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长乐中山做人流多少钱京东共享

楼主:京东生活 时间:2019年10月20日 00:05:16 点击:0 回复:0
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Danny Meyer has always been considered one of the most forward-thinking restaurateurs of his generation.丹尼蔠尔(Danny Meyer)一直被视为他这一代思想最前卫的餐厅老板之一。Even by his standards, though, the owner of such celebrated New York restaurants as Union Square Cafe, Gramercy Tavern and The Modern (at the Museum of Modern Art) has just taken an incredibly brave step. He has announced his decision to abolish tipping in his restaurants and increase prices accordingly. His peers salute him but are grateful that it is he who has taken the step rather than them.然而,即便根据他的标准,这位纽约多家知名餐厅的所有者也刚刚迈出了无比勇敢的一步。他名下的餐厅包括联合广场咖啡馆(Union Square Cafe)、Gramercy Tavern以及位于纽约现代艺术物馆(Museum of Modern Art)的现代餐厅(The Modern)。他宣布决定在他的餐厅取消小费并相应提价。他的同行们纷纷向他致敬,但让他们感到庆幸的是迈出这一步的是他,而不是他们。Tipping is terribly misunderstood. In most of Europe, Australia and other parts of the world it no longer exists — and visitors from those countries earn an unwarranted reputation for meanness when they, in their ignorance, fail to tip in Britain and the US.小费受到了严重误解。在欧洲多数国家、澳大利亚以及全球其他地区,小费已不复存在,来自这些国家的游客由于不了解这种习惯而没有在英国和美国付小费,就被不合理地扣上了小气的名声。In Britain, tipping or the payment of a service charge is mistakenly thought of as an extra payment or thank you to the server — whereas in fact it is an integral part of the pay structure of the restaurants they frequent.在英国,付小费或付务费被顾客错误地视作额外付款或者对务员的感谢,实际上,小费是他们光顾的餐厅的薪资结构不可分割的一部分。The customer is actually colluding in what Will Beckett, director of the London-based Hawksmoor chain of steak restaurants, terms a “benign lie” whereby the restaurant avoids VAT and employer’s national insurance contribution on the amount that is levied through the service charge. The ultimate beneficiaries are the customers who would otherwise have to pay more for the services they enjoy. The situation is a muddle, but an innocuous one.顾客实际上在共同编造伦敦牛排餐厅连锁Hawksmoor董事威尔贝克特(Will Beckett)所说的“善意的谎言”,即餐厅可以逃避务费这一部分的增值税以及作为雇主应为这一部分交的国民保险供款。最终的受益者是顾客,因为否则的话他们将不得不为所享受的务付更多费用。这种情况有点乱,但无伤大雅。In New York the situation is rather different. The “benign lie” has never really caught on and customers pay the staff directly for their service through the tip.在纽约,情况则有所不同。这种“善意的谎言”从未真正流行过,顾客直接通过小费为餐厅员工的务付费。This levy is raised through a system of cajoles, threats and moral blackmail. No customer dares refuse to pay the (minimum) 15 per cent tip. The restaurateur may pool the tips, but only those who spend at least half their time with the customer — meaning the front of house team — are allowed to receive money from the resulting “tronc”. In Britain there is no such restriction; cooks and ancillary staff also receive money from the tronc.这种小费是通过哄骗、威胁和道德敲诈收取的。没有顾客胆敢拒绝付(最低)15%的小费。餐厅老板可能会把小费集中在一起,但只有那些至少用一半的时间与顾客在一起的员工(指前台员工)才被允许获得小费收入。在英国,则没有这种限制;厨师和后勤员工也会分到小费收入。What Mr Meyer and any other enlightened restaurateur is recognising is that the commis chef in the kitchen is contributing as much to the customer’s pleasure as the charming schmoozer who is the face of the operation.梅尔和所有其他开明的餐厅老板意识到,后厨的厨师助理为顾客贡献的愉悦感与面对面与顾客交流的富有魅力的务员一样多。The no-tipping move is a logical response to the skill shortage confronting restaurateurs in most leading world capitals. With no one prepared to foot the bill for apprenticeships and training schemes, there are not enough cooks to go round. Even star chefs in London and New York are having to pay higher wages to keep the myriad foams, smears, spherifications and gels artfully arranged on the plate.全球多数主要都市的餐厅老板正面临技能短缺,取消小费之举是对此做出的合理回应。没有餐厅准备为学徒和培训计划买单,因此一些餐厅找不到足够多的厨师。甚至连伦敦和纽约的明星大厨,也不得不付更高的薪资招聘人手把各种各样的乳泡、酱汁、球状及胶状食材艺术地盛放在盘中。At Hawksmoor, Mr Beckett claims his staff earn a wage that corresponds to their vocational level. “Waiters and chefs earn as much as, say, policemen and teachers, and managers earn as much as doctors or headmasters.” If this comes as a shock, you will be gratified to hear that most London restaurants pay much less.在Hawksmoor餐厅,贝克特声称,他的员工赚取的薪资与他们的业务水平相符。“务员和厨师的收入与警察和教师一样多,经理的收入与医生或中小学校长差不多。”如果这令人震惊的话,那么听到多数伦敦餐厅付的薪酬远远低于这个水平会让你感到欣慰。In New York, the situation is very different: most chefs earn a great deal less than a policeman, while a waiter would give a Florida plastic surgeon a run for his money. It is this anomaly that Mr Meyer is seeking to address: the danger is that customers will balk at higher prices and the wait staff will revolt if their pay is cut.在纽约,情况非常不同:多数厨师的收入远远低于警察,而务员的收入却堪比一位弗罗里达州整形外科医生。梅尔正是希望解决这种反常现象:问题是顾客可能对涨价不满,同时如果务员的收入下降,他们也会抵制。As he launches himself like Sir Galahad at this heavily defended wall, a great many restaurateurs are going to be looking on from behind the parapet. Customers who are confused will have to keep their wits about them: always check to see if there is a service charge or if tipping is discouraged. Even if it is, habits take time to unlearn — and for the foreseeable future, a little gesture of thanks is unlikely to go amiss.在梅尔像完美骑士加拉哈德爵士(Sir Galahad)一样冲向小费这堵防守严密的墙壁时,很多餐厅老板会站在墙后观望。感到困惑的顾客将不得不时刻保持警惕:总是查看餐厅是否收务费,抑或是不鼓励小费。即便餐厅取消小费,抛弃习惯也是需要时间的,在可预见的将来,一点点表示感谢的举动总是会受欢迎的。 /201511/407465You might not realise it, but sending even a short email has an impact on the environment. Scientists estimate that an email adds about four grams (0.14 ounces) of carbon dioxide equivalent into the atmosphere.你可能没有意识到,即使是发送一封小小的邮件也会对环境产生影响。科学家估计,发送一封邮件相当于向大气中排放约4克的二氧化碳。That means that hitting #39;send#39; on 65 mails is equal to driving an average-sized car a 0.6 miles (1km).这意味着,发送65封邮件所产生的二氧化碳相当于一辆普通大小的汽车行驶1公里产生的二氧化碳。This is according to a McAfee study the #39;Carbon Footprint of Spam#39;, which also found each time you copy someone else, another six grams of CO2 is added. A carbon footprint is the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide.据迈克菲(一款杀毒软件)“垃圾邮件的碳足迹”研究发现,每次转发邮件同样也会增加6克的二氧化碳。碳足迹是人类活动直接或间接地向大气中排放温室气体的总量,通常也用同等数量的二氧化碳的吨数来表示。The average person sends and receives 125 emails every day. When sending emails, greenhouse gases are produced in running the computer, server and routers, and when when the equipment was manufactured. Receiving a spam message, even if you do not open it, has an environmental impact of 0.3 gCO2.每人平均每天收发125封邮件。发送邮件时,电脑、务器、路由器的运行会产生温室气体,同时制造这些设备时也会产生二氧化碳。收到一条垃圾信息,即使你没有打开,大气中也会增加0.3克二氧化碳。The global carbon footprint from spam annually is equivalent to the greenhouse gases pumped out by 3.1 million passenger cars using two billion gallons of gasoline in a year.每年全球垃圾邮件的碳排放量相当于310万辆客车每年消耗20亿加仑的汽油所排出的二氧化碳。Sending emails is just one activity on a long list of seemingly harmless everyday actions contribute to emissions of CO2. For example, typing in a non-essential Google inquiry on an energy-efficient laptop leaves a footprint of 0.2 gCO2e. On an old desktop computer, it is 4.5 gCO2e. Sending a text message isn#39;t a less harmful method of communication either, as it comes at a cost of about 0.014 gCO2e.发送邮件只是人类日常生活中看似无害却会排放二氧化碳的众多行为中的一项。例如,用节能笔记本在谷歌上搜索一般的问题会产生0.2克的二氧化碳,而用老式电脑则会产生4.5克二氧化碳。发送短信同样会对环境产生影响,因为会产生约0.014克二氧化碳。 /201512/414021

A cool new service in Japan is meant to help busy career women cope with the stress of their hectic lifestyles. For about 7,900 yen, they can hire #39;Ikemeso#39; – cute men – to wipe away their tears, quite literally!当下,日本新兴一种酷炫务,能够帮助职业女性排解忙碌生活带来的种种压力。花上7900日元(约合420元人民币),日本妇女就能雇一名“擦泪帅哥”(日语叫Ikemeso)帮忙擦眼泪!Here#39;s how it works: You call the company and pick one of seven Ikemeso, who will then arrive at your workplace to help you release stress through crying. If you#39;re in tears aly, the licensed “crying therapist” will simply wipe your tears away with the softest handkerchief and comfort you with kind words. If work-related stress hasn#39;t pushed you to tears yet, the Ikemeso will play an emotional film meant to induce crying. After the is over, he#39;ll wipe your tears away.究竟是怎么回事呢?原来,顾客通过拨打电话,能从7位“擦泪帅哥”中挑选一名。随后,这位帅哥就会到达你的工作地点,助你痛哭减压。如果你已经哭成了泪人,“痛哭治疗师”会一边用最柔软的手绢擦去你眼角的泪水,一边温柔地安慰。如果你还未被工作压垮,失声痛哭的话,他就会放一部催泪的情感电影,并在观影后,为你擦干泪水。There are different types of guys you can choose from, depending on your taste – the little brother, the intellectual, the bad boy, the slightly older hot guy, and more. The service is all set to launch on September 24.顾客还能根据口味,选择偏爱的帅哥,其中就包括了邻家小哥、知识分子、坏小子、性感大叔等。这项务于9月24日正式推出。According to Hiroki Terai, the creator of Ikemeso, “Japanese women are under tremendous stress at the office here in Tokyo, which often ends in tears. We are here to provide a kind word and brush the tears away by one of our seven lovely men on call.”务的发起人寺井广树(Hiroki Terai)说:“在东京,职场女性承受的压力实在太大了,常常让她们失声痛哭。我们这7个帅哥随叫随到,希望其中一个能安慰她们,帮她们拭去泪水。”Some will undoubtedly find the whole idea sexist, but Terai claims that the company has been receiving queries non-stop ever since they launched the website last week. He also insists that the service is not a hoax. “More and more women are trying to hold down professional jobs these days but the male dominated, workaholic workforce makes it hard for them,” he said. “We want such put-upon women to have a good cry and feel better when they feel targeted.”毫无疑问,不少人会觉得这想法充满了性别歧视,但寺井广树称,自公司网站上线一周来,他们接到了顾客源源不断的咨询电话。他坚称,这项务并非恶作剧。“如今,越来越多的女性都尽力保住自己的工作,但男性工作狂依旧称霸职场。”他说,“我们希望压力过大的女性能好好哭上一场,遭受不公平待遇时不至于灰心丧气。”“Who doesn#39;t feel better after a big boo-hoo?”“毕竟,大哭一场后,谁不会感到如释重负呢?”The term Ikemeso is a word play that combines ikemen (hot guy) and mesomeso (crying). Oh, and speaking of ikemen, remember Shabani the handsome gorilla that used to drive Japanese women nuts?Ikemeso这个词由ikemen(帅哥)和mesomeso(大哭)结合而来。说到帅哥,不知你还记不记得名古屋动物园那只迷倒日本妇女的大猩猩?For now, Ikemeso seem to only cater to stressed employees, but judging by the positive feedback the service has gotten even prior to its official launch, it#39;s fair to assume it will soon be more widely available.目前,这项务仅面向备受压力的职业女性。不过,鉴于其尚未正式推出便大获人气,今后或许会面向各个群体。It#39;s a bizarre service, to be sure, but not by Japanese standards. After all, we#39;re talking about the country that came up with strange ideas like a slow taxi service, a dress-rental business for men who want to feel like princesses or a rent-a-friend service, among many others.实话说,“帅哥擦泪”听起来颇为疯狂,但放在日本,大概算稀松平常。毕竟,发生在日本的奇事太多了,比如慢车务、男人租公主裙务、租友务等等。 /201509/400967

Tang Dynasty唐朝An Shi Rebellion安史之乱The An Shi Rebellion (安史之乱)occurred in China, during the Tang Dynasty, from 756 to 763.安史之乱于唐朝时期发生,自756年持续到763年。It is also known as the Tianbao Rebellion (天宝之乱) , because An Lushan started it in the 14th year of the namesake era.它还被称为“天宝之乱”,因为安禄山在天宝14年开始叛乱。The alternative term An Lushan Rebellion neglected the participation of Shi Siming, a subordinate of An Lushan and later leader of the rebellion after murdering An Lushan#39;s son An Qingxu.安史之乱的另一个名称忽视了安禄山的下属史思明的参与,史思明在杀害了安禄山的儿子安庆旭后成为了叛军首领。An Lushan was a general of non-Han Chinese ancestry.安禄山曾是一个具有外族血统的将领。He was appointed by the emperor Tang Xuanzhong to be commander (节度使)of three garrisons in the north, Pinglu, Fanyang and Hedong, in effect giving An Lushan control over the entire area north of the lower reaches of the Yellow River.他被唐玄宗任命为北部三个要塞地区——平卢、范阳和河东的节度使,这使得他控制了整个黄河下游北部的区域。With such power and land in his control (the total military power of An Lushan in those three garrisons alone was about 164 thousand strong),通过自己掌控的权力和区域(安禄山在这三个地区的全部军事力量约有164000人),An Lushan planned a revolt, taking advantage of the decadent Tang bureaucracy and the absence of strong troops around the palace to achieve his aims.安禄山策划了一场反叛,借助唐朝官僚机构的颓败与王宫周围强大军队的缺席达成了自己的目的。He avoided suspicion by pleasing the Emperor in as many ways as possible,他尽可能的通过不同的方法来取悦皇帝以打消皇帝的怀疑,even calling himself the adopted son of Xuanzhong#39;s favorite concubine, Yang Guifei.甚至称自己是皇帝最宠爱的妃子——杨贵妃的侄儿。In this way, he was protected from criticism, even when the Chief Minister, Yang Guozhong, demanded his dismissal.运用这种方式,甚至当宰相杨国忠提出罢免他的职位的时候,安禄山都可以不用遭受指责。In 755, An Lushan revolted under the pretense of punishing Yang Guozhong.755年,安禄山假借讨伐杨国忠之名叛乱。His army surged down from fanyang in modern Hebei province, moving rapidly along the Grand Canal and capturing the city of Luoyang within the year.他的军队从范阳(今河北)攻下,在一年内迅速地沿着大运河夺取了洛阳城。There, An Lushan declared himself the Emperor of the Great Yan dynasty (大燕皇帝).在那里,安禄山自立为大燕皇帝。He was blocked from the imperial capital at Chang#39;an by loyal troops placed in impregnable defensive positions in the intervening mountain passes.他在帝都长安城遭到了驻于山口的要塞防御之地的皇家军队的抵挡。However, Yang Guozhong, with grossly inept military judgement, ordered the troops in the passes to attack An#39;s army on open ground.然而,杨国忠却作出了愚蠢的军事判断,他命令位于要塞区域的军队在开阔的地方攻击安禄山的军队。They were demolished, and the road to the capital lay open.军队被击破,通往长安的路打开了。Seeing that Chang#39;an was now under imminent threat, Xuanzong fled to Sichuan.意识到长安城即将陷入威胁之中,玄宗逃往四川。On the way at Mawei Inn in Shaanxi, Xuanzong’s bodyguard troops demanded the death of the much-hated Yang Guozhong, and his cousin, Lady Yang.在陕西的马嵬坡,玄宗的贴身护卫们要求杀了遭人痛恨的杨国忠和他的侄女杨玉环。With the army on the verge of mutiny, the Emperor had no choice but to agree,面对着即将到来的叛军,玄宗别无选择,ordering the execution of Yang Guozhong and the suicide of Lady Yang.只得处死杨国忠并令杨玉环自缢。Meanwhile, the crown prince, the eventual emperor, fled in the other direction to Lingwu in modern-day Ningxia province.同时,太子也就是最终的皇帝,逃往另一个方向的灵武(位于今天的宁夏)。After reaching Sichuan, Xuanzong abdicated in favor of his son.到了四川之后,玄宗退位,传位给了他的儿子。Suzong, (3rd or 4th) son of Xuanzong, was then proclaimed emperor,肃宗(唐玄宗的三儿子或四儿子)之后便登基称帝,although another group of local officials and Confucian literati proclaimed another prince at Jinling (modern-day Nanjing).尽管此时另一群官员和士大夫在金陵(今南京)拥立了另有一位皇子为帝。One of Suzong#39;s first acts as emperor was to appoint the generals Guo Ziyi and Li Guangbi to deal with the rebellion.肃宗称帝后的第一道旨意就是命令将军郭子仪和李光弼处理叛乱。The generals, after much discussion, decided to borrow troops from an offshoot of the Turkish Tujue Tribe, the Huihe tribe (ancestors of the modern-day Uighurs) to suppress the rebellion.两位将军经过商议后,决定向土耳其的突厥部和回纥部(今维吾尔人的祖先)的流借用军队来镇压反叛。In this way the Imperial forces recaptured Chang’an and Luoyang.通过这种方式,皇帝的军队重新占领了长安和洛阳。Meanwhile the imperial forces were helped by internal dissent in the newly-formed dynasty.同时,朝廷的部队还受到了新立的大燕国内部不满声音的帮助。An Lushan was killed by his son, An Qingxu not long after his ascent to the throne. (An#39;s virulent paranoia posed too much of a threat to his entourage.)安禄山登基后不久就被自己的儿子安庆旭杀死了(安禄山严重的偏执为他的随从构成了威胁),安庆旭后来被史思明杀死。His son was then killed by the subordinate Shi Siming, a companion of An Lushan during the rebellion; he recaptured the city of Luoyang soon after.然而,史思明又被自己的儿子史朝义所杀。However Shi Siming was then kilted by his own son, Shi Chaoyi.到了这个时候,一切都很明了,新的王朝不可能存在太长时间。By this time, it was clear that the new kingdom would not last long, and generals and soldiers alike started to defect to the Tang army.将军和士兵们开始向唐朝变节。Finally after Luoyang was taken by the Tang forces for the second time, Shi Chaoyi committed suicide in 763, thus ending the 8—year long rebellion.在唐朝第二次夺取了洛阳之后,史朝义于763年自杀,结束了为期八年的叛乱。The rebellion spanned the reigns of three emperors, starting during the reign of Xuanzong and ending during the reign of Daizong.安史之乱跨越了三位皇帝的执政期,它开始于玄宗时期,结束于代宗年间。The toll of dead and missing caused by the rebellion according to various sources, including suppression and famine, is estimated at 36 million, which was 2/3 of the total tax roll population.根据不同的来源,由叛乱导致的伤亡和失散人数,包括镇压和饥荒,大约有36000000人,占到了征税人口的三分之二。Numerically, this was the highest death toll for any event for nearly 1200 years, until Worid War II surpassed it with over 62 million deaths.从数字上来说,这是近1200年来死亡人数最多的事件,直到二战时期的死亡人数超过其达到了62000000人。The Tang Dynasty#39;s desire for peace after this turbulent period also resulted in the pardoning of many rebels.唐朝在这个动乱的年代之后对于和平的渴望导致其对于很多反叛的赦免。Indeed, some were even given their own garrisons to command.事实上,有些人甚至培养了自己的守卫部队。This effectively ended rule by the central government, with the emperor becoming only a puppet of sorts, set to do the strongest garrison’s bidding.这在实际上使中央政府丧失了掌权,皇帝成为了某种意义上的傀儡,开始听从最强大的守卫部队的命令。In addition, by borrowing troops from neighboring tribes, the Tang Dynasty greatly lowered its prestige in the eyes of the barbarians, who eventually began raiding Tang settlements again.不仅如此,因为向邻国借用军队,唐朝在蛮族人眼中的威望下降了,这使得蛮人再次开始袭击唐朝的殖民地。(So far had Tang power collapsed during the rebellion that Chang#39;an was briefly occupied by the Tibetan army in 764.)(叛乱时期唐朝权力倾覆时,长安在764年几乎被藏人军队占领。)Thus, the An-Shi Rebellion is regarded by most Chinese historians to be the turning point in the Tang Dynasty’s fortunes.因此,安史之乱被大多是中国史学家认为是唐朝命运的一个转折点。For the next 144 years the Tang ceased to exist in all but name, a far cry from the glory days under Taizong and Xuanzong.在接下来的144年间唐朝其实已经不复存在,与太宗和玄宗时期的光辉相比有着天壤之别。 /201511/405239

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