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2017年12月16日 11:26:14来源:华龙在线

Humans have daydreamed for thousands of years, and yet, these days, spare moments are filled with using our smartphones and other devices—scrolling through social media, listening to podcasts, responding to emails—leaving us little time to let our minds wander.人类的白日梦已做了数千年,而近来,这样放空自己的时光却被智能手机以及其它设备占据了 — 浏览社交网站、听播客、回邮件......留给思想神游的时间变得寥寥无几。“Daydreaming is how we access our big-picture state of mind,” says Amy Fries, author of Daydreams at Work. “When you’re in a daydreaming state of mind, you can visualise or simulate your own version of events.;“白日梦是我们假借思绪构建蓝图的途径。”《上班也做白日梦》的作者艾米·弗莱斯如是说。“思绪放空的状态帮助人们预见与模拟具有个人特色的事件。”“My most creative moments come when my brain is allowed to rest,” says Megan King, a graphic designer, “But I’m addicted to my smartphone.”“放松的大脑是我灵感的温床。”图表设计师梅根·金说道。“但我现在却终日沉迷于智能手机。”She’s not alone. According to Nielsen, Americans spend 10.5 hours a day consuming media. And UK residents are close behind at almost 10 hours a day, according to eMarketer.她的情况并非个例。据尼尔森市场研究公司调查,美国人均媒体消费达到10.5小时。而另一家市场调研公司“电子营销人”的调查显示,英国居民的日均媒体消费时长也有将近10小时。This extended screen time has made some of us uncomfortable sitting alone with our own thoughts.人们盯着屏幕看的时间越来越久,与思想独处似乎已然令部分人浑身不自在。This may seem a small change, but its effect, on the way our minds work and on our collective creativity, could be far-reaching. In fact, it could be hindering your ability to come up with fresh, innovative ideas.你也许认为这个变化微不足道,但是实际上,它深刻地影响着我们的思维运转方式与集体创造力。Over years of studies, researchers found that our brain has two separate attention systems — an external one and an internal one. The internal attention system, which is activated during daydreaming, is called the default network.多年研究表明,我们的大脑拥有外部和内部两个独立的注意力系统。白日梦便是由俗称“默认网络”的内部注意力系统所激发。“The default network is particularly active when you are thinking about yourself, thinking about the past, thinking about the future,” says Daniel Willingham, Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia. “You can’t really have both [attention systems] active at the same time.”“人们反思自我、回顾过去、展望未来时,‘默认网络’运转尤为活跃。”弗吉尼亚大学的心理学教授丹尼尔·威林厄姆如是说。“你无法同时激活两个(注意力)系统。”If both systems can’t be active at the same time and we’re spending 10 hours a day in one attention system, it begs the question: what is that doing to our brains — and our ability to come up with creative ideas?那么,如果说两个注意力系统不能同时被激活,我们却在其中一个系统上每天花费10小时,问题就来了:这样做对我们的大脑有何影响?它又是否会削弱我们产生创造性观点的能力? /201704/506716。

  • When someone close to you has something terrible or sad happen to them, it#39;s tough to know exactly what to do or say.当你亲近的人遇到一些可怕或悲伤的事,你是否很惆怅不知道该做或说什么。The keys are to be specific, don#39;t dismiss or gloss over what#39;s happening, and always keep an open ear. Here#39;s what we mean.关键是要提供具体建议,不要忽视或掩盖发生的事情,并始终保持聆听。可如何做到这几点呢?Marie Forleo lays out specific tips for when someone close to you gets serious health news, has a loved one die, or suffers another loss. Throughout all these sad scenarios, there are a few common do#39;s and don#39;ts.当亲近的人得知自己有严重的健康问题,或他心爱的人去世,或遭受了一项损失,玛丽·福莱奥给出了上述这些问题的具体提示。在所有这些悲伤的情况下,有常见的几点是该做和不该做的。1.Do offer specific help.1.请提供具体的帮助。While telling someone to ;let them know if there#39;s anything you can do; is generous, helping them and offering help in specific ways makes them more likely to take you up on your offer.虽然告诉某人;让他们知道你能做什么;很慷慨,但帮助他们,并以具体的方式提供帮助,会令他们更有可能接受你的帮助。2.Don#39;t dismiss or gloss over their experience.2.不要否认或掩饰他们的经历。Platitudes like ;He#39;s in a better place now; or ;There#39;s a reason for everything; are easy to fall back on, but they#39;ve all been heard before, and even worse, they can be pretty insulting if you think about how you#39;d like to hear them if you were suffering.讲一些诸如;他现在在一个更好的地方;或;万事皆有原因;这样的话并没有什么用,这些话已经听过了,更糟的是,这些话可能会很侮辱人,想象一下如果你是遭遇不幸的那位,你听了会作何感想。Instead, focus on letting them know how you feel, and that you#39;re there with them. Try ;I#39;m always just a phone call away; or ;I wish I had the right words, but please know I care.;相反,重点是让他们明白你的感觉,知道你就在身边。尝试着这样说:;随时给我打个电话;或;我希望我没说错话,但请知道我很在乎你;。And of course, if you haven#39;t had the same experience as them, don#39;t tell them you know how they feel because you don#39;t.当然,如果你没有与他们相同的经验,不要告诉他们你明白他们的感觉,因为你根本不了解。Of course, these won#39;t work in every situation, but if you get nothing else from it, take these two pointers to hear the next time someone close to you is struggling or suffering and you#39;d like to help.当然,这不会适合每一种情况。但如果你没有别的办法,下次你亲近的人遇到困难或不幸,你就可以试试这两个建议来帮助他们。 /201612/483276。
  • It#39;s a frustrating thing most of us have experienced.大多数人都有过这种沮丧的经历。A song gets stuck inside of your head, seemingly playing on a permanent loop.你的脑海里总回荡着一首歌,这歌似乎还处于循环播放模式。But what are the most difficult tunes to shift - and why do they get stuck in the first place?不过你知道最洗脑的歌曲都有哪些吗?为什么一听见它们,你就无法忘怀?Well, now you can find out - because researchers have developed a mathematical formula to explain the phenomena.嗯,现在你能搞明白到底是怎么回事儿了——因为研究人员已列出了能解释该现象的数学公式。The experts claim the formula sheds light on why some musical combinations are unforgettable - and in some cases, inescapable.专家称该公式能阐明某些旋律令人难以忘记甚至挥之不去的原因。These include Happy by Pharrell Williams , the Village People#39;s YMCA and Queen#39;s Bohemian Rhapsody and We are the Champions.法瑞尔#8226;威廉姆斯(Pharrell Williams)的《快乐》、乡下人(Village People)的《YMCA》、皇后乐队(Queen)的《波希米亚狂想曲》和《我们是冠军》都属于洗脑神曲。According to the research by the University of St Andrews, the recipe for an earworm has five key components.圣安德鲁斯大学(University of St Andrews)的研究人员称,制造抓耳歌曲需要满足五个重要条件。These are receptiveness - how you feel about the song - predictability, surprise, melodic potency - how good the #39;hook#39; is - and rhythmic repetition.这五个条件即感受力(你觉得歌曲如何)、预见性、惊喜、旋律的影响力(抓耳的“钓钩”有多好)和有节奏的重复。The exact formula was revealed as: Receptiveness + (predictability - surprise) + (melodic potency ) + (rhythmic repetition x 1.5) earworm.精确的计算公式是:感受力+(预见性 - 惊喜)+(旋律的影响力)+(有节奏的重复x 1.5) 抓耳歌曲。Bede Williams, of the University#39;s School of Philosophical, Anthropological and Film Studies, looked at, among other things, a study into the nation#39;s top 20 earworms, commissioned by Heinz to promote their new #cansong TV advert.该校哲学、人类学和电影研究系的比德#8226;威廉姆斯(Bede Williams)受亨氏公司所托,查看了针对本国前20名抓耳歌曲的研究,以此帮助亨氏改进新的#罐头曲电视广告。Bede, who is also research co-ordinator of the HARK project, which looks at our listening habits, said: ;If you look at the songs which emerged from the research, they all have a distinctive rhythmic fingerprint - if we removed the melody they are recognisable by their rhythm alone.比德还是“听”项目的研究协调员,该项目探究了人们的听歌习惯。比德说:“当你倾听研究项目中的歌曲时,你会发现它们都有独特的节奏,即使我们去掉旋律,你也可以单凭节奏辨认出那是什么歌。”;If you think of the opening of #39;We will rock you#39; or the chorus of #39;Who let the dogs out?#39; you#39;d be able to identify the rhythmic hook that persists throughout each song independent of the melody.“如果你回想一下《我们将震撼你》的前奏或《是谁放走了》的副歌,你就能辨认出贯穿于整首歌的节奏,它是独立于旋律之外的。”;A significant aspect of a successful earworm is also down to a catchy lyric, of which we will all remember for different reasons.;“朗朗上口的歌词也是抓耳歌曲冲击热门的关键,我们会因为不同的原因记住这首歌。”Top 20 earworms20首最抓耳的歌曲We will rock you - Queen《我们将震撼你》-皇后乐队Happy - Pharrell Williams《快乐》-法瑞尔#8226;威廉姆斯We are the Champions - Queen《我们是冠军》-皇后乐队I#39;m Gonna Be (500 miles) - Proclaimers《我将远涉500英里》-宣告者YMCA - Village People《YMCA》–乡下人Bohemian Rhapsody - Queen《波希米亚狂想曲》-皇后乐队Final Count Down - Europe《最后倒计时》-欧洲乐队Living on a prayer - Bon Jovi《活在祈祷中》-邦#8226;乔维Jingle Bells《铃儿响叮当》Who let the dogs out? - Baha Men《是谁放走了》-巴哈人Gangnam Style - Psy《江南style》-朴载相(鸟叔)Never gonna give you up - Rick Astley《永不放弃你》-瑞克#8226;艾斯里Don#39;t stop believin#39; - Journey《一定要相信》-旅行乐队Uptown funk - Bruno Mars and Mark Ronson《放克名流》-布鲁诺#8226;马尔斯和马克#8226;罗森Shake it off - Taylor Swift《通通甩掉》-泰勒#8226;斯威夫特Beat it - Michael Jackson《避开》-迈克尔#8226;杰克逊Ruby - Kaiser Chiefs《红宝石》-恺撒#8226;切弗斯乐队The Time Warp - The Rocky Horror show《时间扭曲》-洛基恐怖秀About the bass - Meghan Trainer《丰满宣言》-梅根#8226;特瑞娜Karma Chameleon - Culture Club《因果变色龙》-文化俱乐部 /201609/468735。
  • Quick two points here to make the process easier:做到这两点可以使过程更容易:1. Never feel bad if you fall off your morning routine, get back to your schedule and do it the next day.1。如果你未能成功地早起工作,千万不要太难过。按照你的时间表,第二天就把事情做完。2. Get into a group of people who want to achieve the same time. It’s easy to do it with a group compared to doing it alone.2。加入一组志同道合的人。相比一个人而言,一队人共同达成目标会容易些。Here are some habits you can focus on that can help you become a better morning person:这里有一些值得你关注的习惯,这些习惯可以帮助你成为一个更好的早起之人:Keep a gratitude journal. For five minutes each morning, write 3 things you are grateful for today.Practicing gratitude about what we have going for us can restructure our brain to focus on positive things.保持一颗感恩的心。每天早上花五分钟写下你今天所要做的3件感激之事的。对我们所要做的事情心存感恩可以重塑我们的大脑,让大脑专注于积极的事情。Always have breakfast. If you#39;re pressed for time, pick something s。A breakfast gives you energy and it#39;s fuel for your brain. A great example is a combination of protein, fruits, and healthy fats (such as nuts).总是吃早餐。即使你时间紧迫,也要挑选一些东西来吃。早餐可以给你能量,也是是你大脑的能量之源。一份优质早餐的例子就是蛋白质,水果和健康脂肪(如坚果)的组合。Try meditating. I found that meditating early in the day, even for 10 minutes, helps to ;clean; my brain of any cluttered thoughts. It#39;s not as difficult as it sounds. With an app called Headspace you can try a guided 10 minute meditation.尝试冥想。我发现在早晨沉思哪怕只有10分钟,都有助于“清理”大脑中任何混乱的想法。 这并没有听上去那么难。Headspace这个软件可以引导你冥想10分钟Get moving. To really wake your entire body up, pick any type of physical activity. It can be a session at the gym, or it can be something shorter and even more simple: a morning yoga routine.动起来。要真正唤醒你的整个身体,可以选择任何类型的体力活动。可以是在健身房锻炼,或者可以选择更短,更简单的运动,比如早晨瑜伽。Light.灯光Make sure all ambient lighting is dim and has a low color temperature.确保所有环境光线暗淡,灯光低色温。After you go to sleep, eschew all light if possible.在你睡觉的时候,尽量避开所有的光。Then, leave your bedroom curtains open. This will allow natural sunlight to come in through the window, suppressing melatonin production and waking you up.接着,打开卧室的窗帘。这会让自然的阳光透过窗户进入,抑制褪黑激素的产生,从而唤醒你。Try to expose yourself to as much sunlight as possible, as soon as possible尽可能让自己暴露在尽可能多的阳光下。Discipline.自律。While you are changing, force yourself to get up in the morning, using an alarm clock if necessary.当你在改变的时候,强迫自己早上起来,如果需要的话用上闹钟。Sufficient sleep.充足的睡眠。This might seem obvious but most Americans get inadequate sleep these days. And if you#39;re short on sleep, you#39;ll tend to sleep late. With time, that will push you into a later and later sleep cycle.这似乎很明显,但大多数美国人这些天睡眠不足。如果你睡眠不足,你会睡得很晚。随着时间的推移,这将推动你进入一个越睡越晚的睡眠周期。And finally remember that people differ.最后记住人各不同。Some people seem to be morning people, some night people.有些人似乎是适合早起工作,而有些适合晚上工作。 /201703/496027。
  • Augmented reality game Pokemon Go has landed up in an Indian court over allegations it is hurting the religious sentiments of millions of vegetarians.增强现实性游戏《精灵宝可梦GO》因被指责伤害了数以万计的素食主义者的宗教情感而被告上了法庭。The high court in Gujarat state was asked to ban the game because its images of eggs in places of worship were ;blasphemous; to Hindus and Jains.由于该游戏在某些用于敬拜的场所出现了蛋的图样,这被认为是对耆那教的亵渎和教徒的不敬,古吉拉特邦州高等法院被要求下令禁止该游戏。The court has asked the makers of Pokemon Go to respond to the charges.同时,该法院还要求《精灵宝可梦GO》游戏的开发商回应此问题。It is unclear if the makers, Niantic Inc, will do so.目前,开发商奈安蒂克公司是否会这样做尚不清楚。Pokemon Go has not been officially released in India, but many still play thanks to workarounds.虽然《精灵宝可梦GO》尚未在印度正式发行,但是有很多人翻墙玩这个游戏。Many reports say temples are often Pokestops - especially marked landmarks where players can gather supplies.许多报道称,寺庙往往是精灵的商店,尤其是地标性的寺庙,玩家可以在这里收集用品。The petition also cited infringement of privacy, and a possible threat of life to the players searching for Pokemons as further grounds for banning the game.为了禁止该游戏,请愿书还列举了另外的一些原因,认为该游戏侵犯了隐私权,对一些为了寻找精灵而走很远的玩家的生命会构成一定的威胁。The news invited ridicule on social media, with Pokemon Go trending on Twitter in India.这一新闻招致了社交媒体上一片调侃嘲讽的声音,而《精灵宝可梦GO》却在印度的推特上流行起来。 /201609/466409。
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