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Ma Fei San麻沸散Ma Fei San is the first anesthetic in the world and was invented by Hua Tuo, an outstanding doctor in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Although Hua Tuo#39;s ancient prescriptions were lost, the ingredients are thought to have included cannabis and datura, which is a hallucinogenic plant and was later recorded as an anesthetic during the Song Dynasty. Some specific cases of abdominal operations were dilated upon in Hua Tuo#39;s biography:A patient who suffered from abdominal pain for more than 10 days and had depilation of his beard and eyebrows beseeched Hua Tuo for treatment. The doctor diagnosed him as having deterioration in the abdomen, asked him to drink Ma Fei San,and then cut open and explored his abdo-men. The doctor removed the deteriorated part, sutured and plastered the abdo-men, and finally prescribed some herbs. The patient recovered after 100 days.This story is believed to be a treatment of acute appendicitis. There is a historical book,in which the excellent medical skills of Hua Tuo were reflected vividly.It , ; Pro-vided that there was deterioration in the intestines, he would cut the deteriorated part out, wash the remaining part, sew up the abdomen, and rub it with ointment. In four to five days, the illness would remit and the patient would not wake due to pain; in a month or so, the patient would recover. ,, There is also the story of General Guan Yu among the people, whose arm was pierced by a poisoned ar-row during a battle. Hua Tuo advised Guan to drink Ma Fei San so that he could do the surgery, yet Guan would not agree. Hua secured his wounded arm into the i-ron hoop of the wood frame and administered a strong anesthesia for it; then he scraped from Guan#39;s arm all the necrotic flesh and periosteum, sutured the wound with silk ths, and dressed it with ointment. As a result, the life and arm of Guan Yu were saved.麻沸散是世界上最早被发明和使用的麻醉剂,由东汉末年名医华佗发明。华佗的古老配方尽管已失传,但人们认为麻沸散的成分应包括大麻和曼陀罗花,后者是一种可使人产生幻觉的植物,在后来的宋时期被记载为一种麻醉药物。在华佗的传记中详细记述着其实施腹部手术的一些具体案例。有一个病人腹痛十余日,胡须和眉毛均有脱落,他恳求华佗给自己治病。经诊断,华佗认为病人腹部有病变,于是给他用了些麻沸散,然后用刀剖开其腹部一查究竟。华佗从其腹部摘除病变部位,然后用针缝合伤口,敷上膏药,最后再给病人开一些药草用。一百日之后,病人身体痊愈。有人认为这则故事讲述的是急性阑尾炎的治疗。有一部史书生动地放映了华佗的精湛医术,是这样写的:“病若在肠中,便断肠湔洗,缝腹膏,四五日差,不痛,人亦不自寤,一月之间,即平复矣。”民间还流传一个关羽将军的故事,在一次战斗中,关羽的胳膊被一毒箭射中。华佗建议关羽麻沸散以便实施手术,但关羽不肯,华佗便把他的病臂缚在木架上的铁环中,在局部实施强烈的麻醉,拿出尖刀刮尽了腐肉和受损的骨膜,用丝线把伤口缝好,搽上了药,使关羽保存了性命和手臂。 /201601/419338Volkswagen#39;s chief executive, Martin Winterkorn, has gone and shareholders are slightly more optimistic today after a bruising start to the week. fastFT has done a quick round-up of how the German media is assessing the diesel emissions crisis at the world#39;s second biggest carmaker.大众汽车(Volkswagen)首席执行官文德恩(Martin Winterkorn)已经辞职,在经过本周前几天令人伤心的日子后,股东们现在的心情略微好了一些。英国《金融时报》fastFT栏目快速梳理了一下德国媒体对这家全球第二大汽车制造商尾气造假危机的。Die Welt laments that Winterkorn could have been VW#39;s most successful chief executive in the carmaker#39;s history. 《世界报》(Die Welt)哀叹道,文德恩原本可以成为大众历史上最成功的一位首席执行官。The newspaper#39;s business editor, Nikolaus Doll, points out that the President of VW#39;s supervisory board had been searching for a way through the diesel disaster all week and had wanted to know how much Winterkorn knew about the plot to fit some models with devices capable of cheating US emissions tests. 该报商业编辑尼古劳斯·多尔(Nikolaus Doll)指出,大众监事会主席整周都在寻找解决这场“尾气造假”危机的方法,并且希望了解文德恩对在某些车型上安装能骗过美国尾气检测系统的装置一事知道多少。;The answer to that question was no longer important at the end of the day,; he writes (see first picture below). 他写道:“结果,这个问题的已经不再重要了。”Handelsblatt concentrates on the value of Mr Winterkorn#39;s pension, claiming that during his tenure, he built up a pension worth 29m euros (see second picture).德国商报(Handelsblatt)关注的是文德恩退休金的金额。该报声称,文德恩在任内为自己积累了价值2900万欧元的退休金。Die Zeit, whose website is predominantly devoted to Europe#39;s refugee crisis, makes the obvious but valid point that Mr Winterkorn may have gone but the ;problem remains;.《时代周报》(Die Zeit)明确而正确地表示,文德恩或许走了,但“问题还在”。The tabloid newspaper Bild concentrates on the legal assistance VW will need in the US. VW faces billions of dollars in fines and warranty costs and class action lawsuits from drivers in America.德国小报《图片报》(Bild)关注的是大众在美国需要的法律援助。大众将面临数十亿美元罚款以及保修费用,还可能遭遇美国车主发起的集体诉讼。 /201510/403349

BRUSSELS — The European Union’s antitrust chief on Wednesday formally accused Google of abusing its dominance in web searches to the detriment of competitors and began official proceedings into whether its Android smartphone software forces phone makers to favor the company’s own services and applications.布鲁塞尔——欧盟反垄断最高官员周三正式指控谷歌(Google)利用其在网络搜索方面的主导地位,损害竞争对手,并将就Android智能手机软件是否强制手机制造商偏袒谷歌自身务和应用的做法提起诉讼。“If the investigation confirmed our concerns, Google would have to face the legal consequences and change the way it does business in Europe,” said Margrethe Vestager, the European Union competition commissioner.“如果调查结果实了我们的忧虑,谷歌将不得不面临法律后果,并且改变它在欧洲的商业模式,”欧盟竞争事务专员玛格丽特·韦斯塔格尔(Margrethe Vestager)说。The abuse charge focused on accusations that Google diverts traffic from its rivals to favor its own products and services, particularly websites for shopping. That led the European Commission to issue a set of formal charges, known as a statement of objections.指控主要集中在指责谷歌从竞争对手分流流量,偏向其自身产品和务,尤其是购物网站。这导致欧盟委员会发布了一套被称为异议声明的正式指控。A large number of online operators have complained about Google in other areas, like travel and mapping. Ms. Vestager said that the inquiry might eventually expand beyond shopping sites.许多在线运营商已经抱怨过谷歌在旅游和地图等其他领域的做法。韦斯塔格尔说调查或将最终扩展到购物网站以外的领域。The commission also said it was stepping up a separate investigation into whether phone makers that agree to use Android — and that also want Google applications like YouTube — face contractual requirements to place those applications and other Google-branded applications in prominent positions on a mobile device.委员会还称,其正在加强一项独立调查,针对同意使用Android系统并希望使用YouTube等谷歌应用的手机制造商,调查是否存在合同要求它们在移动设备的显著位置放置谷歌品牌应用。 /201504/370539

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