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2019年12月06日 07:35:43    日报  参与评论()人

青岛李沧区医院电话预约青岛李沧医院产检做b超用预约么青岛哪个医院做药流好而便宜 With its notoriously smoggy skies, Beijing seems to launch a new initiative to reduce air pollution almost every week.在北京灰蒙蒙的天空已经“闻名遐迩”之际,该城市似乎每周都要推出一项减少空气污染的新措施。Last week, local authorities said they wanted to build wind tunnels to funnel wind through the streets and blow away the bad air. This week, the state-run People#39;s Daily reported plans to spend .7 billion in the next five years to reduce air pollution. That spending will go toward measures that reduce air pollution from coal-fired power plants, vehicles, and industrial facilities. Such measures include building waste-gas treatment facilities, installing emissions-reduction technology at factories and power plants and using cleaner alternative fuels, it said.当地有关部门上周称,他们想建立风道,引导风从大街小巷通过并吹散雾霾。官方媒体《人民日报》本周则报道称,北京市计划5年内斥资77亿美元以减少大气污染;这些资金将用于燃煤、机动车排放、工业等方面的污染防治措施,具体包括建设废气处理设施、对工厂和电厂进行低排放术改造和采用清洁燃料替代燃煤。It#39;s an uphill battle, with some scientists concluding that China#39;s air quality is continuing to get worse despite such efforts. Environmental authorities recently said Beijing#39;s air quality won#39;t drop to healthy levels until 2030. Other cities across the country face similar challenges.这是一场苦战,一些科学家得出结论称,尽管采取了这类措施,但中国的空气质量将继续恶化。环保部门最近称,北京的空气质量达标要等到2030年。中国其他城市也面临着类似的挑战。That#39;s grim news. But if you can#39;t avoid the air pollution, at least you can try and avoid the times when it#39;s at its worst. Last week, China Real Time did the math to figure out the best months for air quality in Beijing and Shanghai. This week, we#39;ve crunched more numbers to determine the worst (and best) hours for residents to be outdoors in both cities.这是个不幸的消息。但如果你无法避免空气污染,至少你可以尝试躲开污染最严重的时期。上周,《中国实时报》栏目(China Real Time)算出了北京和上海空气质量最佳的月份。本周,我们调用了更多数据,确定了两个城市居民户外活动的最糟(以及最好)的时段。The results show that Beijing#39;s air improves during the day, but gets worse at night. In Beijing, air quality is at its best between noon and 4 p.m., when the average concentration of PM2.5 -- particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in length -- falls to around 87 micrograms per cubic meter. By contrast, between 7 p.m. and 3 a.m., PM2.5 levels rise to as high as 113 micrograms per cubic meter.计算结果显示,北京的空气质量在白天会好转,晚上会恶化。在北京,空气质量最好的时间是中午到下午4点,平均PM2.5(直径小于2.5微米的颗粒物)浓度降至每立方米87微克。与之相比的是,下午7点到凌晨3点,PM2.5水平升至每立方米113微克之高。Shanghai#39;s air gets worse after rush hour. The city#39;s air is cleanest during the early morning and late afternoon, when PM2.5 levels fall to 53 micrograms per cubic meter or lower. After the morning and evening rush hour, PM2.5 levels rise to as high as 59 micrograms per cubic meter.上海空气质量在交通高峰期过后会下降。这个城市的空气是在大早上和临近傍晚最干净,PM2.5水平降至不超过每立方53微克。在早晚高峰过后,PM2.5水平会升至每立方米59微克。Why does Beijing#39;s air quality get worse at night? Antony Chen, an associate research professor at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada, notes that Beijing#39;s air quality is mainly influenced by the difference in temperature between night and day.北京的空气质量为什么会在夜间变差?内华达州沙漠研究所(Desert Research Institute)的副教授Antony Chen指出,北京的空气质量主要受到昼夜温差的影响。Mr. Chen says PM2.5 gets trapped in the cooler air near the surface in the evenings, which accounts for the higher concentrations at night. When the sun comes out, the air heats up and rises, which leads to lower concentrations in the day, he says.Chen说,傍晚的时候,接近地表的空气温度较低,PM2.5在这样的空气里无法扩散,这就是为什么在夜里PM2.5的浓度会更高。他说,等到太阳一出来,空气温度上升后上行,所以白天PM2.5的浓度较低。#39;The warm layer of air wants to go up, and the cold air wants to go down, and there basically becomes circulation, movement and turbulence,#39; Mr. Chen says.Chen说,暖空气会往上走,冷空气会向下走,由此形成对流、空气运动和湍流。By contrast, Shanghai#39;s temperature is more constant, thanks to its proximity to the ocean, says Mr. Chen. With fewer temperature swings during the day, he says, Shanghai#39;s air pollution patterns are more impacted by factors such as vehicle emissions.Chen说,相比之下,上海的昼夜温差因为近海的缘故变化较小。他说,由于白天上海的温度变化更小,所以当地空气污染模式受机动车尾气排放等因素的影响更大。Based on data from the U.S. State Department, the average PM2.5 concentration over a 24-hour period is about 99 micrograms per cubic meter in Beijing and 56 micrograms per cubic meter in Shanghai. That means Shanghai#39;s air is on average about 40% better than Beijing#39;s. (The U.S. State Department cautions that such data is not complete, as the ings come from a single monitoring station that was installed in Beijing in 2008 and in Shanghai in 2011.)根据美国国务院的数据,北京24小时PM2.5平均浓度大约为每立方米99微克,上海是56微克。这表明上海的空气质量平均而言比北京好40%。(美国国务院称,上述数据并不全面,因为数据只来自2008年在北京设立、2011年在上海设立的单一监测站。)But no matter the time of day, neither city has anything approaching clean air. Air quality in both Beijing and Shanghai falls far short of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency#39;s recommended PM2.5 limit of 35 micrograms per cubic meter for a 24-hour period. High concentrations of PM2.5 increases risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, according to the World Health Organization.但无论是一天中的哪个时段,这两个城市的空气都算不上干净。美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)建议的24小时PM2.5均值上限为每立方米35微克,北京和上海的空气质量都差得远。根据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的说法,高浓度PM2.5会增加罹患心血管、呼吸系统疾病以及肺癌的风险。 /201407/310820Researchers have shed light on the chemistry that bonds one person to another by taking brain scans of men being stroked while in their underpants.据英国《卫报》报道,研究者在对大脑进行扫描时发现,当男性穿着内裤被女性抚摸时,大脑皮层会分泌一种化学物质,增强双方关系。The Finnish study found that gentle stroking – which was not in sexually arousing areas – changed levels of opioid brain chemicals which work behind the scenes to form lasting bonds in animals.芬兰科学家研究发现普通程度的抚摸——不触及性敏感地带——将会改变大脑内阿片类化学物质( opioid brain chemicals)的分泌程度,这些分泌物会在动物体内起到促成长久联系的作用。The findings suggest that opioids might be the critical chemicals that enables human brains to distinguish between strangers and people who are closer to us, such as friends, families and lovers.研究表明,阿片类物质可能作为一种非常重要的化学物质,帮助人类大脑区别陌生人以及关系亲密的人,诸如朋友、家人和恋人。;We know this is hugely important for humans because we have these strong, lasting bondings with friends and relatives and so on. But what kind of system maintains these bonds, and makes them last?; said Lauri Nummenmaa who studies the neural circuitry of emotions at Aalto University in Finland.芬兰阿尔托大学(Aalto University)情绪神经回路研究员,劳瑞·努曼玛(Lauri Nummenmaa)表示:“这个发现对于人类而言相当重要,因为我们与我们的朋友,亲属等都有着深刻,持久的关系。但究竟是什么样的生理系统在维持这种联系,使得这种关系得以长久保持的呢?”Studies in animals have shown that opioids can play a crucial role in pairing up. Prairie voles are monogamous in the wild, but when given a drug that blocks opioid in their brains, they seek out other partners. If opioids are blocked in monkeys, they groom others less and neglect their babies.动物实验中发现,阿片类物质将在两性关系中起到至关重要的作用。野生的草原田鼠属于单配型生物,但当实验组给草原田鼠用药物,脑中阿片类物质分泌被抑制以后,它们开始寻找其他的伴侣。倘若猴子脑内的阿片类物质被抑制分泌,它们梳理其他同类毛发的次数减少,也不再看护自己的小孩。To see whether opioids were important in human bonding, the researchers invited nine couples into the lab. The men stripped off to their underpants and lay under a blanket in a PET scanner. The first scan was taken while the men were alone. For the second, their partners touched them gently all over, but avoided anywhere likely to arouse them sexually.为了研究阿片类物质对于人类关系是否具有重要的作用,研究人员邀请了九对伴侣参加实验。所有男性要求脱去衣物,只保留内衣,然后让他们平躺在正子扫描仪下,盖上毛毯。在他们处于单人环境下时,进行第一次扫描。接着邀请他们的伴侣轻柔的抚摸其全身,但尽量避免触碰他们的性兴奋区,然后对所有男性进行第二次扫描。;I#39;m really proud of the Finnish general public,; said Nummenmaa. ;We had no problem whatsoever in recruiting people for the experiment.;努曼玛表示:“我为芬兰大众感到非常骄傲。”“我们不费力气就找到了愿意参与本次实验的志愿者。”When the researchers compared the men#39;s scans, they noticed that gentle stroking caused a drop in natural opioids in brain areas called the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex, which are mainstays of the brain#39;s reward circuitry. This was counter to expectations: they had expected levels to rise.当研究人员对比两次扫描结果后发现,轻柔的抚摸导致大脑内部腹侧纹状体与前扣带脑皮质分泌自然阿片类物质,而二者正是大脑奖励回路机制的重要区域。但这一发现与之前的预测相违背:研究人员本期待阿片类物质在分泌浓度上有所提升。Nummenmaa said that opioid might work in a similar way to a painkiller, with the body needing less the more comfortable it was. ;The opioid system is typically engaged during pain, so you get a boost in painful situations. The social touching might be doing exactly the opposite. You can think of it as pain alleviation. That might be the underlying mechanism for why hooking up with others makes us feel so good in the first place,; said Nummenmaa. Details of the study were given at theSociety for Neuroscience meeting in San Diego.努曼玛声称,阿片类物质也许在某种程度上与止疼片起着类似的作用,当身体需求减少时,人就会感到更加舒。努曼玛称:“阿片类系统传统上会在出现疼痛时被分泌出来。所以当你感到疼痛时,它就会被大量分泌出来。而社交性的触碰或许与之完全相反,你可以把它当成缓解疼痛的物质。它或许可以被看成一种基本机制,用于解释为什么当去勾引别人的时候会首先让我们感觉如此棒。”圣地亚哥举行的神经科学学会会议(Society for Neuroscience meeting)上给出了关于此次实验的详细信息。Opiate drugs have the same effect as the body#39;s natural opioids, and just as people build up tolerances to drugs, develop cravings, and suffer withdrawal symptoms, similar processes play out with relationships.阿片类药物与人体分泌的自然阿片类物质有着相同的效果,就像人体对药物产生的耐药性曲线一样,会遭遇脱稳状态(withdrawal symptoms),人类的关系也会经历相同的过程。;If something similar happens when you are establishing social bonds that would make perfect sense. You would need your daily fix, or at least a fix now and then, and unless you got that you would start to feel pain,; said Nummenmaa.努曼玛表示,;如果你与别人建立某种联系,在你感觉相当好的时候出了点事,除非你不再感到痛苦,否则你就需要来一个日常调整,或者至少时不时需要调整一下你自己。; /201403/278446青岛市市立医院正规的吗

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