江西赣州市妇幼保健院在哪里新华优惠

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月18日 05:41:17
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当代著名诗人汪国真昨日凌晨因患肝癌在北京302医院去世,享年59岁。据悉,汪国真的遗体告别仪式将于4月30日早晨8点在北京市八宝山东大厅举行。汪国真1956年6月22日生于北京,祖籍福建厦门。1978年考取暨南大学中文系。1979年4月12日,正读大一的他在《中国青年报》发表了处女作。1984年在湖南杂志《年轻人》第10期上发表第一首比较有影响的诗《我微笑着走向生活》。“我不去想,是否能够成功。既然选择了远方,便只顾风雨兼程……我不去想,未来是平坦还是泥泞。只要热爱生命,一切,都在意料之中。”1988年,他的这首《热爱生命》被当年第10期《读者》收为卷首作品,倾倒无数读者。在2013亚太经合组织(APEC)工商领导人峰会上,习近平主席引用了汪国真的诗句:“没有比脚更长的路,没有比人更高的山”。汪国真作品欣赏:《热爱生命》:既然选择了远方,便只顾风雨兼程……《能够认识你,真好》《告别,不是遗忘》《思念》《我不期望回报》《心中的诗和童话》《旅程》《依然存在》《感谢磨难》《只要明天还在》 /201504/372073

  MY kids have recently picked up a worrying French slang word: bim (pronounced “beam”). It’s what children say in the schoolyard here after they’ve proved someone wrong, or skewered him with a biting remark. English equivalents like “gotcha” or “booyah” don’t carry the same sense of gleeful vanquish, and I doubt British or American kids use them quite as often.我的孩子们最近学会了一个令人担心的法语俚语词:bim(发音与英语的“beam”相似)。孩子们在校园里明别人犯了错,或者用尖刻的话把对方驳得体无完肤时,就会说“bim”。英语里类似的词语“gotcha”或者“booyah”并没有完全传达出那种碾压别人的喜悦。而且我也怀疑,英国和美国的孩子说这些词并没有那么频繁。As an American married to an Englishman and living in France, I’ve spent much of my adult life trying to decode the rules of conversation in three countries. Paradoxically, these rules are almost always unspoken. So much bubbles beneath what’s said, it’s often hard to know what anyone means.作为一个嫁给英国人、目前生活在法国的美国人,我成年后的大把时间,都在努力破译这三个国家语言交流的规则。可矛盾的是,这些规则几乎总是心照不宣的。人们说出的话里有太多掩饰,常常很难明白真实的用意。I had a breakthrough on French conversation recently, when a French sociologist suggested I watch “Ridicule,” a 1996 French movie (it won the César award for best film) about aristocrats at the court of Versailles, on the eve of the French Revolution.在理解法国式对话方面,我最近取得了重大进展。一位法国社会学家建议我看一看1996年的法国电影《荒谬无稽》(Ridicule)。这部片子赢得了凯撒奖的最佳影片奖项,讲述了法国大革命前夕凡尔赛宫廷里贵族的故事。Life at Versailles was apparently a protracted battle of wits. You gained status if you showed “esprit” — clever, erudite and often caustic wit, aimed at making rivals look ridiculous. The king himself kept abreast of the sharpest remarks, and granted audiences to those who made them. “Wit opens every door,” one courtier explained.凡尔赛宫的生活似乎就是漫长的唇舌剑,如果能展示出“esprit”——聪明、学且时常很尖刻的机锋,并让其他人显得可笑——那么你就能赢得地位。国王本人也时刻关注着最犀利的言辞,而说出这种话的人会得到接见。一位侍臣解释道,“机智能打开每一扇门。”If you lacked “esprit” — or suffered from “l’esprit de l’escalier” (thinking of a comeback only once you had reached the bottom of the staircase) — you’d look ridiculous yourself.但是,如果你缺乏“esprit”,或者遭遇“l’esprit de l’escalier”(走到楼梯最下面,才想起如何反击),那么你自己就会显得十分可笑。Granted, France has changed a bit since Versailles. But many modern-day conversations — including the schoolyard cries of “Bim!” — make more sense once you realize that everyone around you is in a competition not to look ridiculous. When my daughter complained that a boy had insulted her during recess, I counseled her to forget about it. She said that just wouldn’t do: To save face, she had to humiliate him.诚然,法国比起凡尔赛的时代已经发生了一些变化。但是当你意识到,周围的所有人都在为了不显得可笑而奋力竞争,那么当代的很多对话,包括校园里高呼的“Bim!”,就都显得合理了。我的女儿抱怨,一个男孩课间欺负了她,我建议她别在意这件事。但她说那是不行的:要想挽回面子,就必须羞辱回去。Many children train for this at home. Where Americans might coo over a child’s most inane remark, to boost his confidence, middle-class French parents teach their kids to be concise and amusing, to keep everyone listening. “I force him or her to discover the best ways of retaining my attention,” the anthropologist Raymonde Carroll wrote in her 1987 book “Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience.”许多孩子在家就接受了这种训练。为了激发孩子的信心,美国人对子女最愚蠢的言论或许都会柔声赞许,但是法国中产阶级父母却会教导孩子要讲话简洁风趣,好让所有人都愿意听。“我会强迫他或她,想方设法地吸引我的注意力,”人类学家雷蒙德·卡罗(Raymonde Carroll)在她1987年出版的《文化误解:法国和美国的经验》(Cultural Misunderstandings: The French-American Experience)一书中写道。This is probably worse in Paris, and among the professional classes. But a lot of French TV involves round-table discussions in which well-dressed people attempt to land zingers on one another. Practically every time I speak up at a school conference, a political event or my apartment building association’s annual meeting, I’m met with a display of someone else’s superior intelligence. (Adults don’t actually say “bim,” they just flash you a satisfied smile.) Jean-Beno#238;t Nadeau, a Canadian who co-wrote a forthcoming book on French conversation, told me that the penchant for saying “no” or “it’s not possible” is often a cover for the potential humiliation of seeming not to know something. Only once you trust someone can you turn down the wit and reveal your weaknesses, he said. (I think the French obsession with protecting private life comes from the belief that everyone’s entitled to a humiliation-free zone.)这种现象在巴黎,在专业阶层当中或许更严重。不过,法国的很多电视节目都有圆桌讨论的情形,让衣着考究的嘉宾用尖刻的口吻相互嘲弄。在学校会议、政治活动,或者公寓楼居民协会的年会上发言时,我几乎每次都会遇到别人炫耀高超的智力。(成年人并不会真的说出“bim”,只是脸上闪现出一丝满意的微笑而已。)加拿大人让-贝努阿·纳多(Jean-Beno#238;t Nadeau)与人合著了一本关于法国式谈话的书,即将出版。他告诉我,爱说“不”、“不可能”的习惯,常常是为了避免因为看起来不知道某事而可能受到的羞辱。他说,只有当你信任某人时,才能不必那么机智,袒露自己的弱点。(我想,法国人对保护私生活的偏执,源于他们认为每个人都有权得到一个免受羞辱的空间。)At least it’s not boring. Even among friends, being dull is almost criminal. A French entrepreneur told me her rules for dinner-party topics: no kids, no jobs, no real estate. Provocative opinions are practically required. “You must be a little bit mean but also a little bit vulnerable,” she said.至少这样聊天不会无聊。即使是在朋友之间,表现得无趣几乎也是犯罪行为。一名法国企业家告诉我,她为聚餐话题立下的规矩是:不谈孩子、不谈工作、不谈房地产。这实际上就需要提出争议性的意见。她说,“必须要有一些恶毒,但也要有一些脆弱。”It’s dizzying to switch to the British conversational mode, in which everyone’s trying to show they don’t take themselves seriously. The result is lots of self-deprecation and ironic banter. I’ve sat through two-hour lunches in London waiting for everyone to stop exchanging quips so the real conversation could begin. But “real things aren’t supposed to come up,” my husband said. “Banter can be the only mode of conversation you ever have with someone.”切换到英国式的交谈模式则会令人不知所措。在这种模式里,人人都努力表现得不把自己当回事,结果就是大量的自嘲和讽刺性的调侃。在伦敦,我曾好几次耐着性子坚持到两个小时的午餐结束,一直等着所有人停止相互打趣,这样才能开始真正的交谈。但“可别以为一定会谈什么实质内容,”我丈夫说。“和有的人,只存在戏谑这一种谈话模式。”Earnestness makes British people gag. Viewers respond to the “gushy, tearful” speeches of American actors at the Oscars with a “finger-down-throat ‘I’m going to be sick’ gesture,” writes Kate Fox, author of “Watching the English.” Moralizing politicians get this, too.真诚会让英国人呛着。《观察英国人》(Watching the English)的作者凯特·福克斯(Kate Fox)写道,对美国演员在奥斯卡颁奖礼上“含泪发表的煽情”感言,英国观众会做出“把手指塞进喉咙里,表示‘我要吐了’的动作”。面对爱说教的政客,他们也不会客气。Even British courtships can be conducted ironically. “ ‘You’re just not my type,’ uttered in the right tone and in the context of banter, can be tantamount to a proposal of marriage,” Ms. Fox writes.就连英国式的求爱,也可以在冷嘲热讽中展开。“在戏谑语境下用恰当的语调说出‘你决不是我喜欢的类型’,简直无异于求婚,”福克斯写道。Being ridiculous is sometimes required. The classic British hen night — a bachelor party for brides — involves groups of women wearing feather boas to a bar, then daring one another to “kiss a bald man” or “remove your bra without leaving the room.” Stumbling around drunk with friends — then recounting your misadventures for months afterward — is a standard bonding ritual.有时候,表现得滑稽可笑是必须的。在传统的英国女子婚前单身派对上,会有很多姑娘戴着羽毛围巾前往酒吧,然后用激将法撺掇彼此“亲吻一个秃顶男人”或是“当场脱掉内衣”。醉醺醺地和朋友一起出丑——然后在接下来的几个月里一直回顾自己当时做的糗事——是建立友情的标准仪式。After being besieged by British irony and French wit, I sometimes yearn for the familiar comfort of American conversations, where there are no stupid questions. Among friends, I merely have to provide reassurance and mirroring: No, you don’t look fat, and anyway, I look worse.被英国式的嘲讽和法国式的机智包围后,我时不时会渴望美国式谈话给人带来的那种熟悉的舒适感。这种谈话里没有问题会被认为是愚蠢的。在朋友之间,我只需要宽慰对方,并拿自己做参照:不,你看起来不胖,而且不管怎样,我看上去更遭。It might not matter what I say, since some American conversations resemble a succession of monologues. A 2014 study led by a psychologist at Yeshiva University found that when researchers crossed two unrelated instant-message conversations, as many as 42 percent of participants didn’t notice. A lot of us — myself included — could benefit from a basic rule of improvisational comedy: Instead of planning your next remark, just listen very hard to what the other person is saying. Call it “mindful conversation,” if you like. That’s what the French tend to do — even if it ends with “bim.”我说什么可能根本不重要,因为有些美式谈话其实是一连串的独白。叶史瓦大学(Yeshiva University)的一名心理学家在2014年牵头进行的一项研究中发现,当研究人员将两个不相干的即时通讯对话交叉在一起时,多达42%的参与者毫无察觉。我们中的很多人,包括我在内,可以从即兴喜剧的一条基本规则中受益:与其构思接下来要说什么,不如干脆非常认真地听对方在说什么。不妨称之为“用心交谈”。法国人往往会这么做,尽管最后会加上一个“bim”。 /201503/364986

  White spots on nails are very common, everyone at some point in their lives experience them. These spots can indicate a few different things, because the different patterns of white spots may be symptomatic of different causative conditions, but the underlying theme is that your body is trying to tell you that you are not healthy. It#39;s essential to know the causes and take respective measures to treat them.指甲上出现白色斑点是很常见的,几乎每个人都可能会遇到。这些小斑点因形状等的不同,会反映出我们身体可能存在的不同问题。无论哪一种,这其实都是再告诉我们:我们可能需要关注自己的身体健康状况了。所以我们有必要知道白色斑点出现的原因,以及针对不同原因而需要采取不同的措施。Nail Injuries指甲受伤The white spots on the fingernails, which can appear as dots or lines, are called leukonychia. An injury to the base of the nail, which is also known as the matrix, can result in the appearance of these white spots on the nails.指甲上的白色斑点,有时会成点状或线状出现,这叫做白甲病。可能会由于指甲根部(也叫基质)部分受伤而导致。Due to the fact that these spots take some time to appear after the injury, you may have forgotten all about the injury. Some examples of the types of injuries that can cause these spots are banging the finger on the door or banging it on the countertop or with a hammer. Having manicures done frequently can cause injuries to the nails as well.这类白色斑点可能会在受伤很长一段时间之后才会出现,所以你可能都不记得指甲曾受过什么伤了。导致这类斑点出现的指甲受伤类型包括指甲撞在门上或工作台上或被锤子砸到等。过度频繁的剪指甲也会导致指甲受伤。Allergic Reaction过敏反应There are times when white spots can appear on the nails due to an allergic reaction to nail polish, nail hardener or even nail polish remover.有时因涂指甲油或者卸甲水时导致的过敏反应也会使指甲上长出白色小班点。Zinc Deficiency缺锌Zinc is a metal that is normally found in the human body. A zinc deficiency in a person commonly causes white spots or streaks in their nails.锌是人体所必须的一种微量元素。体内缺锌经常会导致指甲上出现白色斑点或白色细条。A change in the person#39;s diet can help to resolve this problem.改善饮食能帮助解决这个问题。Some foods that can help to add zinc to the person#39;s diet are oysters, baked beans, yogurt, crab, beef shanks, pork shoulder, spinach, nuts and whole grains.富含锌的食物包括牡蛎、烤豆、酸奶、蟹肉、牛腱肉、猪肩肉、菠菜、坚果以及全部的谷物。Protein Deficiency缺乏蛋白质A protein deficiency in a person will show as horizontal bands that extend across the nail bed. These lines are known as Muehrcke#39;s lines. Due to the fact that these lines are on the nail bed and not on the nail plate, they will not simply grow out with your nails.体内缺乏蛋白质在指甲上的表现就是甲床上会出现横条纹,这种横条纹叫做米尔克线。由于这些条纹是长在甲床而不是甲面上,所以它们不会随着指甲一起生长。When the protein levels return to normal, these lines will usually just disappear. There are some rare cases in which these lines can be indicative of liver disease. There is a way to test to see if these lines are Muehrcke#39;s lines or not. Just press down on the nail plate, and if the lines disappear then they are Muehrcke#39;s lines.当体内蛋白质含量回归正常,这些条纹一般就会消失。在一些罕见案例中,这种条纹还可能成为肝病的预兆。有一种方法可以检测这种条纹是否属于米克尔线:按住指甲甲面,如果条纹消失那么它们就是米克尔线。Recommendations of protein-rich foods: Turkey beast, fish (salmon, tuna), pork loin, lean beef, tofu, beans, yogurt, soymilk, nuts and seeds.富含蛋白质的食物包括:鱼类(三文鱼、金鱼等)、猪里脊肉、豆腐、豆类、酸奶、豆浆、坚果及种子等。Calcium Deficiency缺钙Possibly because of the numerous calcium enriched nail strengtheners on the market, there is a widesp belief that calcium deficiency causes leukonychia.也许因为市面上有很多卖加钙的指甲增强剂,所以很多人都认为缺钙会导致白甲病。In order to treat calcium deficiency, you can simply add calcium to your diet, drinking orange juice or any other calcium fortified food or drinks will help.如果缺钙,可以通过调整饮食来补钙,如多喝橙汁、多吃含钙量高的食物。Fungal Superficial Onychomycosis真菌感染造成的甲癣A subtype of an infection that commonly appears on the toenails is known as white superficial onychomycosis. Fungi are the cause of these white spots and they appear on the nail plate and then they sp to the nail bed. This disorder presents with the toenails appearing flaky at first and then the nail becomes thick. Nail splitting then occurs and there is significant pain while wearing shoes.容易出现在脚趾甲上的一种真菌感染亚型叫做白色表浅性甲癣。真菌是这类白色斑点产生的原因,白色斑点先是在指甲甲面出现,之后又蔓延到甲床上。这种情况下,脚趾甲先是看起来很薄,后来又变厚,之后还会裂缝,穿鞋子的时候会很疼。There are some other disorders that can mimic this disorder, so in order to diagnosis this form of onychomycosis, a doctor can clip a piece of the toenail and examine it under a microscope or they may choose to place the clipping into a special container and watch it over time to see what type of fungus grows on it.因为这种病症容易和其他病症混淆,所以为了确诊这种形式的甲癣,医生常会剪下一块脚趾甲放在显微镜下检查,或是放在一种特殊的容器中,观察一段时间以确定真菌的种类。An oral anti-fungal medication in combination with a topical ointment is normally recommended. This will usually clear this condition up within three months, although it is important to be aware of the fact that the topical ointment generally will not fully penetrate the nail plate to reach the nail bed.如果得了这种甲癣,通常推荐口抗真菌药物及外用药膏。通常三个月之后,症状就会消失。不过要注意的是,外用药膏并不会通过指甲甲面直达甲床的。Serious Diseases一些严重疾病There are some serious diseases like liver disease, Kidney disease, Anemia, etc., that present symptoms like white spots on the nails. Therefore, it is extremely important to see a doctor if you notice any discolorations in your nails. The earlier you see the doctor the more likely it is to treat the condition effectively.指甲上出现白色斑点还有可能是一些严重疾病如肝病、肾病、贫血等的先兆。所以如果你发现指甲有任何褪色等异常情况请及时看医生。越早看医生,越能有效解决问题。Home Remedies for White Spots on Nails指甲上出现白色斑点的家庭疗法Cover with Nail Polish涂指甲油In order to hide these white spots, you can use nail polish, preferably a light shade of pink or peach.为了盖住白色斑点,可以涂指甲油,建议涂那种浅粉色或粉红色。Moisturize保湿Maintaining a good level of moisture in the hands is important. A good tip for this, is massaging the hands and fingernails with either vitamin E or hand lotion, which can be applied to the skin on the side of the nails as well.保持手部湿润非常重要。可以在手上涂抹维E或护手霜之后手指、指甲以及指甲旁边的皮肤。Let It Grow Out等着白斑点和指甲一起长长然后剪掉Patience is of the utmost importance when letting the white spots on the nails grow out. With time they will grow over the smile line, which is the separation between the bed of the nail and the actual growth of the nail. Once this occurs, you can clip, cut or file them down, but it is extremely important that you don#39;t take off too much, it is necessary to leave some actual growth so you do not damage the nail bed.要等着白色斑点和指甲一起长长之后再剪掉需要的是耐心。等到白色斑点随着指甲长到可以修剪的部分时再剪掉。记住一定不要剪得太短,要留一些长度来保护甲床。Keep a Balanced Diet饮食均衡Maintaining a balanced diet is essential for the overall health of the entire body, including the fingernails.均衡的饮食对包括指甲在内的身体各部分的健康状况来说都是必须的。#8226;Have More Calcium-Rich Foods and Drinks多摄食富含钙的食物和饮品#8226;Eat More Vitamin C Rich Fruits多吃富含维C的水果#8226;Consume More Zinc, Iron Rich Foods多吃含锌、铁等元素的食物 /201412/348361。

  

  The zodiac animal of China#39;s coming Lunar New Year has caused much confusion in the English world, as its translation results in at least two candidates: sheep or goat.  中国农历新年即将到来,但今年的生肖却让英语国家的人们感到非常困惑,因为它至少有两种英文翻译:绵羊或山羊。  Chinese folklorists say the animal symbol can be either a sheep or a goat but more likely goat, given the latter#39;s popularity as a farm animal among Han Chinese。  中国民俗学家表示,羊年生肖的象征物既可能是绵羊,也可能是山羊,但山羊的可能性更大,因为在汉族地区山羊作为家畜更为常见。  The Chinese lunar calendar assigns an animal symbol to each year in every 12-year cycle. Yet the Chinese character for the eighth zodiac animal is ;Yang;, which can refer to either of the two ruminants when used without attributes。  中国农历以十二年为周期,每年以一种动物作为象征。十二生肖中的第八个生肖是“羊”,而这个字在没有修饰限定语的情况下可指绵羊或山羊任意一种反刍动物。  Huang Yang, a prominent researcher on the role of sheep/goats in Chinese culture, says tracing the origin of the zodiacal Yang could be difficult, as the Chinese zodiac first appeared after the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 ), when the Chinese people did not differentiate between sheep and goats in language or in sacrificial offering。  国内研究羊在中国文化中地位的知名学者黄洋称,追寻生肖羊的来历比较困难,因为此生肖最先出现在商朝(公元前1600-1046年)之后,而那时人们在语言和祭祀中是不区分绵羊和山羊的。  Both species have a long history of domestication in China and have appeared on oracle bone scripts and other artifacts since prehistoric times, according to Huang, who in 2012 challenged the saying that Chinese are ;descendants of the dragon; by arguing that the earliest Chinese actually worshipped the meek ruminants。  黄洋称,这两种动物在中国都有着较长的畜养历史,自史前时期开始,就已出现在甲骨文和其他手工艺品上了。黄洋曾在2012年质疑中国人是龙的传人,认为最早的中国人崇拜的是温顺的反刍动物——羊。  ;But if we judge from the fact that the Chinese zodiac is a Han tradition, Yang are more likely goats, which are more common livestock for the Han Chinese,; he tells Xinhua in a phone interview。  在接受新华社的电话采访时,他表示:“但如果我们基于生肖是汉族传统这个事实出发, 则‘羊’更可能指的是山羊,因为对于汉族人来说山羊是更为常见的家畜。”  Shaggy sheep are a common sight in north China#39;s prairies and were domesticated by Chinese earlier than goats, but goats are more commonly raised in areas populated by Han Chinese, Huang says。  他说,绒毛蓬松的绵羊在中国北方的大草原上很常见,其畜养的时间也比山羊要早,但在汉族聚居地山羊更为常见。  Images on China#39;s zodiac stamps and papercuttings are often bearded goats. The replica of the Yang bronze statue that once formed part of a zodiac fountain in the looted Old Summer Palace also has a goat head。  中国生肖邮票和剪纸上羊的形象往往都是带胡须的山羊。而惨遭洗劫的圆明园生肖喷泉一部分的青铜羊首复制品,也是山羊头。  Fang Binggui, a folklorist based in southeast China#39;s Fuzhou City, says the image of the zodiac Yang is open to regional interpretation. ;People depict the zodiac animal based on the most common Yang in their region. So it#39;s often sheep in the north while goats in the south.;  中国东南部城市福州的民俗学家方兵贵称,生肖羊的形象常有区域性的解释。他说:“人们基于当地最常见的羊来描绘生肖羊,所以在北方生肖羊往往是绵羊,在南方却是山羊。”  Few ordinary Chinese are troubled by the sheep/goat distinction。  很少有中国百姓因分不清绵羊和山羊感到困扰。  ;I#39;ve never thought about that question before. Do we have to tell them apart?; asks Chen Xufeng, an office clerk in Beijing。  北京白领陈旭锋说:“我以前从来没想过这个问题。我们有必要区分它们吗?”  ;I#39;ve seen more goats in zodiac images, but I prefer to buy a sheep mascot, as sheep are more fluffy and lovely,; he says。  他说:“在生肖图案里,山羊更常见,但我却更喜欢买绵羊吉祥物,因为绵羊毛茸茸的,非常可爱。”  However, the ambiguity has whipped up discussion in the West. A story run by the Associated Press said this year#39;s animal ;is subject to interpretation;。  然而,这个模糊不清的概念却在西方引发讨论。美联社刊文称,今年的生肖动物还有待解读。  ;We just had this discussion a few weeks ago. What exactly is it?; AP ed a worker in Brooklyn Chinatown as saying. ;It can be a ram, sheep or goat -- any ruminant mountain animal with horns.;  美联社援引布鲁克林唐人街一名上班族的话称:“我们几周前刚讨论过这个问题。今年的生肖到底是什么?它可以是公羊、绵羊或者山羊,只要是山上长角的反刍动物都有可能。”  In England, the Manchester Evening News also posed the question: ;Later this month, we will enter the Chinese Year of the Ram. Or should that be sheep? Or even Goat?;  英格兰《曼彻斯特晚报》也提出了这个问题:“月底我们就要跨入中国农历公羊年了,或者应该叫绵羊年?还是山羊年?”  Other media outlets, including Bloomberg, have described the coming Lunar New Year as the Year of the Sheep, Goat or Ram。  其他一些媒体包括彭社,也已把即将到来的农历新年称作绵羊、山羊或公羊年。  Xiang Daohua, a teacher of Chinese language and culture at China Foreign Affairs University, believes cultural connotations should be taken into consideration in translation。  北京外国语大学[微]中国语言文化学院教师向道华认为,翻译时应该考虑文化内涵的因素。  ;The English word #39;sheep#39; better fits the Yang image in traditional Chinese cultures, which is meek and even a bit weak,; he says。  他说:“英文单词‘sheep’(绵羊)更符合中国传统文化中羊温顺、甚至有点柔弱的形象。” /201502/359593BERLIN — A quarter-century ago today, the Berlin Wall fell, and since then this city has been on a roll. It’s one of the party capitals of the world and an affordable center for young artists and musicians, with enough layers of history to inspire a novelist for a few lifetimes. And its economy has benefited greatly from a growing start-up scene. In a country dominated by pleasant but boring cities, Berlin is Germany’s one truly cosmopolitan metropolis.柏林——自从柏林墙在25年前的今天(本文发表于11月9日)被推倒,这座城市的发展便一帆风顺。它是世界狂欢之都;同时也是年轻艺术家和音乐家的聚居地,不仅生活成本低廉,还有层次丰富的历史,足够一个小说家写上好几辈子。此外,创业浪潮的兴起让它的经济受益匪浅。德国大多数城市都很宜居,但却显得单调乏味,柏林则是这个国家一个真正国际化的大都市。Many of these accomplishments are laid out in “Berlin Now: The City After the Wall,” a recent book by the German author Peter Schneider. He is right in saying that in recent decades no other city “has changed as much — and for the better — as Berlin,” lauding the sense of openness that has drawn immigrants, revived the shattered Jewish population and made the city a magnet for a creative class that is also luring cutting-edge businesses.这些成果的很大一部分都被德国作家彼得·施耐德(Peter Schneide)写进了他的新书——《今日柏林:一座后柏林墙时代的城市》(Berlin Now: The City After the Wall)。施耐德说得没错,最近数十年间,没有哪座城市“发生过像柏林这么大的变化——而且是变得更好了”。他对它的开放性称赞有加,正是这种特质吸引来了移民,让遭到毁灭性打击的犹太人群体恢复了生机,并把这所城市变成了吸引创意阶层和尖端企业的磁石。All of this is worth celebrating, but to longtime residents like me, the moves that made this possible all ended about 20 years ago. Since then, the city has been coasting, mostly consumed by small-bore issues instead of grasping the chance to become a truly great city. Berlin has tried to make a virtue of being a less polished version of London or Paris — in the words of its departing mayor, “poor, but sexy.” Yet that is more a reflection of a city whose ambitions rarely extend beyond narrow parochialism.所有这些都值得庆祝,但对我这样的长期居民而言,让这一切成为可能的举措早在大约20年前就已戛然而止。从那时起,这座城市一直在放任自流,它把大部分精力都消耗在了各种琐碎议题上,而非用于抓住时机,以成为一个真正伟大的城市。柏林将自己定位为不那么光鲜亮丽的伦敦或者巴黎——用即将卸任的柏林市长的话来说,“虽然穷,但是很性感”——并竭力善加利用这种定位。由此却反映出,它的雄心甚少超越一个相当狭隘的范围。Given what happened during and after World War II, perhaps this isn’t surprising. One of the most dynamic cities of the early 20th century lost its elite to emigration or genocide, and then its infrastructure to saturation bombing and street-to-street fighting. In the aftermath, its great companies fled — Allianz and Siemens to Munich, Deutsche Bank to Frankfurt — while what remained of its middle class went anywhere to escape the rubble and isolation.鉴于二战期间和战争结束以来所发生的一切,这或许并不令人意外。移民潮和大屠杀让20世纪早期最有活力的一座城市失去了精英阶层;随后,狂轰滥炸和巷战又让它的基础设施毁于一旦。接下来,大企业纷纷撤离——安联(Allianz)和西门子(Siemens)搬到了慕尼黑,德意志(Deutsche Bank)搬到了法兰克福——剩下的中产阶级也为了逃离废墟和隔离状态而四散各方。Berlin survived for nearly 45 years on life support, but it was more like a curiosity of the Cold War. On one side, the Potemkin prosperity of East Berlin; on the other, the subsidized West Berlin of squatters and artists made famous by David Bowie. I lived in the western sector for the last couple of years of this period and to me the city was fascinating in a morbid way, like Dr. Caligari’s somnambulist hero Cesare, asleep in a coffin-like cabinet, controlled through hypnosis and displayed as a freak-show attraction to tourists venturing off the beaten track.柏林勉强撑过了45年,但那一时期的它更像一道冷战奇景。一边是呈现波将金式繁荣的东柏林;另一边是充斥着擅自占用房屋者和艺术家,靠补贴度日,因大卫·鲍伊(David Bowie)而闻名的西柏林。该时期即将结束的那几年,我居住在西柏林。对我而言,当时的这座城市有一种病态的迷人气息,如同《卡里加利士的小屋》的男主人公梦游者凯撒(Cesare),睡在棺材般的箱子里,被人通过催眠加以控制,成了一个怪物秀,以吸引那些远离大众景点的旅行者。The fall of the Berlin Wall resuscitated the city. Subway and light rail lines between the two halves of the city and its hinterland were reconnected, museum holdings put back together and Germany decided to move its capital here from Bonn, which eventually brought thousands of well-paid and well-educated civil servants to help restock the middle class.柏林墙的倒塌让这座城市苏醒了。东西两部分及其腹地之间的地铁和轻轨线路重新连了起来,物馆的藏品又被搁在了一处。德国还决定把首都从波恩搬过来,该举措最终为柏林带来了成千上万名薪酬可观、受过良好教育的公务员,这对中产阶层的复兴颇有助益。Living here during those early years of reunification was thrilling. I recall in 1992 taking one of the first light-rail S-Bahn trains to Potsdam, the city of parks and palaces to Berlin’s south. It had been cut off for decades but suddenly was there, like an apparition out of the Prussian past. It seemed Berlin just had to flip a few switches to join the ranks of great global metropolises.两德统一后的最初几年,住在柏林是一件令人兴奋的事情。我记得自己曾在1992年搭乘最初的几班轻轨列车之一,前往位于柏林之南的波茨坦,一座到处都是公园和宫殿的城市。通向那里的交通当时已被切断了好几十年,却突然间就出现了,如同一个来自过去的普鲁士幽灵。那时候,柏林要跻身世界大都会的行列,仿佛就是打开几个开关那么简单。Instead, what followed were two decades of inaction. Berlin did get several important things right: the Holocaust memorial in the city center succeeds — as a warning, as a tourist attraction and as a piece of urban planning — far better than most people had thought possible. The nation’s Parliament is another achievement; a young democracy needs a good spiritual center, and Sir Norman Foster exorcised the Reichstag of Wilhelminian bombast, transforming it into a fitting symbol for a vibrant republic.不料,随后到来的竟是碌碌无为的20年。柏林的确把几件重要的事情办得不错:作为一种警示、一个旅游景点以及城市规划的一部分,市中心的那座大屠杀纪念馆就建得很好,好得远远超出了大部分人的想象。另一项成就是德国国会大厦的改建。一个年轻的民主国家需要一个良好的精神中枢,诺曼·福斯特(Norman Foster)爵士摒弃了国会大厦原有的浮夸风格,把它变成了能够恰如其分地展现一个共和国生机勃勃的精神风貌的标志性建筑。But since then, the city’s problems have started to pile up: the cheaply built central train station with its short roof and low ceilings; the failure to redevelop old Tempelhof Airport; the controversial proposal to shoehorn the city’s world-famous museum of European paintings into a smaller space; a similar, tourism-driven plan to shrink the Ethnological Museum and relocate it in a fake Baroque palace; and the inability to come up with effective measures to stave off gentrification. And then there’s the new airport. It was needed 20 years ago, was supposed to open in 2011 and is now unlikely to see traffic before 2016, by which time it aly will be too small for projected passenger flows.但自从那时起,这个城市的问题不断累积:寒酸的中央火车站,屋顶很矮,天花板很低;没能重建老旧的滕佩尔霍夫机场(Tempelhof Airport);搞了一个饱受争议的方案,非要把该市一座举世闻名的欧洲绘画物馆塞进一个较小的空间;又弄了一个类似的旅游驱动型规划,要缩小民族物馆(Ethnological Museum)的规模,并把它搬到一座冒牌的巴洛克式宫殿里去;还有就是没能找出避免绅士化的有效办法。再来说说新机场。柏林早在20年前就需要这个新机场,原本应该在2011年投入运营,但现在看来,在2016年之前是不可能开业的。等到那时候,相对于预计的客流量而言,它已经显得太小了。All these problems can be explained away as bad luck, or typical of ambitious, large-scale projects. And of course all big cities have their problems. But in Berlin’s case they are a fair reflection of the fact that the city has been ting water, and that many of Berlin’s accolades stem from the big changes of a quarter-century ago and not the efforts of city administrations since then.所有这些问题都可以简单地搪塞,比如运气不好,比如满怀豪情的大型项目常常会事与愿违。的确,所有的大城市都有各自的问题。可在柏林,这些问题却可以显示,这座城市的止步不前,柏林的许多荣耀,都来自25年前的剧变,而非在那以后市政府的治理努力。The reasons for this stagnation go back to the Cold War. Early on, West Berlin did have internationally known mayors like Ernst Reuter and Willy Brandt. But by the 1970s, the city had become a backwater. Few ambitious politicians wanted to lead the western half (not to mention the eastern section, which was run as part of East Germany’s one-party state). The city became synonymous with second-tier politicians.这种停滞的缘由,可以追溯到冷战时代。最初,西柏林的确有过一些享誉国际的市长,如恩斯特·罗伊特(Ernst Reuter)和维利·勃兰特(Willy Brandt)。但到了1970年代,这座城市就成了一湾死水。鲜少会有哪个有志向的政治人物,希望领导柏林的西半部,更不用说东德一党制国家统治下的东柏林了。这座城市成了二流政治人物的同义语。When the Berlin Wall fell, these parochial officials took over the unified city. Not surprisingly, their vision was almost comically narrow. In 1993, the long-serving mayor, Eberhard Diepgen, said Berlin’s new center should look like “a city space like those we know from old black and white photographs.”柏林墙倒塌时,这些目光短浅的官员接管了统一后的城市。可想而知,他们的视野狭隘到了滑稽的地步。1993年,担任市长已久的艾伯哈·迪根(Eberhard Diepgen)表示,柏林的新市中心要像“老黑白照片里见过的那种城市空间”。This lack of imagination was reflected in building codes that required most new structures to be small and not look too modern. Over the years, the city center has become filled with dull, historicized structures. The other lasting effect of this era was an epic housing bubble brought on by a corrupt bank that the city’s leaders created by merging several local banks. That bubble eventually cost Mr. Diepgen his job and saddled Berlin with billions in debt.这种缺乏想象力的念头在建筑规章里得到了体现,法规要求多数的新建房屋尺寸要小,看起来不能太现代。日积月累,市中心里填满了枯燥的仿古建筑。这个时代遗留下了另一个长期的后果。柏林的领导人合并了几家当地,而合并产生的那家腐败的,却催生了巨大的房地产泡沫。这场泡沫最终导致迪根丢掉了工作,也让柏林背上了沉重的债务。Mr. Diepgen was replaced in 2001 by the current mayor, Klaus Wowereit, a suave, telegenic Social Democrat. It has been under his leadership that the city has slowly recovered. And yet for the most part his administration has simply stayed out of the way of the longer-term trends that reunification had set in motion. Perhaps the most important of these was the bursting of the housing bubble that Mr. Wowereit’s predecessor created. That left Berlin with a glut of cheap apartments, which made the city a magnet for young, creative people and start-ups.迪根在2001年由现任市长克劳斯·沃维雷特(Klaus Wowereit)接替,后者是社会民主党人,文质彬彬也很上镜。正是在他的领导之下,这座城市才缓慢地复苏。然而他的政府所做的,大部分也只是不去妨碍德国统一所引发的一种长期历史趋势。或许其中最为重要的,就是戳破沃维雷特的前任造就的房地产泡沫。这给柏林留下了许多廉价的公寓,于是它像磁石一般,吸引了年轻、富有创造力的人群,以及许多创业企业。But when the city took concrete action, the results were usually closer to the agony of Berlin’s new airport. It is not only decades overdue, but like the central train station, it was built on the cheap. It has no subway connection, no dedicated light-rail line and increasingly it seems that planes will be heavily penalized for landing at night, guaranteeing it will never become a hub.但是当柏林采取切实行动的时候,其结果常常更接近柏林新机场造成的痛苦。不仅拖延了几十年,而且像中央火车站一样,是以极低的成本建成的。没有对接地铁、没有专用的轻轨线,而且越来越常见的问题是,飞机在夜间降落时似乎会遇到很大的麻烦。这样一来,它绝对成不了一座枢纽。And like many of Berlin’s big projects, corruption seems to be behind its delay, leading to resignations and official inquiries.就像柏林的许多大项目一样,机场长期拖延背后的原因似乎是腐败。一些官员因此辞职,官方也展开了调查。For many years, I comforted myself by saying that Berlin had thrived because of its leaders’ mismanagement. After all, if the city weren’t so badly run, real estate prices would be high, which would drive away the young people and tech start-ups. There’s some truth to this, but it’s the equivalent of telling China that it should remain poor because if it got rich its competitive advantage in low wages would evaporate.多年来,我总是这样安慰自己:柏林之所以能繁荣,是因为领导层管理不善。毕竟,如果不是因为城市管理不善,房地产价格就会高涨,年轻人和创业的科技企业就会被挤走。这在一定程度上是事实,但却像是在告诉中国应该继续受穷,因为一旦富起来,低工资的竞争优势就会消失。Comparisons to China’s capital, Beijing, often come up in my mind when I think of Berlin. Over the past quarter-century, I’ve spent all but three years bouncing between the two cities. Of the two, I vastly prefer Berlin: It has a vibrant civil society, better museums, more affordable housing, a more open and tolerant attitude, and of course much less smog.我在想到柏林时,头脑里经常会浮现出与中国首都北京的比较。在过去25年里,除了三年之外,我一直往返于这两座城市之间。我喜欢柏林远远超出北京,因为它有活跃的公民社会、物馆更好、住房更便宜、心态更开放也更宽容,当然雾霾也要少得多。But in some maniacal way Beijing is chasing the future to a degree that Berlin can’t — or won’t. Maybe it’s because Berlin has endured too much to indulge in this game, but Beijing feels as if it is at the center of something special, ominous at times, but thrilling nonetheless. The city can be overcrowded and dirty, but it’s also at the phase in its history where it’s building a subway line every year. Meanwhile, Berlin still hasn’t managed to run a subway line from the eight-year-old main train station to the western part of the city, where two-thirds of the population lives.然而北京正在以有些癫狂的步调追赶未来,这是柏林所无法企及的,或者说不愿企及的。可能是因为柏林在过往承受了太多苦痛,不愿沉湎于这种竞赛之中,但北京却感觉自己站在一个奇迹的中心,偶尔让人惊惧,不过还是激动人心。虽然北京过于拥挤也有点脏,但是它处在一个每年都新建一条地铁线的历史阶段。与此同时,柏林却一直做不到用地铁线,把已经落成八年的主火车站,与三分之二柏林人口居住的城市西半部连接起来。It’s fine to be world-weary. But that shouldn’t be an excuse for being dull and timid. Yet for many who have witnessed the city’s post-wall fortunes, it feels that this is what lies beneath the art galleries and start-ups: a scarred city content to remain in the second league.厌倦世界恐怕无可厚非,但不应该以此为借口,一直枯燥、羞怯。然而,在见了这座城市在柏林墙倒塌后的命运的许多人看来,在画廊和创业企业背后,仿佛掩藏着一座伤痕累累,甘愿当二线城市的柏林。 /201411/341783The last skyscraper built in Paris opened in 1973, an unadorned dark block, rising 59 stories — the Montparnasse Tower. It was considered a disaster. To this day, Parisians joke that the tower offers the best views in the city, because it is the only place from which you cannot see it. City officials went to work banning future skyscrapers altogether.巴黎的最后一个天大楼是1973年揭幕的蒙帕纳斯大厦(Montparnasse Tower),它是一座楼高59层、朴素的黑色大楼。它被认为是一个灾难。直至今日,仍爱开玩笑说,这座大楼的视野是全城最好的,因为只有在这里你看不见它。市政府后来干脆禁止再盖天大楼。Now, however, four decades later, Paris is again considering a new skyscraper — a triangular, 42-story glass office tower designed by the Swiss architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron that would stand in the city’s southwest corner.不过,四十年后,巴黎再度考虑建造天大楼——一座42层的三角形玻璃写字楼。它由瑞士建筑师雅克·赫尔佐格(Jacques Herzog )和皮埃尔·德默隆(Pierre de Meuron)设计,位于该市西南角。Over the years, Parisians have come to embrace some of the city’s bolder architectural adventures, such as the glass pyramids inside of the Louvre courtyard or the Pompidou Center, built with its network of colorfully painted water pipes and air-conditioning ducts on the outside. But the resistance to skyscrapers has been fierce.这些年来,在建筑上开始接受一些更为大胆的尝试,比如卢浮宫庭院里的玻璃金字塔或蓬皮杜中心——这个建筑的外侧布满五颜六色的水管和空调管道网。但是人们对天大楼的抗拒依然强烈。For some Parisians, the new proposal is another Montparnasse in the making, an architectural star turn that would further disfigure one of the city’s key selling points — an almost perfect 19th-century skyline.有些觉得这个新项目在走蒙帕纳斯大厦的老路,会进一步削弱这座城市的一个关键卖点——几近完美的19世纪天际线。For the last few decades, they say, the city has done very nicely by keeping office towers outside the city limits in areas like La Défense, on its western edge, now a forest of glass and steel.他们说,过去几十年,这座城市成功地把写字楼排除在市区范围之外,集中在西侧的拉德芳斯等地区,那里现在是玻璃钢筋的森林。But in these trying times, with the country’s economy moribund, the mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, has been arguing otherwise, delighted to see such a huge private investment in an area of Paris that, at the moment, is not much to look at.但如今时势艰难,该国经济停滞不前,所以巴黎市长安妮·伊达尔戈(Anne Hidalgo)对此持不同态度,她乐于在目前相貌平平的一个巴黎区域看到这样一个巨大的私人投资项目。For now, the area is a collection of conference centers that lie between the highway that runs around the city periphery and a not particularly distinguished residential neighborhood in the 15th Arrondissement, near the Porte de Versailles.目前,这个地区集中了很多会议中心,它们位于环绕市中心的高速公路和第15区凡尔赛门附近一个不太显眼的住宅区之间。The tower would provide 5,000 construction jobs, city officials say. It would offer marquee office space that could attract new companies to establish headquarters here. Backed by Unibail-Rodamco, a top European property developer, the Triangle Tower would cost about 500 million euros, or about 7 million.市政府官员称,这座大厦将提供5000个建筑工作机会。它将提供宽敞的办公空间,吸引新公司在这里建总部。这座三角形大厦由欧洲顶级地产开发商尤尼百-洛当科集团(Unibail-Rodamco)投资,将耗资约五亿欧元,约合6.27亿美元。“There are many selling points to this project,” said Jean-Louis Missika, the city’s deputy mayor for architecture and urbanism. “It would be an important economic development for the city.”“这个项目有很多卖点,”巴黎市负责建筑和城市化的副市长让-路易斯·米西卡(Jean-Louis Missika)说,“它将是这座城市的一个重要经济增长点。”Mr. Missika argues that a project like the new tower would act as a kind of lighthouse, giving distinction to the entire neighborhood, as Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, prompted a rejuvenation of that city.米西卡认为,新大楼这样的项目将具有灯塔作用,给整个街区带来亮点,正如弗兰克·盖里(Frank Gehry)设计的古根海姆物馆给西班牙毕尔巴鄂带来活力。Nonetheless, the project came close to dying this week as it failed to garner enough votes in the City Council. But as the vote came to an end, the winners made the mistake of brandishing their “no” ballots, making public what was supposed to be a private poll — and giving Ms. Hidalgo an opening to bring the whole matter to court.不过,本周这个项目差点胎死腹中,因为它在市议会没有得到足够的票数。但是在投票接近尾声时,获胜方犯了个错,他们炫耀自己的“否决”票,公开了这个本该私密的投票,伊达尔戈因此可以把整件事提交法庭。The vote was close, 78 to 83, pitting Ms. Hidalgo’s Socialist city councilors against those from the center right and the environmentalist parties. A little more time and a new vote, city officials believe, and the tower might yet be built.票数很接近,78票对83票,伊达尔戈的社会党城市顾问对阵中右翼和环保主义党派。市政府官员们相信,再多给一点时间,再来一次新投票,这座大厦仍有可能修建。Those against the project are furious at the mayor’s maneuver. “It the vote had gone the other way, you can be sure that the mayor would have been just fine with it,” said Olivier de Monicault, the president of SOS Paris, an association founded in the 1970s to oppose architectural projects, such as skyscrapers, that it believed would destroy Paris’s distinct heritage.反对该项目的人士对市长的操纵感到愤怒。“如果投票结果是相反的,市长肯定不会去管,”拯救巴黎协会(SOS Paris)的主席奥利维尔·德·莫尼科(Olivier de Monicault)说。该协会创立于20世纪70年代,旨在反对它认为破坏巴黎独特遗产的建筑项目,比如天大楼。Mr. de Monicault said there were all kinds of arguments to be made against the tower, including that it was not a tower, but a wall that would cast a huge shadow on the surrounding neighborhood.莫尼科说,反对修建这座大厦有很多原因,比如,它不是个大厦,而是一面墙,会令周围街区见不到阳光。But perhaps most fundamental, he said, is the fear of doing damage to the look and feel of the city: “Tourists do not come here to see Manhattan,” he said.但他说,也许最根本的原因是担心它破坏这座城市的外貌和感觉,“游客来这里不是为了看曼哈顿”。Leading the charge against the tower in the City Council was Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, from the center-right Union for a Popular Movement, who ran for mayor against Ms. Hidalgo this year and lost.在市议会反对修建该大厦的领导者是中右翼人民运动联盟(Union for a Popular Movement)的娜塔莉·科希丘什科-莫里泽(Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet)。她今年竞选市长一职败北。Ms. Kosciusko-Morizet said the city’s experience with solitary towers had proved them disastrous. “They overwhelm the neighborhood,” she said.科希丘什科-莫里泽说,这座城市的历史明,孤零零的高楼是灾难性的,“它们压制了周围地区”。Moreover, she said, the tower would only help signal the edge of the city at a time when Paris is trying to reach across the highway that encircles it to better integrate the neighborhoods beyond.她说,况且,这座大楼只会帮助标记这座城市的边界,而此时巴黎正在努力突破环绕它的高速路,想与周围地区更好地融合。“We are not against modernity,” Ms. Kosciusko-Morizet said, “but this is not about modernity. What we are hearing is the same arguments that got us the Montparnasse Tower. There is nothing unique here. All the cities in the world have glass towers. There is nothing inventive here.”“我们不是反对现代化,”科希丘什科-莫里泽说,“但这不是现代化。他们给出的理由跟当初主张修建蒙帕纳斯大厦的理由是一样的。它没有独特性。世界上所有的城市都有玻璃大楼。这毫无新意。”Ms. Kosciusko-Morizet said she found the use of a secret vote to be particularly dishonest since such votes were never used except over issues of personnel nominations. She said her party members had objected to the secret ballot all along and said before the vote that they would not keep their votes private.科希丘什科-莫里泽说,采用秘密投票的方式太不诚实了,因为这种投票方式仅用于人事提名。她说自己的党派成员一直反对秘密投票,投票之前就表示不会对投票保密。A poll conducted last year by the B.V.A. polling agency found that most Parisians — 62 percent — were against any new skyscrapers, even if for much-needed new housing. Often it seems it is the younger Parisians who are more inclined to see the new Triangle Tower in a positive light.去年,民调机构B.V.A.进行的一项调查发现,大多数——多达62%——反对新建任何天大楼,甚至包括有迫切需求的新住宅大楼。巴黎的年轻人似乎更倾向于从正面角度看待新的三角大楼。“For me it makes economic sense,” said Ralph Hippocrate, 28, a publicist for a French television channel. “For jobs it might create, but also for the good it might do for the businesses in the neighborhood.”“在我看来,它具有经济意义,”28岁的拉尔夫·希波克拉底(Ralph Hippocrate)说。他是法国一个电视频道的宣传人员。“因为它可能创造就业机会,也可能有利于周围的商业。”But many older Parisians fear that city officials did not learn the lesson of Montparnasse, a building that regularly makes lists of the 10 ugliest buildings in the world. They believe that skyscrapers are simply out of place in the heart of Paris.但是很多年长的担心,市政府官员没有接受蒙帕纳斯大厦的教训——该建筑经常被列入世界上最丑陋的十大建筑榜单。他们认为,在巴黎市中心建天大楼就是不合适。“We are not in Dubai,” said Danielle Outreman, 60, who is retired. “I like it that in Paris I am not surrounded by enormous buildings. I think that putting them all in La Défense is just fine.”“我们不是在迪拜,”60岁的丹妮尔·奥特里曼(Danielle Outreman)说。她已经退休了。“在巴黎,我不喜欢被巨大的建筑包围。我觉得把大楼都盖到拉德芳斯区就挺好的。” /201411/345072

  Are you open to new experiences? Are you a risk taker? Do you like parties?你乐于体验新鲜事物吗?你愿意冒险吗?你喜欢派对吗?Odds are, questions like these were not part of your last doctor’s appointment. But one day they might be — a growing body of research suggests that your personality can influence your health. And some experts think changing people’s personal traits might one day help treat diseases — or keep people from getting them in the first place.这类问题不大可能出自你刚看过的医生之口。但有朝一日医生也许真会这么问——越来越多的研究表明,你的个性会影响你的健康。一些专家认为,在未来的某一天,改变人的性格特征或许会有助于治疗疾病——或者把病痛扼杀在摇篮之中。The research also comes at a time when many are calling for a more individualized approach to medicine. Some day, researchers hope, personality testing could be used to help your doctor design treatment specifically to you.相关研究工作取得进展之际,许多人正在呼吁医生以更有针对性的方法来给病人开药。研究者们希望,个性测试有一天可以成为你的医生为你专门设计治疗方案的辅助手段。For a study published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, Kavita Vedhara and her co-authors gave personality tests to 121 people, and tested their blood to analyze the expression of genes related to inflammation. They found that the personality trait of extroversion was associated with increased expression of genes promoting inflammation. Meanwhile, conscientiousness, which the authors define as a trait “reflecting planfulness, caution, and harm avoidance,” was associated with decreased expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Since inflammation can be part of the body’s response to infection, higher expression of pro-inflammatory genes can mean a more active immune system; lower expression can mean a relatively less active one.《神经心理内分泌学》(Psychoneuroendocrinology)杂志发表了卡维塔·韦德哈拉(Kavita Vedhara)等人基于其研究写就的一篇论文。他们对121个人进行了性格测试;还为其做了血液检测,以分析与炎症反应有关的基因表达。他们发现,外向型的性格特征是与更高的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。与此同时,勤勉审慎型人格——按照作者们的义中,这种性格的主要特点在于计划性强、谨小慎微、能够避免受到伤害——则是和较低的促炎基因表达水平联系在一起的。既然炎症可以被看作人体对感染的反应,那么促炎基因表达水平较高可能意味着免疫系统更加活跃,促炎基因表达水平较低则意味着免疫系统不那么活跃。It could be, the authors write, that people with weak immune systems become more introverted to protect themselves from infection (meet fewer people, get fewer germs). They might become more conscientious for the same reason. On the other hand, it’s possible that people’s personalities affect their gene expression — people who go to a lot of fun, germy parties (or who are really bad at washing their hands) might start to undergo gene-expression changes that strengthen their immune systems.这篇论文的作者在文中写道,为了避免感染,免疫系统比较脆弱的人可能会变得更内向(少见人,少接触细菌)。出于同样的原因,他们或许也会变得更谨慎。反过来说,人们的个性也有可能在影响他们的基因表达——经常参加有趣但却在散播细菌的派对的人(或者不会好好洗手的人)或许会在基因表达方面有所变化,而这种变化能强化他们的免疫系统。This doesn’t mean everybody should get a personality test, Dr. Vedhara told Op-Talk. But it does suggest that in general, a treatment approach that considers the patient’s psychological profile may be more effective than one that just looks at physical symptoms.韦德哈拉士告诉本报Op-Talk栏目,这并不意味着每个人都该做性格测试。但由此的确可以看出,在通常情况下,把患者的心理状况考虑在内的治疗方案,可能会比只着眼于生理症状的治疗方案有效得多。“If you’re confronted with a chronic condition” like diabetes or heart disease, she explained, “you may well have underlying beliefs about your condition which influence how likely you are to engage with treatment, you might have an emotional response to that condition which might influence your underlying physiology and your ability to recover or to manage your disease, you may well have an orientation which makes you more or less likely to exercise” — and looking at all of those factors as well as the physical manifestations of the condition itself might help doctors treat it better.她解释说,“如果得了慢性病”,比如糖尿病或者心脏病,“你很可能对自己的疾病有着潜在的看法,这些看法或许会影响你对治疗的投入程度;你可能因为生病而产生情绪上的反应,这种反应或许会影响你的潜在心理、康复能力以及控制疾病的能力;你很可能具有某种倾向性,这种倾向性会影响你锻炼身体的意愿”——把所有这些因素以及疾病本身的生理表现都纳入考量,或许有助于医生更好地治疗你的病痛。“Most areas of medical intervention work quite well,” she said, “but I think that we’re on the brink of seeing a future where we use psychological interventions and behavioral interventions to maximize their efficacy.”“医疗干预在大多数情况下都很管用,”她说,“但我认为,我们即将看到利用心理干预和行为干预来实现医疗干预效用最大化的未来。”Joshua Jackson, a psychology professor at Washington University, also sees understanding personality as a way to improve physical health. In a recent study, he and his co-authors looked at personality and longevity — or, more specifically, at how your friends’ assessments of your personality might predict how long you’ll live. They found that men whose friends thought they were conscientious and open tended to live longer than those whose friends found them less so; for women, the traits associated with longer life were agreeableness and emotional stability. And friends’ assessments of subjects’ personalities were better than their own self-reports at predicting how long they would live.华盛顿大学(Washington University)的心理学教授约书亚·杰克逊(Joshua Jackson)也认为,理解个性是改善身体健康状况的一条途径。在最近的研究中,他和合著者调查了个性和寿命之间的关系——或者更确切地说,是用你朋友对你个性的评估,来预测你的寿命。他们发现,那些被朋友评价为谨慎、心态开放的男性,往往比没有得到这种评价的男性寿命长;而对于女性来说,被评价为随和、情绪稳定的人往往有更长的寿命。在预测受试者的寿命方面,朋友对受试者的个性评估,往往比受试者的自我评估的更准确。Conscientiousness people, Dr. Jackson told Op-Talk, tend to “eat their vegetables and exercise,” as well as avoiding risky behaviors like driving without a seatbelt. “They seem to just live a nice, buttoned-up and tidy life, which helps them live longer.”杰克逊士对本报Op-Talk栏目说,谨慎的人往往更愿意“吃蔬菜、锻炼身体”,避免冒险行动,比如不系安全带驾车等。“他们似乎过着有条理、有规律生活,这有助于他们活得更长。”“Open individuals,” meanwhile, “are not necessarily set in their ways, they’re able to change, they’re open to new experiences.” So they may be amenable to altering their diets or making other changes that could improve their health. Openness may also be associated with a tendency to do mentally challenging activities like crosswords, Dr. Jackson noted, which may also promote good health.同时,“心态开放的人不会自我设限,可以做出改变,乐于体验新东西。”因此,他们可能会改变饮食习惯,或者其他习惯,来增进自身健康。心态开放的人可能喜欢填字游戏这样的智力挑战性活动,杰克逊士指出,这也可能会增进健康状况。He thinks the gender differences his team found may have to do with social mores in the 1930s, when the personality assessments were conducted. He and his co-authors write, “It is likely that high levels of peer-rated emotional stability and agreeableness predict mortality because they largely assess positive characteristics indicative of a supportive and easy-going wife, such as that described in the social theory of the time.” However, he told Op-Talk, some research suggests “that personality within women has a less robust relationship with health and longevity.”他认为,其团队发现的性别差异,可能与上世纪30年代进行这项个性评估时的社会风气有关。他和合著者写到,“在女性评估中,同伴在情绪稳定、为人随和方面给出的高分评价,可以预测女性的寿命,这可能是因为,当时评估的女性特性,主要显示她们能不能成为顾家、随和的妻子,就像当时的社会理论所描述的那样。”不过,他告诉Op-Talk,有些研究表明,“女性的个性与健康以及寿命之间的关系,不是太可靠。”Dr. Jackson sees a role for personality research beyond predicting when you’re going to die. Understanding someone’s personality could help doctors determine which patients are going to have trouble following a new medication or exercise regimen (conscientious people, he said, are especially good at doing what their doctors tell them to do).杰克逊士认为,人格研究的作用不仅局限在寿命预测上。了解一个人的个性,可以帮助医生预知哪些病人难以坚持用新药物或遵循新疗法(他说,谨慎的人在遵守医嘱方面做得特别好)。He’s also involved in research into how changes in personality might affect health. “We know that personality changes across the life span” — people tend to become more conscientious and less neurotic over time — “but some people change more than others.” And since personality traits are associated with health, altering those traits might make someone healthier or sicker.他还参与研究了个性变化可能会如何影响健康状况。“我们知道,在整个生命周期里,人的性格都在改变”——随着时间的推移,人们往往会变得更加谨慎,不那么神经质——但有些人变化大,有些人变化小”。既然人格特质与健康有关,那么改变这些特质就可能会让人变得更健康或更多病。Brent Roberts, a psychology professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Dr. Jackson was once his student), has found that changes in personality can be linked to changes in health. “That sets up an interesting possibility,” he told Op-Talk: If personality can be altered, “then it could be a target of intervention.” People can become less neurotic with medication or therapy, he said, and “if that’s the case, then you have an interesting question about whether interventions like that could be used to help people be healthier at an earlier age because you could change their personality.”布伦特·罗伯茨(Brent Roberts)是伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的心理学教授(杰克逊士曾经是他的学生),他发现,人格改变可以引起健康状况的变化。“这开启了一个有趣的可能性,”他对Op-Talk说,如果性格是可以改变的,“那它就可能成为干预目标”。通过用药物,或者采用一些疗法,人们可以变得不那么神经质,他说,“如果事实如此,那么你就会面对一个有趣的问题:你有了改变人们个性的能力,那么这样的干预是否可以在他们年轻的时候就用来改善其健康状况呢?”The psychiatry professor Benjamin Chapman says personality was long thought to be unchangeable: “the term was, personality was set like plaster.” But now, he told Op-Talk, some believe people can change their personalities if they want to: “You might be able to change at least some aspect of conscientiousness in your 40s, for instance, and not get heart disease in your 60s.”精神病学教授本杰明·查普曼(Benjamin Chapman)表示,长期以来,人们一直认为性格是无法改变的:“也就是说,人的性格都是定了型的。”不过现在,他对Op-Talk栏目说,一些人认为,如果有意愿的话,人可以改变自己的性格:“例如,你至少能在40多岁的时候在某些方面改善自己的谨慎程度,然后,在60多岁的时候就不会得心脏病了。”Therapy is one way to change personality, he added, but its scale is necessarily limited. “Psychotherapy for hundreds of thousands of people is not cost-effective,” he said, and the question is “whether this sort of thing can be accomplished with something that’s less labor-intense and reaches more people.” Some programs in schools, such as those that teach responsibility and goal setting, “probably have a de facto effect on the shaping of personality and traits like conscientiousness,” he noted. “The tricky thing is, how would you do that later in life?”他还表示,改变性格的一种方法是通过治疗,但它的覆盖范围必定有限。“让几十万人去做心理治疗可不划算,”他说。问题是,“能不能通过不那么劳民伤财的办法来达到这个目的,并且惠及更多人。”中小学的某些项目,比如培养责任感和目标设定的课程,“很可能在塑造性格以及培养谨慎等个性特征方面拥有实实在在的效果,”他指出。“棘手的地方在于,在此后的人生阶段,该怎样开展这种项目?”The time may be ripe for a focus on the personal. “The personalized medicine movement,” said Dr. Chapman, seeks “to get a very individualized prediction of, will you get this disease, will this treatment work for you, how long will you live?” Such predictions are usually made based on demographic information and risk factors like smoking, he said (some, like the chief executive of England’s National Health Service, have called for a personalized-medicine approach focusing on genetic information). But Dr. Chapman believes personality may be a useful element in such predictions: “What we’ve suggested is that certain aspects of personality pick up on a very unspecified and general but highly relevant set of factors related to future health, and you might be able to augment those predictive models with personality-type measures.”关注个体的时机可能已经成熟。查普曼称,“个性化医疗运动”旨在“针对以下问题进行非常个体化的预测:你是否会患某种疾病?这种治疗方法对你是否管用?你还能活多久?”目前,这些问题的预测通常是根据人口统计信息及吸烟等风险因素做出的,他说(有些人已经呼吁采取关注基因信息的个性化医疗手段,包括英国国家医疗务体系[National Health Service]的首席执行官)。不过查普曼认为,在此类预测中,个性或许是一个有用的元素:“我们的意思是,个性的某些方面强化了一系列不明确且笼统、但却非常重要的与未来健康有关的因素,而把性格纳入考虑的话,也许可以提升这些预测模型的效果。”“Especially with the Affordable Care Act,” he added, “there’s been a big shift in medicine toward patient satisfaction and patient-centered care.” And collecting some information on patients’ personalities might be one way of fostering better relationships between patients and doctors: “the question would be, can the doctor use that information to better understand the patient, better understand how to approach them, how to interpret their behavior?” As Dr. Chapman, Dr. Roberts, and Paul Duberstein write in a 2011 review article in the Journal of Aging Research:“尤其随着《合理医疗费用法案》(Affordable Care Act)的出台,”他还说,“在医疗领域出现了向重视病人满意度,以及提供以病人为中心的医疗务的重大转变。”此外,搜集某些关于患者个性特征的信息可以帮助建立更好的医患关系:“问题是,医生能否通过这些信息更好地理解病人,更好地懂得如何接触他们、如何解读他们的行为?”查普曼、罗伯茨和保罗·杜伯斯坦(Paul Duberstein)在2011年刊登在《衰老研究杂志》(Journal of Aging Research)上的一篇综述文章中写道:“Personality assessment could improve the provision of patient-centered care because the physicians better understand how to approach and interact with different kinds of patients. The mere presence of these assessment tools in primary care waiting rooms would convey to patients that the provision of high quality health care is not solely about ordering diagnostic tests, arriving at the correct diagnosis, and prescribing appropriate treatments. It is also about expressing concern and empathy and understanding the patient’s perspective.”“个性评估或可改善以患者为中心的医疗务,因为医生可以更好地了解如何与不同类型的病人接触和互动。单是在基本医疗候诊室设置这样的评估工具,就会向患者传递这样的信息:高质量的医疗务不光是预定诊断检查、得到正确的诊断结果,以及医生开出适当的治疗方案。它也包括表达关心和同情,以及理解患者的想法。”At The New York Times’s Well Blog, Dr. Sandeep Jauhar writes, “quality improvement in medicine is too often a blunt instrument. We try to take what works in certain situations and apply it to all situations. Our methods yield results for populations, not individual patients.” And, he adds, “a shift to more personalized medicine will be needed to continue to make the kind of progress to which patients and doctors have become accustomed.”桑迪普·乔哈尔(Sandeep Jauhar)士在《纽约时报》的健康客(Well Blog)中写道,“医疗质量的提高方法常常十分笨拙。我们总是设法把在特定情形下有效的方式,应用于所有情况。我们的方法对某些类型的人有效,而不是具体的某些个体。”此外,他接着说,“要继续实现患者和医生已经习惯的那种进展,必须向更加个性化的医疗方式进行转变。”Personality research could become part of such a shift. As Dr. Vedhara puts it, “the individual who has the disease is almost as important as the underlying disease itself. So if medicine treated not only the pathology but the person with the pathology, it would probably get more bang for its buck.”性格研究可以成为这种转变的一部分。正如韦德哈拉士所说,“患病的个体几乎与疾病本身同样重要。因此,如果医务务治疗的不光是病症,还包括患有这种病症的那个人,可能会产生更好的效果。” /201501/351620

  Two sisters wrecking their bedroomThe search for Britain#39;s most mischievous toddler is on after parents shared hilarious photos of their children causing havoc.英国熊孩子大赛正在拉开帷幕,父母们纷纷寄来了他们家孩子大搞破坏的滑稽照片。From #39;exploding#39; beanbags and covering themselves in talc, to covering themselves in paint, images have been coming in thick and fast to organisers of a national competition.从打翻装满豆子的袋子,全身铺满滑石粉,到把自己也粉刷了一遍,一打打的照片飞快传送到这场全国大赛的组织者手里。A selection of the top entries so far - including two tots busily painting their pet dog with orange and white spots, a lad stuck down the loo and two sisters wrecking their bedroom - have been revealed.到目前为止进了前几名的组图——包括俩孩子忙不迭地把自家涂成了橙色和带着白斑点的,一小家伙被卡在马桶,还有两在卧室里搞破坏——已经闪亮发布。 /201504/369735

  

  The administration of Mayor Bill de Blasio is poised to introduce legislation next week that would eliminate the New York City horse-drawn carriage industry, fulfilling a promise by the mayor to animal-rights activists who played an important role in securing his campaign victory last year.市长比尔·白思豪(Bill de Blasio)已经带领行政班子严阵以待,他们将于下个星期(指12月18日当周——译注)引入一项立法,取缔纽约市的马车行业,以落实他作为市长曾对动物权益活动者做出的承诺。因为这些活动人士在他去年赢得竞选的过程中,扮演了一个重要角色。Mr. de Blasio had pledged “on Day 1” to rid Central Park of its signature four-legged tourist attraction, a Victorian vestige that has been denounced as torture by activists who say the animals are mistreated and vulnerable to accidents when traversing Midtown streets.白思豪从竞选的“第一天起”就宣誓,要取缔中央公园标志性的四条腿景点。那些维多利亚时代遗留下来的风貌,却被动物权益活动者们斥为一种折磨。他们说,这些动物受到了虐待,还说它们在中城区的街道上来回穿梭时,很容易出意外。But the mayor’s efforts quickly turned into a steeplechase, with city officials stymied for months by union protests (the industry includes dozens of blue-collar jobs), celebrity ripostes (Liam Neeson made a well-publicized visit to the local stables) and legal and regulatory snags.但这位市长的努力立刻变成了一场跑马障碍赛。市政府的官员们连月来受到了百般阻挠,比如工会的数次抗议(该行业涉及了数十种蓝领工作),名人的还击(利亚姆·尼森[Liam Neeson,演员,曾主演《辛德勒的名单》——译注]大张旗鼓地拜访了当地的几个马厩),还有法律和法规层面的阻碍。Now, Mr. de Blasio’s team is unveiling a bill that would phase out the industry by the middle of 2016, while offering soon-to-be-unemployed carriage drivers a carrot of sorts: job training classes and a waiver of most fees for licenses to operate “green” taxicabs, which can pick up passengers outside the busiest parts of Manhattan.现在,白思豪的团队即将推出一项法案,预计到2016年中期逐步取缔该行业;与此同时,给那些即将失业的马车夫们提供某种“胡萝卜”似的补偿:比如一些职业培训课程,以及一张豁免大部分费用的“绿色出租车”运营执照——这类出租车可以在曼哈顿最繁忙的地段周围接客。The bill would also prohibit the use of horse-drawn carriages throughout the city, with exceptions allowed for film sets and some parades.该法案还将明令禁止在全纽约市内使用马车,除非拍摄电影或进行一些游行庆典活动。The legislation, described by three people familiar with its contents, would first have to pass the City Council, whose members are mixed on the proposal. A vote is not expected until next year, and a spokesman for the Council speaker, Melissa Mark-Viverito, said she was still reviewing the bill, which was first reported by Capital New York.据三位熟知该立法内容的人士描述,这项法案首先必须在市议会获得通过,而市议会的议员却对这项法案意见不一。投票表决要到明年才有望进行,而市议会议长的一位发言人梅丽莎·马克-瓦维瑞托(Melissa Mark-Viverito)说,她还在审阅这项法案。此法案是由网络媒体Capital New York首先公布的。Carriage horses in Central Park — a Manhattan fixture for more than a century — remain broadly popular with the public, and Mr. de Blasio’s effort to remove them has been lampooned on the cover of The New Yorker and assailed by The Daily News, which embarked on a campaign to “Save Our Horses!”中央公园里那些驾车的马儿,近百年来一直是曼哈顿一道不变的风景,时值今日仍广受公众喜爱。所以白思豪要取缔马车的尝试,在《纽约客》(The New Yorker)的封面上被狠狠讽刺了一番,还遭到《每日新闻》(The Daily News)的攻击,该报发起了一场以“拯救我们的马!”为主题的宣传攻势。But for the mayor, embracing the equine cause was a windfall before it was a headache.但对市长而言,卷入这项与马有关的事业其实纯属意外收获,那时它还没有变成一桩头疼事。NYClass, a small but vocal group of animal-rights activists, endorsed Mr. de Blasio in last year’s mayoral race, calling him an “animal hero” after he pledged opposition to the horse-carriage trade.去年,一家规模不大但积极发声的动物权益活动组织NYClass,为白思豪的竞选活动做了宣传。他们在白思豪宣誓反对马车运营之后,称赞他是一位“动物英雄”。That placed Mr. de Blasio, a proud populist, in the odd position of opposing a working-class industry populated by Irish immigrants. And despite talk about curbing the influence of money in politics, Mr. de Blasio did not object when a “super PAC” financed by NYClass spent roughly million on ads attacking his major opponent in the Democratic primary, Christine C. Quinn.但这就把白思豪这位骄傲的民粹主义者摆在了一个突兀的位置上,与一个由爱尔兰移民组成的工人阶级为主的行业,形成了对立。尽管白思豪声称,要限制金钱对政治的影响力,但他并没有反对一个受NYClass资助的“超级PAC组织”(Political Action Committee,政治活动委员会) 花费近100万美元(约合人民币615万),来通过宣传攻击白思豪在民主党初选中的劲敌,克里斯汀·C·奎因(Christine C. Quinn)。After Mr. de Blasio took office, his administration struggled to find feasible ways to check the carriage industry, batting about ideas like installing stables in Central Park. Animal-rights advocates also stepped up pressure, telling the mayor in a recent meeting that they were prepared to finance an ad campaign and mail pamphlets directly to voters.白思豪当选之后,他的行政班子想尽了各种可能的法子来管控马车行业,还打击了在中央公园内搭建马厩这类想法。动物权益保护者们也在施压,他们在最近一次会面中告诉这位市长,他们准备去资助一项宣传活动,并直接给选民们邮递宣传手册。The donors behind NYClass, which is led by a local real-estate and parking-garage magnate, include several of Mr. de Blasio’s biggest campaign supporters — among them a labor group led for years by his cousin, which contributed hundreds of thousands of dollars to NYClass.NYClass组织由当地一个房地产与停车场业大亨领导,其背后的捐款人中有几位是白思豪竞选活动的最大持者——其中有一家劳工组织多年来一直由他的堂系亲属领导,该组织为NYClass捐助了数十万美元。The close ties between Mr. de Blasio’s campaign and NYClass have drawn scrutiny, with critics accusing the mayor of a quid pro quo. (Mr. de Blasio has said his opposition to horse carriages comes from genuine concern for the animals’ welfare.) Federal investigators have also examined the actions of a political affairs firm that worked with NYClass on its ads during the campaign.白思豪的竞选活动与NYClass组织之间的紧密关系,已遭到了审查,有批评者指责这位市长有利益交换之嫌(白思豪曾说,他反对马车行业是真心诚意地出于对动物福祉的关怀)。联邦调查员也已审查了一家政治活动事务所的多项行动,该事务所曾在竞选中参与主办NYClass的宣传活动。Allie Feldman, the executive director of NYClass, applauded Mr. de Blasio on Monday, saying in a statement: “This is the right creative solution that benefits all New Yorkers by adding jobs while also ending an unsafe and inhumane industry.”本周一(指12月1日——译注),NYClass的常务董事艾莉·费尔德曼(Allie Feldman)夸赞了白思豪。她在一份陈述中说:“这是一个有创意的正确解决方案,不仅增加了就业,同时又终结了一个不安全且不人道的行业,从而造福了所有纽约人。”The Teamsters union local representing the Central Park carriage drivers objected in strenuous terms. “This is awful news to give a working family just before the holidays,” George Miranda, president of the Teamsters local, said in a statement.代表中央公园马车夫的当地车夫工会(The Teamsters union local)以激烈的言辞提出了反对。“这是一个工薪家庭在圣诞节前夕听到的最可怕的消息,”当地车夫工会的主席乔治·米兰达在发表的一份声明中说。Mr. de Blasio, asked about the legislation after an event in Harlem on Monday morning, offered a simple and blunt reply.周一早晨,白思豪在参加了哈莱姆区(Harlem)的一项活动之后,被问到这项法案的相关事宜,他给出了一个简单、生硬的回答。“We think it’s time to end horse carriages in the city,” the mayor said, “and we’re going to act on it.”“我们认为,是时候结束纽约市的马车运营业了,”这位市长说,“我们将为此行动起来。” /201412/348815

  Most women will have the occasional moan about the length of their legs, the size of their waist or the shape of their bottom。多数女性都会偶尔叹息自己的腿不够长,腰不够细,或臀部不够丰满挺翘。But it seems Pippa Middleton and her peers might find less to grumble about than most – this year, at least。但皮帕?米德尔顿和她的同龄人与多数人相比却似乎很少抱怨——至少今年是这样。Women feel their sexiest at the age of 28, according to a survey。据一项调查显示,女人在28岁的时候觉得自己最性感。Miss Middleton, millionairess Tamara Ecclestone and actress Mila Kunis are all at the magic age for embracing their sex appeal, according to the research。该调查称,米德尔顿、超级富婆塔玛拉?埃克尔斯通和女演员米拉?库尼丝都处于正散发着性感魅力的奇妙年龄。Although they may feel most sexy at 28, a woman’s confidence doesn#39;t peak until she is 32 - with supportive friends and family acting as the biggest boost to their self-belief。也许女人觉得自己在28岁的时候最性感,但她们的自信通常到32岁时才会达到顶峰——持她们的朋友和家人会最大程度地提升她们的自信心。The findings come from a new study by Lil-Lets which focused on British women’s attitudes towards being female。该发现来自英国研究机构Lil-Lets的一项新研究。这一机构主要研究英国女性身为女人的心态。Researchers found that most women are happy with the shape of their bum and boobs and the size of their hips and waist。研究人员发现多数女性都对自己的臀型、胸型和腰臀尺寸感到满意。In fact, three quarters of British women said they would not change their body shape if they were given the opportunity。实际上,四分之三的英国女性都表示即便有机会也不会去刻意改变自己的体形。The body part women are most proud of is their eyes, with 23 percent feeling that they are their best physical attribute. Twenty percent opted for their breast, with brains coming in third (13 percent)。女人们最引以为傲的部位是她们的眼睛,有23%的女性认为眼睛是她们最好看的身体特征。20%的女性更欣赏自己的胸部,排在第三位的是头脑(13%)。When asked which part of themselves they would change if they had to, 41 percent of women said they#39;d like to have longer, slimmer legs。当被问到如果一定要改变自己身体的某一部位她们会如何选择时,41%的女性说她们想拥有更修长更苗条的双腿。And the aspects of womanhood which they enjoyed the most were getting dressed up, wearing heels and doing their hair and make-up。而身为女人她们最喜欢做的事就是打扮自己、穿高跟鞋、做头发和化妆。Although they may feel most sexy at 28, women’s confidence peaks at 32 - with supportive friends and family the biggest boost to their ego。尽管她们可能觉得自己在28岁时最性感,但她们的自信通常到32岁才会达到顶峰——持她们的朋友和家人是她们自信起来的最大动力。A fifth of those surveyed wished they could be more confident around men while the biggest reason for broken confidence was being dumped by a partner。五分之一接受调查的女性希望她们能在男人面前更自信,而女性自信心崩溃最常见的原因就是被男友甩掉。 /201507/384764

  Katie Holmes (Square)For someone with an angular jaw like Katie Holmes, Softness is key. A rounder brow arch is needed to soften the corners of the face and create less sharp angles. The end of the brow shouldn’t be too pointed, either, which would add another sharp line to this face shape。凯蒂·霍尔姆斯( 方形脸)像凯蒂·霍尔姆斯一样下颌有棱角的人,眉型柔和是关键。眉毛弧度较圆能柔和面部轮廓,使面部棱角不那么锋利。眉尾也不能画得太尖,如果画得太尖,会让这种脸型看上去轮廓更明显。 /201507/384738

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