湖州哪家整形医院比较好爱网

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 湖州哪家整形医院比较好度新闻
Hi, everybody. 大家好。This week, I spent a couple days in Minneapolis, talking with people about their lives-their concerns, their successes, and their hopes for the future.本周,我在明尼波利斯呆了几天,与人们谈论他们的生活--他们的关注,他们的成功和他们对未来的希望。I went because of a letter I received from a working mother named Rebekah, who shared with me the hardships her young family has faced since the financial crisis. 我去那里是因为我收到了一封来自一个名叫瑞贝卡的工薪母亲的来信,她在信中告诉我他们的年轻的家庭自金融危机以来的艰辛。She and her husband Ben were just newlyweds expecting their first child, Jack, when the housing crash dried up his contracting business. 她和她的丈夫本新婚燕尔正在期盼他们的长子杰克降生时,正赶上房地产泡沫破灭,本签约的公司破产。He took what jobs he could, and Rebekah took out student loans and retrained for a new career. 他做所有能做的工作,瑞贝卡偿还学生贷款,为了新的生涯重新培训自己。They sacrificed-for their kids, and for each other. And five years later, theyve paid off debt, bought their first home, and had their second son, Henry.他们为了孩子们牺牲,为了对方牺牲。五年后,他们偿还了债务,买了手套住房,有了次子亨利。In her letter to me, she wrote, “We are a strong, tight-knit family who has made it through some very, very hard times.” 在给我的信中,她写道,“我们是一个坚强亲密无间的家庭,走过了一段非常非常艰难的日子。”And in many ways, thats Americas story these past five years. 在很多方面,这是过去五年里美国的故事。We are a strong, tight-knit family thats made it through some very tough times.我们是一个坚强的亲密无间的大家庭,走过了一段非常艰难的日子。Today, over the past 51 months, our businesses have created 9.4 million new jobs. 今天,在过去的51个月里,我们的企业创造了9百40万个新就业机会。By measure after measure, our economy is doing better than it was five years ago.一个又一个指标表明,我们比五年前好多了。But as Rebekah also wrote in her letter, there are still too many middle-class families like hers who do everything right-who work hard and who sacrifice-but cant seem to get ahead. 但是正如在信中还写道的,还有很多他们一样的中产阶级家庭没有过错-他们努力工作付出牺牲-但是没有过得更好。It feels like the odds are stacked against them. 好像他们的前方有障碍阻挠他们。And with just a small change in our priorities, we could fix that.我们对这些的关注还很少,我们必须改正这些。The problem is, Republicans in Congress keep blocking or voting down almost every serious idea to strengthen the middle class. 问题是,国会的共和党人继续阻挠或投票反对几乎每一个加强中产阶级的认真的设想。This year alone, theyve said no to raising the minimum wage, no to fair pay, no to student loan reform, no to extending unemployment insurance. 仅仅今年,他们就反对提高最低工资,反对公平分配,反对学生贷款改革,反对扩大失业保险。And rather than invest in education that helps working families get ahead, they actually voted to give another massive tax cut to the wealthiest Americans.他们不是投资于帮助工薪家庭搞得好的教育,而是投票赞同给最富裕的美国人更多的税收减免。This obstruction keeps the system rigged for those at the top, and rigged against the middle class. 这个障碍保持这个系统为富人务,不利于中产阶级。And as long as they insist on doing it, Ill keep taking actions on my own-like the actions Ive taken aly to attract new jobs, lift workers wages, and help students pay off their loans. 只要他们坚持这样,我就继续单独行动-正如我已经采取的吸引新就业机会、提高工人工资和帮助学生们偿还贷款的行动。Ill do my job. 我将尽我的职责。And if it makes Republicans in Congress mad that Im trying to help people out, they can join me, and well do it together.如果我努力帮助人民令国会的共和党人不安,他们可以与我合作,我们共同做这些。The point is, we could do so much more as a country-as a strong, tight-knit family-if Republicans in Congress were less interested in stacking the deck for those at the top, and more interested in growing the economy for everybody.关键是,我们作为一个国家、作为一个坚强的亲密无间的大家庭可以做得如此之多-如果国会的共和党人不那么热衷于为富人们某私利,而热衷于为所有人发展经济的话。So rather than more tax breaks for millionaires, lets give more tax breaks to help working families pay for child care or college. 所以不是为富人们减税,而是让我们推出更多减税来帮助工薪家庭付育儿和上大学的开销。Rather than protect tax loopholes that let big corporations set up tax shelters overseas, lets put people to work rebuilding roads and bridges right here in America. 不是维护让大公司可以在海外设立避税所的税收漏洞,而是让人们可以马上在美国投入重新建设道路和桥梁。Rather than stack the decks in favor of those whove aly succeeded, lets realize that we are stronger as a nation when we offer a fair shot to every American.不是为已经成功的人们谋私利,而是让我们认识到我们给每个美国人公平的机会,我们作为一个国家才能更加强大。Im going to spend some time talking about these very choices in the week ahead. 我将在未来的一周里花一些时间谈论这些选择。Thats because we know from our history that our economy doesnt grow from the top-down, it grows from the middle-out. 那是因为我们以史为鉴得知我们的经济自上而下发展不好,而是从中间向两边才发展得好。We do better when the middle class does better. 中产阶级兴则我们旺。Thats the American way.Thats what I believe in. 这就是美国的道路。这就是我的信仰。And thats what Ill keep fighting for.这就是我要继续为之奋斗的。Have a great Fourth of July, everybody-and good luck to Team USA down in Brazil.各位,独立日快乐-祝远在巴西的美国足球队好运。Thanks.谢谢大家。201407/309549Ministers, Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am most grateful to you for sparing your very precious time to be here for this meeting today on Forests and Climate Change, exactly a month before COP21 begins in Paris. In addition to complimenting Minister Ségolène Royal for her and her Governments absolutely herculean efforts in preparing for a successful COP, may I also take this opportunity to congratulate the Ministers from Latin America present for their recent Protected Areas and Climate Change Declaration, endorsed by seventeen Latin American countries, which calls for the recognition of protected areas, working hand in hand with indigenous peoples, as natural solutions to climate change. Ladies and Gentlemen, amid such esteemed Ministerial company – not to mention that of leaders from the private sector and civil society, such as Paul Polman from Unilever, Marc Bolland from Marks and Spencer and John Sauven from Greenpeace – I can only hope that the stage is set today for a very positive, action-oriented and productive days work. Before we begin, though, and if you will allow me, I would just like to make three brief observations – the first on COP21 and its significance; the second on the importance of forests and land use in the context of COP21 and climate change; and the third on the need for the new and ambitious partnerships for action to tackle deforestation, involving forest nations, donors, civil society and the private sector. Regarding COP21, I have been immensely touched by President Hollandes invitation to attend and speak at the opening of the Conference. Paris will be an absolutely crucial milestone in the long overdue international effort to keep to a 2 degree world, although I think that everyone realizes that this COP will be the beginning of a new phase in the process, not the end in itself. It must, however, send an unequivocal, long-term signal to the international community, and to global markets, that the transition to a low carbon, sustainable, climate-compatible economy is firmly and irreversibly underway – and that a 2 degree world is therefore still, just, if we stretch every sinew – by setting a proper price for carbon – within reach. Central to addressing climate change, and to many national plans submitted by countries to the UN, is of course the issue of forests and sustainable land use. And it will not surprise you that I remain as convinced as ever that if we can truly protect our forests, manage our soils and our landscapes in a far more ecological and integrated way and at the same time undertake the large-scale restoration of degraded forests and lands, then we will enormously increase our chances of attaining a 2 degree world. Between 24 and 33 per cent of the total potential to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions is to be found in these actions. But they are not desirable on climate mitigation grounds alone; they will also safeguard the cultures and wellbeing of indigenous and forest peoples, protect the worlds remaining biodiversity on which our future depends and render more resilient the water cycle and food production that is so fundamental to human existence. That is why forests, REDD+ and land use continue to form such a vital part of the international effort to address climate change. For while we have made heartening progress in recent years, as illustrated by the strong commitments to zero deforestation made by so many countries and companies and captured in the recently agreed Sustainable Development Goals, the hard and profoundly depressing fact, ladies and gentlemen, is that rates of deforestation and degradation continue to increase. All of which brings me to my third and final point and, in a sense too, to the original spirit of my Rainforests Project at its inception in 2007. It seems to me that we must build on all that has been achieved to date by establishing a whole new set of strong partnerships for action between forest countries and regions, donor governments, civil society and the private sector. The policy and governance drive to reduce deforestation can come only from forest countries, with the benefits being of almost incalculable value, both locally and globally. As forest nations increasingly show the way through ambitious commitments, these must be mirrored by greater long-term support from donor countries and agencies. Companies really will need to accelerate their admirable efforts to re-engineer supply chains in support of smallholders, to adopt sustainable agricultural practices and, of course, to meet their zero deforestation pledges if we are to have any conceivable chance of keeping to a 2 degree world. We cant possibly allow it to become 4 degrees as climate scientists have warned, thats 7 degrees Fahrenheit, a big, big increase which will be impossible, I think, to adapt to. And all of this will have to be complemented by those organizations working with local communities. Everything needs to be brought together into one coherent narrative, a comprehensive programme that includes governments, the private sector and civil society. My only hope is that todays meeting is a contribution to this essential process. I can only conclude, ladies and gentlemen, by praying that you will have a fruitful and stimulating meeting – billions of people and, indeed, what is left of the rest of a rapidly diminishing creation, depends upon whether this time, real, concerted action – and not just words, can be taken. So I wish you an excellent day and the most constructive prelude imaginable to the best possible outcome on forests and climate in Paris in a months time. 201511/408295

In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for less. It has not been the path for the faint-hearted-for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and fame. Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the makers of things-some celebrated but more often men and women obscure in their labor, who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom.在重申我们国家伟大精神的同时,我们懂得,伟大并非天成,而是必须赢得。我们的历程从来不是走捷径或退而求其次的历程。它不是弱者的道路——它不属于好逸恶劳或只图名利享受的人;这条路属于冒险者,实干家,创造者——有些人享有盛名,但大多数是默默无闻耕耘劳作的男女志士,是他们带我们走向通往繁荣和自由漫长的崎岖之路。For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans in search of a new life.为了我们,他们打点起贫寒的行装上路,远涉重洋,追求新生活。For us, they toiled in sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth.为了我们,他们在血汗工厂劳作,在西部原野拓荒,忍着鞭笞之痛在坚硬的土地上耕耘。For us, they fought and died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sanh.为了我们,他们奔赴疆场,英勇捐躯,长眠于康科德、葛底斯堡、诺曼底和溪山。Time and again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions; greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or faction.为了我们能够过上更好的生活,他们前赴后继,历尽艰辛,全力奉献,不辞劳苦,直至双手结起层层老茧。他们看到的美国超越了我们每一个人的雄心壮志,也超越了所有种族、财富或派系的差异。This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on Earth. Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last year. Our capacity remains undiminished. But our time of standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions-that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America.今天,我们踏上了这一未完的旅程。我们依然是地球上最繁荣、最强大的国家。我们的劳动者的创造力并没有因为眼前的这场危机而减弱。我们的头脑依然像以往那样善于发明创新。我们的产品与务仍旧像上星期、上个月或去年一样受人欢迎。我们的能力丝毫无损。但是,维持现状、保护狭隘的利益集团、推迟困难的抉择的时代无疑已成为过去。从今天开始,让我们团结一致,振作精神,重新开启再造美国的事业。201406/303004

For as much as government can do and must do, it is ultimately the faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies. It is the kindness to take in a stranger when the levees break, the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours. It is the firefighters courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parents willingness to nurture a child, that finally decides our fate.虽然政府有大有作为的能力,而且也必须有所作为,但最终离不开美国人民的信仰和决心,这便是我们的立国之本。正是因为人们在大堤崩裂时接纳陌生人的关爱之情,正是因为工人们宁愿减少自己的工时而不愿看到朋友失去工作的无私精神,才使我们度过了最暗淡的时光。正是因为消防队员们有勇气冲进浓烟滚滚的楼道,也正是因为做父母的希望把一个孩子培养成才,我们才有能力决定最后的命运。Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. But those values upon which our success depends-honesty and hard work, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism-these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. What is required of us now is a new era of responsibility-a recognition on the part of every American, that we have duties to ourselves, our nation, and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in the knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of our character, than giving our all to a difficult task.我们面临的挑战可能前所未有。我们迎接挑战的方式也可能前所未有。然而,我们赖以成功的价值观——诚实和勤奋、勇气和公平、宽容心和探索精神、忠诚和爱国——均由来已久。这些价值观都是千真万确的。这些价值观是我国整个历史过程中一股无声的进步力量。现在需要的便是重归这些真理。我们现在需要做的是开创负责任的新时代——每一位美国人都需要认识到我们对自己、对国家、对全世界都承担着义务。对于那些义务,我们并非勉强接受,而是心甘情愿主动承担。同时我们坚信我们为艰巨的使命付出的一切,没有任何事情可以如此满足我们的道义感,也没有任何事能如此体现我们的特色。This is the price and the promises of citizenship.这就是公民的价值所在和承诺。This is the source of our conficence-the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny.这就是我们自信的来源——认识到上帝呼唤我们在前途不明的情况下掌握自己的命运。201406/304702

Now, I understand--I understand that we all know this has been a tough fight, but the Democratic Party is a family. And now its time to restore the ties that bind us together and to come together around the ideals we share, the values we cherish, and the country we love.如今,我明白了——我明白我们都知道这是一场艰苦的战斗,但是民主党是一个大家庭,现在是时候围绕我们共同的理想、我们抱有的价值观以及我们所爱的国家走到一起,齐心协力了。We may have started on separate journeys, but today our paths have merged. And were all heading toward the same destination, united and more y than ever to win in November and to turn our country around, because so much is at stake.我们也许来自不同的道路,但今天我们的路合并在了一起,我们朝同一个目的地进发、比以往任何时候都要团结和有准备,要在11月赢得总统竞选胜利,使我们的国家彻底不同,因为我们冒着这么大的风险。We all want economy that sustains the American dream, the opportunity to work hard and have that work rewarded, to save for college, a home and retirement, to afford that gas and those groceries, and still have a little left over at the end of the month, an economy that lifts all of our people and ensures that our prosperity is broadly distributed and shared.我们都想要一种经济,一种能够撑美国人梦想的经济,一种让我们有机会努力工作并从中得到回报,让我们在花钱上大学、买房子、交养老金、加汽油、添置生活用品之后,仍能在月末有一点剩余的钱的经济,一种能够振奋所有人的经济,并保广泛繁荣且为大家所分享的经济。We all want a health care system that is universal, high-quality and affordable-so that parents dont have to choose between care for themselves or their children or be stuck in dead-end jobs simply to keep their insurance.我们都想要一种健康医疗体系,一种普及的、高质量的、负担得起的健康医疗体系。这样,爸爸妈妈们不再需要在为自己还是孩子治病之间抉择或者为了交保险费而再陷入没有出路的工作而无法自拔。This isnt just an issue for me. It is a passion and a cause, and it is a fight I will continue until every single American is insured, no exceptions and no excuses.对于我来说,这不只是个问题,而是一种、一项事业、一场战斗,我将继续战斗,直到每一个美国人都得到保,没有例外,没有借口。 /201307/250001The geriatrician will intervene late in the day,老年医学医生会在一个人老化过程的后段,when pathology is becoming evident,病理越来越明显的时候,and the geriatrician will try and hold back the sands of time,做治疗来尽量阻止老化时间and stop the accumulation of side effects和副作用积累from causing the pathology quite so soon.并且阻止那么快就造成不可避免地死亡。Of course, its a very short-term-ist strategy; its a losing battle,当然,这是一个非常短暂的战略,是一个败仗,because the things that are causing the pathology因为导致病理不可避免地死亡的这些副作用are becoming more abundant as time goes on.会随着时间的推移越来越多。The gerontology approach looks much more promising on the surface,老年学的方法在表面上看起来更充满希望具发展前景,because, you know, prevention is better than cure.因为你们也知道,预防胜于治疗。But unfortunately the thing is that we dont understand metabolism very well.但不幸的是,我们对新陈代谢的理解非常少。In fact, we have a pitifully poor understanding of how organisms work --事实上,我们对生物体的了解少的可怜 –even cells were not really too good on yet.甚至细胞,我们都不是很懂。Weve discovered things like, for example,连对细胞如何操作的RNA interference only a few years ago,基本知识,例如核糖核酸机能失常,and this is a really fundamental component of how cells work.在仅仅几年前,我们才发现它。Basically, gerontology is a fine approach in the end,基本上,如果我们要讨论在我们一生中能用到的延长寿命的治疗,but it is not an approach whose time has come老年学以后将会是一个很好的方法,when were talking about intervention.但它的时机未到。So then, what do we do about that?然后呢,这怎么办呢?I mean, thats a fine logic, that sounds pretty convincing,我的意思,这是一个很好的逻辑,pretty ironclad, doesnt it?听起来非常有说力的,不是吗?But it isnt.但事实并非如此。Before I tell you why it isnt, Im going to go a little bit在我告诉你为什么不能之前,into what Im calling step two.我要谈谈我所谓的第二步。Just suppose, as I said, that we do acquire --我们假设,如果正如我所说的,lets say we do it today for the sake of argument --我们 -假设说今天 –the ability to confer 30 extra years of healthy life就拥有能够给现在已是中年,假设说五十五岁的人,on people who are aly in middle age, lets say 55.多三十年的健康寿命的治疗方法。Im going to call that ;robust human rejuvenation.; OK.我称这为‘强健人类再生’ 。好。What would that actually mean那么实际上这对于现在不同年龄的人们,for how long people of various ages today --或者相等地,当这些治疗方法到达时or equivalently, of various ages at the time that these therapies arrive --已是不同年龄的人有什么影响呢?would actually live?他们会活多久些呢?In order to answer that question -- you might think its simple,你可能会认为回答这个问题很简单,but its not simple.但它并不简单。We cant just say, ;Well, if theyre young enough to benefit from these therapies,我们不能只是说:“好吧,如果他们足够年轻,得益于这些治疗方法,then theyll live 30 years longer.;那么他们就会活多三十年的时间。”Thats the wrong answer.这是错误的。And the reason its the wrong answer is because of progress.而错误的原因是因为进步。There are two sorts of technological progress really,对于我们这方面的治疗,for this purpose.科学进步有两种。There are fundamental, major breakthroughs,第一种是突破性的进步,and there are incremental refinements of those breakthroughs.然后还有第二种就是不断的在那些突破性的进步上做出改良和提高它们的有效率。Now, they differ a great deal这两种科学进步所需的in terms of the predictability of time frames.时间的预测度有很大的不同。Fundamental breakthroughs:我们很难预测very hard to predict how long its going to take多久才会有to make a fundamental breakthrough.突破性的进步。It was a very long time ago that we decided that flying would be fun,人类很有可能在很多年前就想在天空上飞行了,and it took us until 1903 to actually work out how to do it.可是要等到一九零三年才发现到底怎么飞行。But after that, things were pretty steady and pretty uniform.可是这之后,人类飞行的科技就很有步骤地发展下去。I think this is a reasonable sequence of events that happened我认为这是一个很合乎情理才导致了in the progression of the technology of powered flight.动力飞行的科技进展。We can think, really, that each one is sort of我们可以想象这些科技发展的每一步都是beyond the imagination of the inventor of the previous one, if you like.上一步的研发人所想不到的。The incremental advances have added up to something比起原先每次都递进增值which is not incremental anymore.有进展。This is the sort of thing you see after a fundamental breakthrough.在每个科学突破性的进步后,您都会看到这些有步骤性的发展。And you see it in all sorts of technologies.而且在很多科技上都是这样。Computers: you can look at a more or less parallel time line,比如说电脑,和飞行科技也很类似,happening of course a bit later.只是发生的时间不同罢了。You can look at medical care. I mean, hygiene, vaccines, antibiotics --您也可以看一看医药保健科技,比如说卫生,疫苗,抗生素,you know, the same sort of time frame.也有着一样的发展时间表。So I think that actually step two, that I called a step a moment ago,因此,我认为其实两个步骤,我刚才称为一个步骤,isnt a step at all.并不完全是一个步骤。That in fact, the people who are young enough事实上,很年轻的人to benefit from these first therapies会从这些实验治疗方法受益,that give this moderate amount of life extension,能使人们的生命适量延长,even though those people are aly middle-aged when the therapies arrive,即使这些人已经中年,当这些治疗方法来到will be at some sort of cusp.人们还可以尝试治疗方法。They will mostly survive long enough to receive improved treatments他们多数活得足够长来接受改进的治疗方法,that will give them a further 30 or maybe 50 years.从而使他们多活30年甚至50年。In other words, they will be staying ahead of the game.换句话说,他们将领先于老化的速度。201508/392305Now, I am not going to stand here and tell you that failure is fun. That period of my life was a dark one, and I had no idea that there was going to be what the press has since represented as a kind of fairy tale resolution. I had no idea then how far the tunnel extended, and for a long time, any light at the end of it was a hope rather than a reality.现在,我不打算站在这里告诉你们失败是有趣的。那段日子是我生命中的黑暗岁月,我不知道我会写出被新闻界称为“童话故事的革命”的作品。我也不知道自己还要在黑暗中走多久,不知道还要过多久才能看到希望的光芒而不是现实的黑暗。So why do I talk about the benefits of failure? Simply because failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy into finshing the only work that mattered to me. Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one arena I believed I truly belonged. I was set free, because my greatest fear had aly been realised, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter and a big idea. And so rock bottom became the solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life.那么我为什么要谈论失败的收益呢?很简单,因为失败意味着剔除那些无关紧要的东西。因此我不再伪装自己,我把所有的精力倾注在对我来说最重要的事情上。如果我真的在其他领域取得了成功,或许我永远都不会下定决心在我确信真正发于我的舞台上取得成功。我得到了解脱,因为虽然我最害怕的事情已经发生了,但我还活着,还有一个我深爱着的女儿,一台旧打字机和一个了不起的想法。所以人生的低俗是我重新开始生活的坚实基础。You might never fail on the scale I did, but some failure in life is inevitable. It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all--in which case, you fail by default.你们也许不会败得像我这么惨,但人生中有些失败是不可避免的。人生中不可能没有失败,除非你们活得过于谨慎,这样倒还不如根本没在世上活过,因为在这种情况下,放弃尝试的权利就是你们最大的失败。Failure gave me an inner security that I had never attained by passing examinations. Failure taught me things about myself that I could have learned no other way. I discovered that I had a strong will, and more discipline than I had suspected; I also found out that I had friends whose value was truly above the price of rubies.失败赋予我内心一种安全感。这种安全感是我无法从通过考试中获得的。失败让我了解了自己,这也是无法通过其他途径做到的。经历失败让我发现我有坚强的意志力,比我想象的更有自律性。我还发现,我拥有比宝石更加珍贵的朋友。201401/274082

Thank you, Cynthia.谢谢,辛西娅Let me get this straight.让我直说Although youre looking for a drug尽管你在找寻一种药that can solve aging它能解决in old men like me,像我一样老人的衰老问题what you could do now pretty well in the lab,几乎在实验室你能做什么if you were allowed ethically,如果你在道德上被准许is start a human life from scratch从人类生命开始with altered genes that would make it live for a lot longer?改变基因就能使得人们生命更长久吗Ah, so the kinds of drugs I was talking about我刚在讲这些药would not change the genes,不是改变基因they would just bind to the protein itself它们只会联系到蛋白质本身and change its activity.改变它的活性So if you stop taking the drug, the protein would go back to normal.所以如果你停止药,蛋白质会返回到平常You could change the genes in principle.原则上你可以改变基因There isnt the technology to do that.还没有科技这样做But I dont think thats a good idea.但我也认为这不是个好主意And the reason is理由是that these hormones,这些激素like the insulin and the IGF hormones and the TOR pathway,就像胰岛素和IGF-1激素和TOR传递theyre essential.它们是最基本的If you knock them out completely, then youre very sick.假若你完全没有它们,随后你就病得很重So it might be that you would just have to fine tune it very carefully所以可能只会非常小心地调试它们to get the benefits without getting any problems.在没有什么意外情况下使它们起作用And I think thats much better,我想这会更好that kind of control would be much better as a drug.这种调试就像用药一样会更好And also, there are other ways of activating FOXO当然,也有其他方法激活FOXOthat dont even involve insulin or IGF-1甚至不需要胰岛素和IGF-1激素that might even be safer.这甚至会更加安全I wasnt suggesting that I was going to go and do it, but ...我不是建议我要去试试,但是Theres a phenomenon which you have written about and spoken about,你曾写过和讲过一种现象which is a negligible senescence.它是一种可忽略的衰老There are some creatures on this planet aly在这星球上已经有些生物that dont really do aging.它们不会衰老Just move to one side for us, if you would.那让我们从另一面来说,假若可行的话There are. There are some animals that dont seem to age.是的,有些动物好像不会衰老For example, there are some tortoises called Blandings turtles.例如,有种叫布兰丁的龟And they grow to be about this size.它们生长到约这种尺寸And theyve been tagged, and theyve been found to be 70 years old.它们被标记,我们发现它们是70岁And when you look at these 70 year-old turtles,当看着这些70岁龟you cant tell the difference, just by looking,你不能只从相貌看出区别between those turtles and 20 year-old turtles.在这些70岁龟和20岁龟之间And the 70 year-old ones,70岁龟actually theyre better at scouting out the good nesting places,事实上能更好地探出安巢的好地方and they also have more progeny every year.它们每年也有更多的后代And there are other examples of these kinds of animals,还有其它这种动物like turns, certain kinds of birds are like this.像是某种鸟类就好比这个And nobody knows if they really can live forever,没人知道它们真的能永世活着or what keeps them from aging.或者是什么使得它们不衰老Its not clear.这都不清楚If you look at birds, which live a long time,如果你看看鸟类,那些活很长的cells from the birds tend to be more resistant这些鸟的细胞趋于更能抵制to a lot of different environmental stresses许多不同种的环境压力like high temperature比如高温or hydrogen peroxide, things like that.或过氧化氢,像这类似的And our long-lived mutants are too.我们长寿变异体也是如此Theyre more resistant to these kinds of stresses.它们更能抵制这些压力So it could be that the pathways that Ive been talking about,所以这可能是我所说的传递which are set to run really quickly in the worm,它在线虫身上设定和运转得非常快have a different normal set point有一个不同标准设定点in something like a bird, so that a bird can live a lot longer.如同鸟身上的那种,以至于鸟类能活很久And maybe theyre even set really differently或许它们甚至在动物中设定得非常不同in animals with no senescence at all -- but we dont know.一点都没有衰老--但我们不得而知But what youre talking about here但你这儿所谈到的is not extending human lifespan不是通过预防死亡by preventing death,来延长人类寿命so much as extending human youthspan.如同延长人类青春期一样Yes, thats right.是的,是这样Its more like, say, if you were a dog.这更像是,如果比作You notice that youre getting old, and you look at your human你发觉你在变老,你看看人类and you think, ;Why isnt this human getting old?;你想,“为什么这人不变老?”Theyre not getting old in the dogs lifespan.在的一生,人们没有变老Its more like that.这更像这种情况But now were the human looking out and imagining a different human.但现在我们是人类看着和想象着一个不同的人Thank you very much indeed, Cynthia Kenyon.的确十分感谢,辛西娅·肯尼娅201508/391400

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