楼主:丽对话 时间:2019年08月19日 23:19:05 点击:0 回复:0
GYEONGJU, South Korea — She spends hours a day watching the Japanese broadcaster NHK. Her bedside table is stacked with Japanese magazines and figurines in kimonos. The walls bear pictures of Mount Fuji.韩国庆州——她一天花数个小时观看日本电视台NHK。床头柜上堆放着日文杂志和身着和的小雕像。墙上挂着描绘富士山的图画。Shizue Katsura, 96, is among 19 Japanese women who are spending their final days in an unlikely place: a nursing home in South Korea, where lingering anti-Japanese sentiment has helped keep the women in obscurity.现年96岁的香贯静枝(Shizue Katsura,音)是在一个出人意料的地方度过人生最后时光的19名日本妇女之一:一家韩国疗养院。在那里,徘徊不去的反日情绪令这些妇女一直无人问津。“There is no use looking back on my life,” Katsura said. “Home is where you are living. Japan is a foreign country to me.”“回顾过去是没有用的,”香贯说。“你生活的地方就是你的家。日本对我来说就是异国。”Thousands of Japanese women like Katsura married Korean men during Japan’s colonial rule, which lasted from 1910 to 1945. When World War II ended and Korea was liberated, many stayed with their husbands in Korea, while others fled back to Japan, fearing violence from those looking to avenge the brutal colonial rule.在1910至1945年的日本殖民统治时期,有成千上万的日本女人嫁给了韩国男人,香贯是其中之一。随着第二次世界大战结束,朝鲜半岛获得解放,她们中有许多跟随丈夫留在了朝鲜半岛,有些则逃回了日本。后者担心,想报复残酷殖民统治的人会对她们动用暴力。Or, as in Katsura’s case, they followed their husbands from Japan to Korea.还有一些人和香贯一样,跟随丈夫从日本来到朝鲜半岛。Once in Korea, these women often discovered that their husbands’ families had found them Korean spouses in their absence. Many also lost their husbands during the Korean War, which lasted from 1950 until 1953.一旦来到朝鲜半岛,这些女性往往发现丈夫的家庭在他们离开期间已经为他们找好了本国配偶。也有不少人在1950年至1953年的朝鲜战争期间失去了丈夫。By the time many tried to return to Japan, it was too late. Japan and South Korea did not re-establish ties until 1965, and, even then, some of the women had no relatives to sponsor their return and resettlement.及至很多人试图返回日本,已经太晚。直到1965年,日本和韩国才重建外交关系,而即便在那时,有些女性也没有亲戚可以资助她们返回日本,在家乡重新安顿下来。Emotions run high when South Koreans talk about their country’s historical disputes with Japan, especially the enslavement of Korean “comfort women” in front-line brothels for Japan’s Imperial Army during World War II. But society has paid little attention to these Japanese women, some of whom were abandoned by their families in both countries and had to live with neither a Korean nor a Japanese passport.谈及本国与日本的历史争端,尤其是二战期间韩国“慰安妇”在前线的军妓所里被日本帝国陆军奴役的历史,韩国人往往情绪激动。但社会很少关注这些日本妇女。她们有些被自己在两国的家人同时抛弃,必须在既没有韩国护照也没有日本护照的情况下生活。“When they arrive here, they all have made-up Korean names,” said Song Mi-ho, head of the nursing home, Nazarewon, which takes its name from the biblical Nazareth. “One of the first things we do is to call them by their Japanese names. When this happens, they are in tears, as if they are getting their life, their identity, back.“来到这里时,她们都有编造的韩文名字,”疗养院负责人宋美河(Song Mi-ho,音)说。这家疗养院名叫“拿撒勒”院(Nazarewon),取自圣经。“我们首先做的一件事就是用她们的日文名字称呼她们。当时她们流下了眼泪,就好像找回了自己的生活和身份。”“Once we give their real names back, it’s amazing how quickly they regain their Japaneseness, the decorum, the way they fold their hands before them when they greet others,” Song said.“一旦获得了原先的真名,她们恢复自己日本特性和礼仪的速度是非常惊人的,比如向其他人打招呼时双手交叠在胸前的方式,”宋美河说。While sitting in a wheelchair, Katsura perked up when telling a visitor how she met a “kindly” Korean man more than seven decades earlier, when they worked in a power station in her hometown, Ebetsu, near Sapporo in northern Japan.在向访客讲述自己如何在逾70年前认识了一名“和善的”韩国男子时,坐在轮椅里的香贯瞬间活跃起来。当时他们都在位于她的家乡的一座发电厂工作,那是日本北部离札幌不远的江别市。But she became taciturn when asked about her life in South Korea.但是在被问到她在韩国的生活时,香贯变得沉默起来。Her husband died of alcoholism decades earlier, she said. She once raised tobacco and livestock in southwestern South Korea, and then sold vegetables in the capital, Seoul, before failing health forced her to move into the nursing home nine years ago.她说丈夫在几十年前死于酒精中毒。她曾在韩国西南部种植烟叶、养殖牲畜,后来到首都首尔卖菜。九年前,因为健康状况恶化,她不得不住进了这家疗养院。“My son, he died early,” she said, declining to elaborate.“我儿子很早就死了,”她说,不愿讲述详细的情况。A South Korean philanthropist named Kim Yong-sung was operating orphanages in Gyeongju in southeastern South Korea when he traveled to Japan and saw what looked like Korean women protesting in front of the Japanese emperor’s palace. They turned out to be Japanese women with South Korean passports demanding that Japan help them regain their citizenship and return home.韩国慈善家金永成(Kim Yong-sung,音)在该国东南部的庆州开设了数家孤儿院。有一次,他在日本看到样貌像是韩国人的女性在日本皇宫前举行抗议活动。后来才知道,她们其实是持韩国护照的日本妇女,在要求日本帮助她们重新获得日本公民身份,以便返回家园。Kim opened Nazarewon in 1972 as a way station for these women, providing them with lodging, as well as legal and financial aid. A total of 147 returned home through Nazarewon, the last one in 1984.到了1972年,金永成设立拿撒勒院,作为这些妇女停驻的小站,给她们提供住宿,以及法律和财务援助。总计有147人通过拿撒勒院返回了日本,最后一名是在1984年。Nazarewon has since become a nursing home for women who either could not or did not want to return to Japan and had no family support.之后,拿撒勒院成为疗养所,收留的女性要么不能或不想返回日本,要么缺乏家庭持。After 70 years in South Korea, some women preferred living here to ending up at a nursing home in Japan. “They like umeboshi,” Song said, referring to the ubiquitous Japanese dish of pickled plums. “But they can do without it, but not without the Korean kimchi.”在韩国居住70年后,一些人宁愿在这里生活,也不愿在日本的一家疗养院了却余生。“她们喜欢吃梅干,”宋美河说。这是日本的一种常见食物,为腌制的梅子。“只不过,没有梅干她们也可以过活,而没有韩国泡菜她们就受不了。”More than 80 women have died at Nazarewon during the past 35 years. The average age of the 19 current residents is 92. Many suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and were not available for interviews.在过去的35年里,有超过80人在拿撒勒院离世。目前这19名居民的平均年龄为92岁。其中有不少患有阿尔茨海默病,无法接受采访。The nursing home’s existence rankles some South Koreans.这家疗养院的存在令一些韩国人耿耿于怀。“I still get angry calls, asking: ‘What do you think you are doing? Don’t you know what the Japanese did to our comfort women?#39;” Song said. “I hope what we do here will, in its small and silent way, help heal the ties between the two nations.”“我还会接到一些愤怒的来电,质问:‘你觉得自己在干什么?你不知道日本人对我们国家的慰安妇做了些什么吗?’”宋美河说。“我希望我们在这里做的事,可以用它微小而无声的方式,帮助弥合两国之间的裂痕。”On a recent afternoon, Nazarewon was shrouded in silence. Women sat motionlessly in wheelchairs, gazing at NHK on a large screen. A few played a card game, counting their scores in Japanese but otherwise speaking Korean. Azaleas blossomed in the front yard.不久前的一个下午,拿撒勒院沉浸在一片寂静之中。老人们一动不动地坐在轮椅里,盯着大屏幕上播放的NHK台。有几人在玩纸牌,用日语计算她们的分数,讲其他话的时候则用韩语。前院里,杜鹃花正在盛放。“I don’t know anything about politics,” said Katsura, who declined to discuss Korean-Japanese relations. “What I do know is that if you do well to others, they will do well to you, too. That’s true between people, between nations.”“我对政治一无所知,”香贯说。她拒绝讨论韩日关系。“我知道的是,如果你对别人好,他们也会对你好。不管是人与人之间,还是国家与国家之间,都是这样。” /201606/448272On a fall evening in a fluorescent-lit classroom at Tsinghua University in Beijing, a dozen students listened intently. The speaker, Emma Gao, held a glass to the light and asked them to study the swirling liquid inside. Tsinghua is known as the “M.I.T. of China,” but this was no freshman seminar in fluid mechanics. It was a gathering of the student wine club.一个秋天的晚上,北京清华大学一个带日光灯照明的房间里,十几个学生正认真地听着讲座。发言者高源(Emma Gao)把一只玻璃杯迎向光线,让学生们仔细观察杯中打旋的液体。清华大学素有“中国的麻省理工学院”之称,但眼前并不是一年级新生的流体力学课,而是学生葡萄酒俱乐部的活动。Ms. Gao, a diminutive woman with a quick smile, was conducting a tasting of recent vintages from her family-run winery in Ningxia, a remote Chinese region on the edge of the Gobi Desert. Behind desktops lined with glasses, the students sniffed and sipped, comparing a fruity red with a richer, oakier French-style wine.高女士个子不高,笑容干脆,这些酒产自她家族经营的葡萄酒庄。酒庄位于戈壁沙漠边远的宁夏,一个中国偏远的省份,此时她组织学生们品尝的,正是她家酒庄里近期出产的葡萄酒。桌子后面放着一排玻璃杯,学生们轻嗅、小口品尝,对比一种果香红酒与另一种味道更浓郁,带有橡木清香的法国式葡萄酒。Since her winery has begun to win international acclaim, Ms. Gao, who is 38, has emerged as the unlikely new star of an even more unlikely new Chinese industry. The winery, Silver Heights, has been a pioneer in China, bringing sophisticated Western winemaking techniques to what had been an industry focused on bulk production.高女士今年38岁,她的酒厂已经开始赢得国际声誉,因此她也成了是这个看似不可思议的中国新产业当中一颗不可思议的新星。她的酒庄“银色高地”是中国葡萄酒业的先驱,把精密成熟的西方酿酒技术带入了中国酿酒业这个关注大批量生产的产业。Taking a cue from that boutique-winery model, Ningxia has ambitions to become the Napa Valley of China. Local winemakers have won prestigious awards, and plans are underway to double the region’s vineyards and create a wine tourism hub. Foreign investors have also taken notice. The French Champagne maker amp; Chandon makes sparkling wines there, while the spirits giant Pernod Ricard is spending heavily to modernize its local winery.宁夏受精品酿酒业模式启发,想把自己打造成中国的纳帕谷(Napa Valley)。当地酿酒厂已经获得了不少著名大奖,此外将当地酒庄数目翻倍,打造葡萄酒旅游中心的方案也在酝酿之中。外国投资者亦注意到了此地。法国香槟制造者酩悦( amp; Chandon)公司在这里生产起泡酒,烈性酒巨头保乐力加(Pernod Ricard)也投下巨额资金,为公司在当地的酒厂打造现代化设施。“People know Napa makes the best wines in America and Bordeaux makes the best wines in France,” says Hao Linhai, a top regional official who oversees the industry. “When they think of Chinese wines, we want them to think of Ningxia.”“人们知道美国最好的葡萄酒产自纳帕,法国最好的葡萄酒产自波尔多,”当地负责酒业的最高官员郝林海说。“我们希望人们一提起中国葡萄酒,就能想到宁夏。”While China is better known for fiery, 100-proof baijiu than prized vintages, its fast-growing middle class is increasingly demanding Western delights. And that includes fine wine.不过中国更有名的还要算是酒精在50%含量的烈性白酒,而不是昂贵的葡萄酒,但如今中国飞速发展的中产阶级也在日益追求西方享受。包括精致的葡萄酒。Chinese drinkers quaffed more than 1.5 billion bottles of red wine in 2014, double the level of 2008, according to IWSR, a research firm based in London. Over all, China ranks fourth in red wine consumption, behind France, the ed States and Italy. Wine production in the country has surged to meet that demand. From virtually nothing in the early 1980s, it is now the world’s seventh-largest winemaker.根据伦敦调查公司IWSR的数据,2014年,中国饮酒者消费了超过15亿瓶的红酒,比2008年增加了一倍。中国的红酒总消费位居全球第四,仅次于法国、美国和意大利。为了满足需求,中国的葡萄酒产量也在上升。20世纪80年代初,中国的葡萄酒产量接近于零,如今已经是世界第七的葡萄酒生产国。Aided by the same long-range planning and government support that have brought success in everything from textiles to high-end electronics, China made 120 million cases of wine in 2014. That’s a bit less than a third of what is produced in the ed States, and just behind the export powerhouses Australia and Argentina.从纺织业到高端电子工业,中国的许多产业都受惠于长期计划与政府持,葡萄酒产业亦是如此,2014年,中国的葡萄酒产量达到1.2亿箱。比美国葡萄酒产量的1/3低一点,略低于澳大利亚和阿根廷两个出口大国。But Chinese wine is made almost exclusively for the domestic market, says Ma Huiqin, a professor at China Agricultural University in Beijing who works closely with Ningxia’s wine industry. And until recently, most of it was barely drinkable by Western standards, produced by giant industrial winemakers.但是,中国的葡萄酒主要是供给国内市场的,位于北京的中国农业大学教授马慧琴说,她与宁夏的葡萄酒产业保持着密切合作。直到前不久,中国的大部分葡萄酒还是由大型工业化酒厂生产,很难达到西方的饮用标准。Now a new generation of Chinese winemakers is trying to upgrade quality in an effort to win over local wine drinkers as their tastes become more discerning, as well as capture the aficionados who drink mostly imports from France, America and elsewhere. And eventually, as with many other Chinese industries, the most successful will look to sell their wines overseas.如今,新一代中国葡萄酒酿造者努力提升质量,以图满足品味变得更加敏锐的国内葡萄酒消费者,同时吸引那些主要喝法国和美国等地进口葡萄酒的资深爱好者们。并且和许多其他中国产业一样,自己的产品能够销往海外是他们心目中最大的成功。“They’ve got all the money in the world, they’ve got all the ambition in the world, and they’ve hired all the top consultants,” says Steven Spurrier, the British wine merchant who organized the “Judgment of Paris,” the 1976 blind tasting that stunned the wine world when California wines beat the French. “It’s inevitable the Chinese are going to make better and better wines.”“他们有的是钱,有的是雄心壮志,还雇了很多顶级顾问,”英国葡萄酒商史蒂芬·斯珀里尔(Steven Spurrier)说。他是“巴黎评审”(Judgment of Paris)的组织者,这场1976年的葡萄酒盲品活动曾经评定加利福尼亚葡萄酒优于法国葡萄酒,令整个葡萄酒界都为之震惊。“中国的葡萄酒会愈来愈好,这是毋庸置疑的。”Sitting in the courtyard of her family’s ramshackle compound outside the regional capital of Yinchuan, Ms. Gao of Silver Heights looked out over the vineyard her father planted nearly 20 years ago. Among the first in the region to plant grapes, he suggested she go to France to study winemaking in 1999. “I was 21. I said, sure, why not?” she said. “It was France that interested me, not winemaking.”在宁夏首府银川的郊外,银色高地酒庄的高源坐在自家一处破败的院落里,望着她父亲将近20年前种下的葡萄园。他是这一带第一批种植葡萄的人,1999年,他建议高源去法国学习酿制葡萄酒。“我那年21岁。我说,好吧,为什么不呢?”她说。“我其实是对法国感兴趣,而不是酿酒。”After earning a degree in oenology, she did a stint at the highly regarded Calon-Ségur, where she met, and eventually married, the winemaker. French attitudes made a deep impression. “I learned to focus on quality, to make the best wine you can with the material you have,” she said.获得酒类研究学位后,她在享有盛名的凯隆世家酒庄工作了一段,和那里的酿酒师相识,最后嫁给了他。法国的态度对她产生了深深的影响。“我学会了关注质量,用手头的原料酿出最好的葡萄酒,”她说。After Ms. Gao returned to China, the first vintage she and her father produced in 2007 was just 10 barrels, or 3,000 bottles. Today, Ms. Gao makes four wines, with total production of 60,000 bottles. A 2013 bottle of her Summit label sells for around .高女士回中国后,2007年,她和父亲酿出的第一批葡萄酒只有十桶,合3000瓶。如今高女士的酒庄生产四种葡萄酒,总产量达到6万瓶。银色高地出品的一瓶2013年的“阙歌”(Summit)葡萄酒售价在75美元左右。“She’s considered the best winemaker, with practically the best wine, in all of China,” says Gérard Colin, a French consultant who helped Lafite Rothschild develop a winery in China. “Emma put Ningxia on the map.”“她已被视为中国最好的酿酒者,她出品的葡萄酒几乎也是中国最好的,”杰拉德·科林(Gérard Colin)是帮助古堡酒庄( Lafite Rothschild)在中国建立酒庄的法国顾问,他说,“艾玛(高源的英文名)让宁夏进入了世界酒庄的版图。”A poor coal region wedged below Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, with its hilly, arid scrubland, is ill suited for most agriculture. It’s dry and hot in the summer, with long, freezing winters. But its sandy, rocky soil proved ideal for growing grapes. The Helan Mountains to the west protect the vineyards from harsh desert winds, while cool nights keep the grapes from ripening too fast.宁夏曾是一个贫瘠的煤矿产区,位于内蒙南部,地形多山,气候干旱,生着灌木丛,不适合大部分农作物。夏季炎热干燥,冬季漫长寒冷。但多砂坚硬的土地却非常适合种植葡萄。西部的贺兰山脉可以保护葡萄园不受凛冽的沙漠风暴侵袭,寒冷的夜晚可以让葡萄不至生长得过快。Eager to create a new industry, the regional government built extensive irrigation systems starting in the late 1990s and put winemaking at the center of development plans. In 2005, the government helped start the area’s first “demonstration” winery, Helan Qingxue.地方政府渴望打造新产业,自20世纪90年代末起,开始修建大量的灌溉系统,把酿酒业作为发展计划的核心。2005年,政府帮助建造了这一地区的第一个“示范”酒庄:贺兰晴雪。A major turning point came in 2011 when Helan Qingxue won a gold medal in a prestigious international competition by the British wine publication Decanter. A 2009 bottle of its Jia Bei Lan was named best red Bordeaux varietal over 10, beating out rivals from Napa, Australia and Bordeaux.2011年,贺兰晴雪在英国葡萄酒杂志《醇鉴》(Decanter)主办的国际大赛上获金奖,这成了重要的转折点。一瓶2009年的加贝兰红酒被评为10英镑以上级最佳波尔多品种级红酒,击败了来自纳帕、澳大利亚与波尔多的竞争对手。Suddenly, what had been a slow buildup turned into a stampede. The award “made people realize that wine could be a great business,” said Guo Xiaoheng, a native of the region who trained as a sommelier in France before returning to sell winemaking equipment. Demand — and prices — for Ningxia’s wines began to take off.突然之间,这里的葡萄酒业出现了厚积薄发。这个奖项“让人们发现葡萄酒可以成为一项大买卖,”当地人郭晓恒(音译)说,他曾在法国接受斟酒师培训,回国后开始卖酿酒设备。对宁夏葡萄酒的需求开始上涨,其价格也随之水涨船高。A decade ago, Ningxia had just a handful of wineries. Today, there are more than 70, with 40 more under construction, and the government plans to reach 200 by 2020. As elsewhere in China, red wines dominate, mostly the Bordeaux blends — principally mixtures of cabernet sauvignon, merlot and cabernet franc — popular in China.10年前,宁夏只有寥寥几个酒庄。如今,这里已经有70多个酒庄,还有40多个正在建设之中,政府计划在2020年让这一数字达到200个。和中国其他地方一样,这里以红酒为主,多数是在中国流行的波尔多混合品种,混合了赤霞珠、梅洛和品丽珠三种葡萄。Jancis Robinson, a British wine journalist, judged a blind tasting of Chinese wines in Shanghai last year. “Ningxia really did shine. They produced most of the top wines,” she said. They are now “very acceptable commercial quality wines.”去年,英国葡萄酒记者杰西斯·罗宾逊(Jancis Robinson)在上海盲品了若干中国葡萄酒。“宁夏葡萄酒真的很突出。他们生产了大多最好的葡萄酒,”她说。现在它们已经是“拥有非常可以接受的商业品质的葡萄酒”。For Ms. Gao, that’s not good enough. Early one morning in May, she drove an hour out to the Helan Mountain foothills, where she is building a winery with more advanced equipment. The expanded vineyards will allow Silver Heights to grow to 200,000 bottles per year.对于高源来说,这还不够。五月的一个清晨,她开车一小时来到贺兰山脚下,她正在那里兴建一座拥有更先进设备的酒庄。这座扩建的酒庄将令银色高地的产量增长到每年20万瓶。Surveying the waist-high vines jutting from the rocky soil, she said it takes five years or more before they produce the quality she requires. In a nearby plot, she has begun to experiment with pinot noir, chardonnay and other varietals.她观察着岩石土壤中生长出来的齐腰的葡萄,说至少还要再过五年,这些葡萄结出的果实才能达到她所需要的质量。在附近的一块地,她已经开始尝试黑皮诺和霞多丽等品种的葡萄。“We want to try the land, to see what’s suitable,” she says. “We are not investing for one or two years; we’re investing for the next 100 years. Those will be wines for future generations to make.”“我们希望测试这块土地,看看种什么才是最合适的,”她说。“我们不是在做一两年的投资,我们是要为未来的一百年做投资。这是未来的一代代人将要酿制的酒。” amp; Chandon’s new sparkling wine facility — with its clean modern lines and state-of-the-art equipment — has become one of the area’s biggest standouts since it opened two years ago.两年前,酩悦公司崭新的酒厂,包括洁净的现代生产线和代表最先进水准的设备,顿时成了当地最为醒目的一景。Pointing out the giant tanks used to produce 50,000 cases last year, the estate director, Shen Yang, says Chandon is in the first phase of a long-term investment aimed at getting China’s white-collar professionals to drink more sparkling wine.酩悦在宁夏酒庄的经理沈旸指着去年生产了5万箱酒的巨大容器说,酩悦正在进行一项长期投资,目的是要让中国懂葡萄酒的白领人士能够喝到更多的气泡酒,目前正进行到第一阶段。“Our mission in China is to create a new market for this wine,” Mr. Shen said.“我们在中国的任务就是要为这种葡萄酒开拓全新的市场。”沈先生说。Today, Chinese demand for sparkling wines is tiny — roughly 2 percent of total wine consumption, he says, compared with 9 percent for mature markets. But amp; Chandon decided that with imports rising, it was time to start producing locally.他说,目前中国对于气泡酒的需求还很小,大约只占到葡萄酒总消费的2%,而在成熟的市场,气泡酒消费占葡萄酒总消费的9%。但鉴于中国进口量的增加,酩悦认为是时候开始在本地进行生产了。“China’s market has enormous potential,” he added. “The interest in wine now is a reflection of its stage of economic development.”“中国市场有巨大的潜力,”他补充说,“如今人们对葡萄酒的兴趣反映了中国经济发展的阶段。”Ningxia’s growing reputation has attracted investment, as domestic and international players alike look at China’s market. The region’s wineries produced 270 million bottles in 2014, nearly triple the level of three years earlier.国内外投资者都很关注中国市场。因此宁夏的崛起吸引到了不少投资。2014年,这里的酒庄共生产了2.7亿瓶葡萄酒,是三年前的近三倍。The resulting boom has reshaped Yinchuan. Signs of prosperity are everywhere, from the five-star Kempinski Hotel to the office towers and apartment complexes popping up all across the city. On the city’s outskirts, a constant flow of tractors and trucks race along winding two-lane roadways rutted with potholes. A new highway to speed visitors to the wineries is under construction.这一繁荣改变了银川的面貌。从凯宾斯基五星大酒店,到城市里到处兴建的办公大厦和公寓大楼,到处都是繁荣的迹象。市郊蜿蜒坑洼的双车道公路上总是不断地有拖拉机和卡车来来往往。一条全新的高速公路正在兴建,可以方便参观者前往酒庄。Changyu Pioneer Wine, China’s oldest domestic wine producer — and one of the three giants that dominate the market — has spent over 0 million creating a Disneyesque, nearly 140,000-square-foot “chateau,” complete with fountains, turrets and two suits of medieval armor guarding the gates. Run in partnership with the Austrian winemaker Lenz Moser, it is the latest of six castles that Changyu has built around China to draw middle-class Chinese who have begun to enjoy Western-style vacations. The general manager, Ruan Shi Li, says he expects 80,000 visitors this year, more than double its first year.张裕公司是中国最老牌的国内葡萄酒生产商,也是目前占领中国葡萄酒市场的三巨头之一。公司斥资1亿多美元,打造了一座占地近14万平方英尺的迪士尼式“酒庄”,内有喷泉、塔楼,还有两套中世纪盔甲守卫大门。这座酒庄是与澳大利亚酿酒师兰斯·塞尔(Lenz Moser)合作经营的,张裕公司在中国各地共建造了六座类似的城堡,希望能够吸引开始享受起西式度假模式的中国中产阶级人士前来,这座酒庄是其中最新的一座。酒庄总经理阮士礼(音译)称,他预计酒庄今年的游客人数将超过酒庄经营首年游客人数的两倍,达到8万人。But some are starting to worry about whether the breakneck growth is sustainable, as the new wealth has prompted something of a speculative land rush. Chen Deqi was among Ningxia’s earliest investors, buying 25,000 acres in 2007. Now he’s dividing it into 100 parcels to create “mini chateaus” for the wealthy.但是,新的财富刺激了一些类似于土地投机潮的投资热,一些人开始担忧这种高速增长是否是可持续的。陈德启(音译)是宁夏的早期投资者之一,他在2007年购买了25000英亩的土地。现在,他把这块土地划分成了100份,想要为富人打造“迷你酒庄”。Mr. Chen says he aly has buyers willing to pay 1 million renminbi — roughly 0,000 — for the first two. He says the land is now worth 20 times what he paid for it.陈先生说,他已经找到愿意投资100万人民币(约16万美元)购买头两块地的买家了。他说,这片土地现在的价格已经是他买地时价格的20倍。Others are concerned that quality could suffer. Xie Donjiang, a Ningxia native who developed a wine property south of Beijing and also owns the Ektimo winery in Sebastopol, Calif., returned to check out Ningxia last fall. He was disappointed.还有一些人担心葡萄酒的质量会出现下滑。谢东强(音译)是一位宁夏本地人,他在北京南部投资建造过一座葡萄酒产业,目前是位于加利福尼亚州塞巴斯托波的艾科蒂莫(Ektimo)酒庄的所有者。去年秋天,他回到宁夏考察,不禁感到失望。He argues that Ningxia officials have encouraged the willy-nilly planting of grapes without understanding which varietals are best suited to its terroir — the combination of soil, exposure and climate that makes each vineyard unique.他说,宁夏官员一直在鼓励人们毫无计划地种植葡萄,却并不了解什么葡萄品种最适合在当地风土条件下栽种——风土条件是由土壤、日照、气候等方面的综合构成,是每一座葡萄园的独特之处。“Ningxia is pushing too hard,” Mr. Xie said. “This is basic analysis for wine, but the government is not doing it.”“宁夏的步子太快了,”谢先生说道,“了解风土条件是对于葡萄酒的基础分析,但是政府却没有做这件事。”Zhou Jianyu is a businessman from Hunan. Like many younger Chinese, Mr. Zhou acquired a taste for wine while studying abroad. At first, he favored European wines — mostly French and Italian. But three years ago, he began drinking only Chinese wines. “They were excellent, so I began to drink more,” he said.周建宇(音译)是一位湖南的商人。和许多年轻中国人一样,他在国外留学期间喜欢上了葡萄酒。他起初更喜欢欧洲葡萄酒——主要是法国和意大利葡萄酒。但是三年前,他开始只喝中国葡萄酒了。他说:“它们棒极了,所以我开始更多喝中国葡萄酒。”On a tour of Legacy Peak, one of Ningxia’s best new wineries, Mr. Zhou and his friends had a lunch of fish, crabs, chicken and vegetables. While they ate, the winemaker, Zhou Shu Zhen, discussed the local climate and explained how a longer barrel aging added depth to her reds.周先生曾到宁夏最好的新酒庄之一的留世酒庄旅游。他和朋友在那里吃午饭,有鱼、螃蟹、鸡和蔬菜。席间酿酒师周淑珍谈起了当地的气候条件,向他们解释,较长的橡木桶陈化期增加了她所酿造的红酒的厚度。“For many people, California or French wines have their own flavor,” said Mr. Zhou, who is not related to the winemaker. “But I’ve discovered that Ningxia’s wines have their own flavor and character too.”“对许多人来说,加州或法国的葡萄酒都有着独特的风味,”周先生(和周淑珍并无亲属关系)说,“但是,我发现,宁夏的葡萄酒也有它自己独特的风味和特点。”As Ningxia races to expand, cultivating customers like Mr. Zhou will be critical. Much of the explosion in wine consumption was driven by government officials and executives at state-owned companies buying expensive vintages for banquets and gifts. In the last two years, the government has been on a tough anticorruption campaign, and one consequence was a 12 percent drop-off in red wine consumption last year. The stock market crash and slowing economy this year are not helping.随着宁夏的步履加快,培养像周先生这样的顾客将是关键。此前,葡萄酒消费的爆炸式增长大都是由政府官员和国企高管拉动的,他们购买昂贵的葡萄酒用于宴会或作为礼物。过去两年间,政府发起了严厉的反腐运动,其后果之一,就是令去年红酒的消费量下滑了12%。今年股票市场的暴跌以及放缓的经济对红酒销量更是雪上加霜。The shakeout is forcing winemakers to focus on “real buyers,” says Fongyee Walker, the managing director of Dragon Phoenix, a wine education consultancy based in Beijing. That is the middle- and upper-class Chinese who drink wine because they like it, not because of the status or favors it brings.北京葡萄酒教育咨询机构龙凤美酒咨询公司的总经理赵凤仪说,如今,经济衰退正逐渐迫使葡萄酒生产商们关注“真正的买家”——中国的中产阶级和上流阶层,他们喝葡萄酒,是因为他们喜欢葡萄酒,而不是为了彰显身份或品味。To build that customer base, Ningxia’s producers say they are concentrating on getting their wines into shops and restaurants in Beijing and other major cities. Few Ningxia wines are available outside the region, and prices are high.为了打造这个消费者基础,宁夏的生产者们说,他们正专注于让自己的葡萄酒走进北京和其他大城市的商店与餐厅。目前,在宁夏以外的地区能够买到的宁夏葡萄酒很少,价格也很高。“Even if people love our wines, they cannot find us,” says Wang Fang of Kanaan Winery. Both Kanaan and Legacy Peak have recently signed deals with top wine distributors.“就算人们喜欢我们的葡萄酒,他们也找不到我们。”迦南美地酒庄的王芳说道。近来,迦南美地酒庄和留世酒庄都与顶尖葡萄酒经销商签订了协议。Many are also envisioning a time when top Chinese wines will be a common sight on the shelves of American or European stores.许多人都憧憬着有一天,顶尖的中国葡萄酒能成为美国或欧洲商店货架上常见的商品。Mike Insley, a New Zealander who recently arrived to upgrade Pernod Ricard’s vineyards, says the area reminds him of Marlborough — the center of his country’s wine industry — in the late 1980s. Back then, New Zealand’s wines had no international recognition and its vintners were only beginning to understand the wines they produced.新西兰人迈克·英斯利(Mike Insley)最近来到了中国,帮助改良保乐力加公司(Pernod Ricard)在中国的葡萄园。他说这个地方让他想起20世纪80年代末的新西兰马尔堡(Marlborough),那里是新西兰葡萄酒产业的中心。那时,新西兰的葡萄酒还没有受到国际认可,新西兰的葡萄酒生产者也才刚刚开始了解他们所生产的酒。Today, wine is New Zealand’s No. 6 export, with sales of more than 0 million. “That’s what happens when a country gets this right,” Mr. Insley said.如今,葡萄酒已经是新西兰的第六大出口商品,销售额超过9.4亿美元。“当一个国家做得好的时候,这种事情就会发生。”英斯利说。Chinese vintages are starting to pique overseas interest. Bruno Paumard, a French winemaker who exports to Britain, Australia and Hong Kong from a large estate in nearby Inner Mongolia, has begun to ship his wines as well. And Changyu Moser XV, which now sells about 170,000 bottles a year in Britain, Germany and the Netherlands, is gearing up for a big expansion. Mr. Moser says it aims to hit roughly five million bottles across the Continent within a few years; he will also soon begin talks with American distributors. Thanks to a strong 2015 vintage, he adds, “we have a chance to make China a real player in the international arena.”现在,中国上好的葡萄酒逐渐开始引起了海外人士的兴趣。布鲁诺·鲍马尔(Bruno Paumard)是一位法国酿酒师,他向英国、澳大利亚和香港出口来自中国内蒙古附近一处大型酒庄的葡萄酒。他也已经开始出口自己的葡萄酒。张裕塞尔十五世酒庄每年在英国、德国和荷兰售出约17万瓶葡萄酒,如今正在为一场大型扩张做准备。塞尔先生说,公司计划在几年内,让公司的葡萄酒在欧洲大陆的销量达到约500万瓶,而他本人很快也会开始与美国的经销商谈判。他还说,多亏了2015年优质葡萄酒的良好表现,“我们才有机会能让中国成为国际领域内的真正玩家。”Silver Heights has also had interest from Europe. But Ms. Gao worries that Chinese wines are still too expensive to compete in international markets. For now, expanding her vineyards and improving her winemaking are more important than exporting.银色高地酒庄也引起了一些欧洲人士的兴趣。但是高女士担心,中国葡萄酒目前的价格太过昂贵,无法在国际市场上与其他葡萄酒竞争。就目前而言,拓展自己的葡萄园、酿酒技术,要比出口葡萄酒更加重要。“We do not have time for that now,” she said with a laugh. “Maybe next year.”“我们现在没有时间考虑这个问题,”她笑着说,“也许明年吧。” /201511/409345

Antibiotic-resistant superbugs are a fundamental threat to global health UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon recently told a general assembly meeting. Failure to address the problem he said would make it “difficult if not impossible” to provide universal healthcare “and it will put the sustainable development goals in jeopardy”.“耐抗生素的超级细菌是对全球卫生的一项根本威胁。”联合国秘书长潘基文最近在一个会议上表示。若是不能解决他说的这个问题,它将使提供普遍医疗保健变得困难(如果不是不可能的话)。它将使可持续发展目标陷入危险“。For pharmaceutical companies the attention on antimicrobial resistance has also brought a focus on one of its key drivers: the unabated environmental pollution of drug factories in developing countries.对制药公司来说,对抗菌素耐药性的关注也带来了一个关键驱动因素:发展中国家药物工厂的环境污染。In India and China where a large proportion of antibiotics are produced the poorly regulated discharge of untreated wastewater into soils and rivers is causing the sp of antibiotic ingredients which cause bacteria to develop immunity to antibiotics creating superbugs.在印度和中国,大量的抗生素产生,未经处理的废水进入土壤和河流的排放不良,导致抗生素成分的传播,使得细菌进化出对抗生素产生免疫的超级细菌。 A study of drug factories in China found that antibiotic-resistant bacteria were not only escaping purification but also breeding. For every bacterium that entered one waste treatment plant four or five antibiotic-resistant bacteria were released into the water system tainting water livestock and communities.中国的一家药企研究发现,抗药性细菌不但很难杀灭净化,而且还会繁殖。细菌进入污水处理厂后,都会繁殖成4或者5个细菌进入到自然水环境当中,并且对水生物和社区造成污染。Superbugs are able to travel quickly through air and water aboard airplanes and through global food supply chains. By 2050 the total death toll worldwide as the result of contracting an infection that proves resistant to treatment is expected toreach 10 million people (pdf).超级细菌在空气和水里可以通过飞机以及全球的食物供应链快速的传播,预计到2050年,全球将会有1000万人将死于细菌抗药性。 /201611/475475

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