。;If you#39;re spending a lot of time in social environments using social skills and your brain#39;s changing, maybe you#39;re not learning to juggle in your free time or becoming proficient at the piano,; she said. ;The brain is just changing and optimizing to reflect your needs, and if that is thriving within a complex social environment, that is what your brain is reflecting.;“如果你在社会环境中花很多时间交际,你的大脑就在改变,你可能不会了解平衡自己的空闲时间,或是精通钢琴,”她说,“大脑就是在优化改变以适应你的需要,如果你渴望复杂的社会环境,这恰恰就是你的大脑正在反映的。” /201311/266187Whether you spend just 30 seconds every morning or have a dedicated pre-bedtime ritual, practically everyone has a skincare routine. And while we all have the best intentions when it comes to taking care of our complexion, we sometimes sabotage our skin without realizing it. Your daily habits make a major difference when it comes to preventing damage and premature aging. Renee Rouleau, a celebrity esthetician with skincare shares the eight most common skincare mistakes—and how to fix them.无论是清晨的30秒还是临睡的精心惯例,每个人都有自己的一套护肤方法。尽管我们都很在意自己的皮肤状况,有时我们还是会无意间对它造成伤害。我们的习惯决定了护肤流程究竟是防止损伤还是加速衰老。而今天著名美容师Renee Rouleau将与我们分享八个最常见的护肤误区,以及它们的纠正方法。 /201409/327073

Firefighters forced to wear gas masks asthey rescued a 25-stone man who had not washed for five years and was stuckinside filthy apartment knee-deep in pizza boxes消防员拯救一名5年没洗澡的350磅男子时戴上了防毒面具Firemen in Germany were forced to don gasmasks to rescue a bedridden obese man who had not washed in five years.德国消防员在拯救一名5年都没洗澡的卧床不起的胖子时不得不戴上防毒面具。Neighbours of the 25-stone man thought their apartment block in the town of Nurtigen near Stuttgart, had been targeted in a chemical attack when firemen turned up wearing bio-hazard suits and respirators.当这些消防员穿上生化和呼吸器出现时,这名350磅男子的邻居们以为自己的公寓大楼遭到了化学袭击。But it was because of conditions inside the65-year-old#39;s apartment - described as#39;absolute hell#39; by one firefighter -which forced them into such drastic precautions.可事实是这座65年前建造的公寓里糟糕的环境不得不让他们采取这样的防护措施,其中一位消防员称里面简直就是地狱。#39;It was knee deep in rubbish, from rotting pizza boxes to old food andtins....and vermin rustling about,#39; the firefighter added. #39;The smell was indescribable.#39;“垃圾到处都是,达到膝盖那么深,有腐烂的比萨盒,有陈旧的食物和罐头,到处是寄生虫,里面的味道真是难以形容。”Firemen had to smash the front door to his apartment down because there was too much rubbish behind it to push open.消防员不得不把公寓大门摧毁,因为门后面都是垃圾,根本打不开。The morbidly obese man was was found amid a pile of the refuse with serious difficulty breathing. A neighbour called police after hearing rhythmic tapping on her ceiling - his SOS for help.这名胖子在一堆垃圾中被找到,当时他呼吸困难。楼下的一名邻居听到自己天花板上出现有节奏的敲打声时报了警,这是他的求救信号。The man was too fat to exit through the door to his home and had to be lowered with a crane to a waiting ambulance.这名男子太肥了,连门都出不去,只能通过起重机将其送入救护车。Firefighters were later seen hosing off the equipment used to hoist the obeseand foul-smelling man from the apartment block and disinfecting their protective clothing.随后人们可以看到消防员用软管冲洗刚用于运送这名臭哄哄的胖子的设备,以及给自己的防护消毒。He told rescuers that he had been unable to wash and dress himself for the past five years and lived on take-out food that was delivered to his apartment.这名胖子对救援人员说五年来他都没有换洗,并且通过送到公寓的外卖过活。A neighbour told a German newspaper: #39;Wehad no idea what kind of state his apartment was in, but we got a whiff of it after firemen opened the front door.#39;一名邻居对媒体说:“我们不知道他公寓里是什么情况,但当消防员打开他前门时,我们闻到了味道。 /201411/340623

Maybe it’s been a few months and they’ve heard so much about you, or it’s only been a couple of dates and they barely know you exist. Regardless of how much time has passed, meeting your significant other’s parents for the first time can be exciting and terrifying. So many things are out of your control, but what you wear is completely within your power. Consider a few guidelines that could streamline the process.也许在最近几个月,他们听说了很多关于你的事。也许也就是近几天,他们几乎不知道你的存在。不管时间如何流逝,与另一半的父母第一次见面都是令人兴奋的,同时也觉得害怕的。很多事情你都无法控制,但你完全可以决定自己要穿什么衣。看些指导书,可以简化这个过程。Stay true to your style while opting for an ensemble that errs on the conservative side, Jennifer Mumford, who recently met her significant other’s parents for the first time. “Stay away from an outfit that is too revealing, as it can come across as polarizing,” she said. Also, try to keep your look timeless. This means staying away from trends like ripped jeans or denim with distressed features.整体来说,要忠于你自己的风格,展现出比较保守的一面。珍妮弗·芒福德在亚利桑最近见了另一半的父母。她说:“不要穿得太暴露,别人会觉得你是个暴露狂”同时,尽量让自己看起来比较年轻。换句话说就是远离像破牛仔裤或牛仔布那种风格的着装。If this meeting is over the holidays or at a holiday gathering, a little festivity is a nice touch. For men, Mumford suggested a button down shirt in classic plaid or check paired with a dark wash, straight leg jean. For women, opt for an outfit like a cashmere sweater, dark rinse skinny or straight leg jeans and a ballet flat or riding boot.如果这次见面是在节假日或节日聚会,小节日也有小技巧。针对男人,芒福德建议穿带纽扣的经典格子图案衬衫在搭配深色水洗裤或直腿牛仔裤。对于女性,一套羊绒毛衣,黑冲洗修身裤或直腿牛仔裤再配上一个芭蕾持平底鞋或马靴。If an afternoon barbecue is the venue, guys will be good with either jeans or khakis with a polo or crew neck tee. Mumford suggested finishing the look with staple footwear, like a pair of Converse or a loafer. Gals can opt for a maxi dress or sundress paired with a denim jacket or scarf, and completed with sandals or ballet flats. Petite ladies can also try a silk top, skinny jeans and a wedge heel. “Whatever outfit you choose, keep the look feminine, pretty and cohesive,” Mumford said.如果要计划去烤烧烤,通常是牛仔裤或卡其裤与polo衫或带海军领子衣搭配。芒福德建议选好装后,可以配上一双匡威的鞋子或休闲鞋。女生可以选择迷嬉裙或背心裙配上牛仔夹克或围巾,搭配凉鞋或芭蕾平底鞋。娇小的女士们上身也可以尝试丝绸面料的衣,与紧身牛仔裤和坡跟鞋搭配。芒福德说:“无论你怎么选择,一定要看起来漂亮、吸引人、有女人味儿”。Stick with clothing in your size that has worked for you in the past and steer clear from ill-fitting or unflattering colors that clash with your skin tone. Feeling good in your clothes will boost your confidence and rub off on others around you. “The last thing you need is for your partner’s parents to think that you are borrowing your older sibling#39;s clothes or do not know how to dress,” Leroux said.和过去一样坚持选择尺寸合身的衣,不要选择不合身和不衬肤色的衣。合身的衣会让自己感觉良好,增加自信,同时也能使周围的人深受感染。Leroux说“不要让伴侣的父母认为你是穿的是兄长的衣,或你还不知道如何着装”。Especially in a casual setting, take advantage of the laid-back vibe with feel-good gear. Wear that pair of comfy jeans and a simple top, suggested Anthony Leroux, fashion director and stylist 。Pair with comfortable nude or black heels that complement the ensemble.特别是在一种比较随意的情况下,好好利用比较随意的气氛。时尚总监兼设计师建议下身穿一条比较舒适的牛仔裤,上衣搭配一件比较简单地衣,再搭配一双舒适的裸色或黑色的高跟鞋进行补充。Keep color combinations and graphic prints simple and un-busy, Leroux suggested. Wear no more than three colors at a time and keep the neon at home. This could mean wearing a plain T-shirt under a blazer that offers a slight contrast, or keeping patterns to a minimum as to not cause a dizzying effect. “The last thing you want to do is look like a walking fabric store,” Leroux said.Leroux建议要注意衣颜色搭配和衣上的印花看起来简单不繁琐。每次身上所穿的颜色不要超过三种,在家里时颜色可以绚丽一点。这可能就意味着西装里是一件很普通的T恤,这就形成了一个很小的对比。将令人眼花缭乱的情况降到最小。Leroux说:“不要打扮的像要去街上购物一样。”The go-to staple in every woman’s closet, the little black dress is practically foolproof in most evening situations and comes to the rescue when you’re stumped and standing in your closet. Make sure yours hits just above the knee, Leroux advised. Toss on those rarely-used pair of designer heels and complement with jewelry, like a matching diamond necklace, bracelet and ring trio.每个女人的衣橱里几乎都有黑色小礼,黑色小礼几乎适合一般的情况,也可以应付紧急情况。Leroux建议,裙子的长度要略高于膝盖。那些扔到一旁很少穿的高跟鞋,一般都可以与珠宝搭配。像是搭配钻石项链,手镯和戒指等。if the initial meeting is to take place over dinner at a nice restaurant, this is one of those occasions to pull out that fitted suit that spends much of the year hanging untouched in a garment bag in the back of the closet. Leroux suggested a gray or black suit over a white dress shirt with a neutral colored tie, and matching dress shoes to keep it cohesive.如果第一次见面是在一家不错的餐厅,这种场合适合穿西装,把挂在衣柜后面装袋里多年没穿的西装翻出来穿。Leroux建议穿灰色或黑色西装配上一件白色礼衬衫,在系上中性色领带,选一双与礼相配的鞋子。A light mist of your favorite fragrance is enough to be a subtle reflection of your personality that highlights, not dominates. Remember, others around you will notice that scent more intensely than you would, so take it easy when spritzing. “The last thing you need is for the smell to be overpowering and become the only thing that people begin to talk about,” Leroux said.喷上一点点你最爱的的香水,突出你的个性,也不会独领风骚。记住,你周围的人比你更会留心到你身上的香味,所以洒香水的时候不要紧张。Leroux说:“不要让这种香味太浓烈,成为别人的话柄。”When you’re dressed, take a look in the mirror. Does anything immediately jump out? Is that skirt a little too tight or that blouse a bit too sheer? Or, are those jeans too faded and would your mother think that dress shirt is too wrinkled to be dressy? If anything seems to be too much of something, change out of it。穿好后,照照镜子。有没有哪些地方挤出来了?是裙子有点太紧了?还是裤子太花哨了?或者是牛仔裤褪色太严重?还是你妈妈认为衣太皱,看起来比较不讲究着装?如果有些地方看起来不像那么回事,赶紧换掉。Coordinate your outfits so you don’t look like you are heading to the opera while your love looks beach-bound. Versatile ensembles are best if you aren’t quite sure, Shina suggested. Women can play up their feminine side with dress pants or a skirt paired with a soft or billowy top, while men can’t go wrong with dress pants, an open collar button down shirt and nonathletic shoes.穿合适的装。因此,当你喜欢打扮的要去海边那样就不要弄得像要去歌剧院似的。Shina建议:如果你不是很确定怎么打配合适,就多准备几套整套衣。女性通常可以用短裙或者配套的上衣来展现自己的女性美。但是男人却不可以穿错,西裤搭配带纽扣的开领衬衫,再穿上一双不易走样的鞋。 /201309/257431

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