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2020年01月19日 19:49:01 | 作者:爱问共享 | 来源:新华社
Books and Arts; Book Review;Nuclear warfare;Conscientious objector;文艺;书评;核战争;良心反对者;Keeper of the Nuclear Conscience: The Life and Work of Joseph Rotblat.持有核良知的人:约瑟夫·罗特布拉特的工作与生活;Many of the scientists who worked on the Manhattan Project, Americas programme to build an atom bomb during the second world war, had misgivings about their work. After the detonation of the first test bomb in 1945, Robert Oppenheimer, the programmes director, later claimed to have recalled a line from Hindu scripture: “I am become death, destroyer of worlds.” His colleague Kenneth Bainbridge was pithier: “now were all sons of bitches,” he muttered.在二战期间从事原子弹制造的曼哈顿计划中,有很多科学家对自己所做的事情满怀忧虑。1945年第一课原子弹试爆之后,该计划的执行官罗伯特奥本海默引用了印度经文的一句话:“我将成为死神,万物的毁灭者。” 而他的同僚肯尼斯 班布里奇更为直截了当:“如今我们都是杂种了。”Joseph Rotblat, a Polish-born physicist, had stronger reservations than most. He had been disturbed to overhear the American general in charge of the project admit that the real point was not to pre-empt the Nazis—whose own atomic-bomb project had got nowhere—but to intimidate the Soviets, the Americans wartime allies. In 1944 Rotblat left the programme to return to Britain, where he had taken refuge from occupied Poland, and resolved to put his expertise to more humane use. He swapped theoretical physics for the medical kind and began a life of vigorous opposition to nuclear weapons. A friendship with Bertrand Russell, a British philosopher, led to the founding of the Pugwash conferences on nuclear disarmament.物理学家约瑟夫罗特布拉特出生于波兰,比其他多数人都有更多的保留意见。在无意得知曼哈顿计划将军承认这项计划的真实目的不是对纳粹先发制人,而是恐吓美国战时的盟友苏联时,他心感不安。当然,纳粹的原子弹计划也不了了之。1994年罗特布拉特退出曼哈顿计划回到了英国,在那得到了已被占领的波兰的庇护,便从此致力于人道主义的事业。罗特布拉特从理论物理转向了医用类,开启了自己极力反对核武器的人生。他与好友伯兰特 罗素(英国哲学家)一道开辟了帕格沃什会议核裁军的道路。Andrew Browns biography traces the history of both Rotblat as a man and Pugwash as a group. That dual focus is occasionally jarring—at one stage he moves from a discussion about test animals in Rotblats London hospital to a sweeping history of attempts to ban nuclear testing. Acronyms, committees and minor players come thick and fast. Readers can expect to make frequent trips to Wikipedia.安德鲁布朗写的传记就追溯到了洛特布兰特和帕格沃什会议的源头,但是这两者结合起来有时显得不和谐:在一个阶段,作者从讨论罗特布拉特在自己伦敦的医院里进行动物实验,又跳到了他反对核试验的风光历史中。另一层面,作品中频繁穿插出现了大量的缩略词,委员会和不重要的人物的名字。要读下来还要指望维基百科。But the story itself is good enough to shine through. The idea behind Pugwash (named for the remote hamlet in Nova Scotia where the early meetings were held) was that scientists—particularly nuclear scientists—were uniquely suited to grapple with the problems of the nuclear-armed world which they had helped bring into being. They understood the details and were prone to thinking bold thoughts. As an international scientific group, Pugwash was a useful counterpart to the fearful nationalism shaping politics. Delegates debated the theory of nuclear deterrence, pondered the potential damage of a nuclear war, and agitated for disarmament and the abolition of nuclear weapons.但是故事本身就有很多亮点贯穿始终。帕格沃什(早期会议在新斯科舍省召开时,以一偏远小村庄的名字命名)会议的主旨是让科学家们与他们亲手建起的核武器世界斗争,尤其是这些核专家再适合不过了,因为这些专家对核制造了如指掌,而且他们想法奇特大胆。参会代表们一起讨论核威慑的理论,思考核战争的潜在危险,并倡导核裁军和销毁核武器。作为一个国际科学小组,帕格沃什会议成为恐怖的民族主义塑造政治的有用对口。Many of the attendees had the ear of their national governments. Over the years the Pugwash conferences evolved into a crucial source of backdoor communications between the superpowers, penetrating the fog of mistrust that characterised the cold war. The foundation of the Partial Test Ban Treaty (which banned aboveground nuclear explosions) and various other nuclear disarmament treaties was laid largely at Pugwash.许多出席者都是国家政府的亲信,会议也多年来演变成超级大国私下互访的重要来源,冲破了由冷战披上的国家之间互不信任的迷雾。“部分核禁试条约”(禁止地面核爆炸)和许多其它核裁军条约主要是在帕格沃什会议上签订的。For Rotblat, though, these were only partial victories. Throughout his life, his goal remained a world free of nuclear weapons. His experience of the second world war had a lasting impact (his wife may have been murdered at Belzec, an early Nazi death camp). He was not convinced by the argument that the threat of nuclear weapons would ultimately prevent war. The logic of deterrence, and later of mutually assured destruction—which presumes that war between nuclear-armed nations is impossible, because the mutual annihilation ensures that neither side could win—applies only to rational actors. Had Hitler had the bomb, Rotblat argued, “his last order from the bunker in April 1945 would have been to use it on London even if it meant terrible retribution to Germany. This would have been part of his philosophy of Gotterdammerung.”对于罗特布拉特而言,这些仅是他人生长河中的小小胜利,他的目标是在世界范围内消除核武器。二战经历对他的影响让他久久不能释怀,战时自己的妻子在贝尔塞克一个纳粹死亡集中营被杀害。他从不相信有了核武器的威胁就能最终抑制战争。核威慑逻辑以及同生共亡的理论(该理论持有者认为核武器国家间是不会有战争的,因为相互之间的灭亡会使任何一方都无法赢得战争)只适用于理性行为者。如果希特勒有了核弹,“即使核弹是德国的报应,也许1945年4月希特勒在自己的堡垒发出的最后命令就是用核弹炸掉伦敦。这或许也会成为他‘诸神的黄昏哲学的一部分。”罗特布拉特争论道。Readers may now find Rotblats idealism naive. Talk of total nuclear disarmament seems idle in a world with nine nuclear powers and a simmering crisis over a possible tenth. Yet the pessimism of the 1950s has proved overblown as well: nuclear weapons have proliferated much more slowly than many feared at the dawn of the atomic age, and stockpiles have dwindled since the height of the cold war. For Rotblat, to be accused of idealism was no bad thing. He liked to e his friend Russell: “do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric.”读后如今可能觉得罗特布拉特的理想简单幼稚,对于一个有九个核电站,还有一个蠢蠢欲动,马上要建的世界,聊聊完全的核裁军简直是一场空谈。然而,20世纪50年代也对核武器的悲观情绪进行了过度渲染,事实明:核武器扩散速度比在人们担心的原子能初期放慢了许多,核物质储备也自冷战高潮以来减少。对罗特布拉特而言,背上理想主义的罪名也不是个坏事。他喜欢引用好友罗素的话说:“不要为自己持独特看法而感到害怕,因为我们现在所接受的常识都曾是独特看法。” /201211/209273When it comes to evidence, the camera doesnt lie. Over the years , law enforcement here in Seattle has used cameras and their police cruisers to show proof of a crime of just a document proper procedure. But now city council member Bruce Harro wants to exploit the possibility of placing the sturdily-art cameras on the officers themselves.说到取,没有什么能比摄像机更确凿的了,多年来,西雅图的执法机关使用固定监控摄像和警察巡逻来作为法律取的主要手段。但现在,议会议员Bruce Harro提出,可以考虑在警务人员身上安放摄像头。;I believe that this is the way of the future. That we are in a technology age, its a good way to establish a good record on whats happening out there.;“我相信这是未来取执法的必然趋势。现在是视频技术飞速发展的时代,用录像来明‘发生过什么’是再好不过的方法了。”In a special meeting today at city hall. Two separate companies, Viview and Taser International made their pitch to demonstrate the latest on-person camera technologies. The cost, anywhere from 900$ up to 1,700$ per unit. But not everyone is sold on the idea.在今天市政大厅的会议室,两家公司,Viview和Taser International分别展示了现代放置人体身上的最新的摄像技术。每套设备造价900美元到1千7百美元不等。因此,并不是所有人都赞同这一想法。;You are talking about millions of dollars of investment on technology, whats the cost benefit analysis in a large organization?;“在人身上安置摄像装备意味着上百万的经济开销,”;And you dont have the answer to that yet.;“因此您现在还没有结论。”;I do not have the answer to that.;“是的,我现在还不能下任何定论。”;I believed last year Seattle probably spent around 16 million dollars just handling over 1,400 complaints that were made against the officers. And in studies weve seen both domestically and internationally. Weve seen anywhere between 40 up to a 100 percent of reduction in complaints. ;“去年一年,西雅图政府花费了约1千6百万美元购置了1千4百多套设备并投入使用。研究表明,我们看到了该举措的国内和国际效应。我们看到西雅图各地群众的投诉减少了40%以上,甚至是100%。”Recently incidents here in Seattle have shown that can be a very powerful tool that can benefit both the officer and the citizen.最近,发生在西雅图的事件实,摄像头对执法人员和市民都有好处。;What concern you more now as we saw is the incidents out there we dont get the chance to see, we want to know whats happening out there. And say it again, if we have the technology, we should use it.;“我们使用这项技术的原因是我们需要了解真相,了解案发地点发生了什么。我要重申的是,如果我们技术上能够做到,我们应该好好利用它。”According to some police departments, body bond camera should be the way of the future. Documenting everything from the officers point of view. And the will not only help convict people, but to help cops defend themselves from allegation of rudeness or even police brutality.根据一些警局的观点,便携摄像头是将来执法的必要工具。它会从执法人员的角度拍摄下一切真相。这些录像不仅能取定罪,还能明警察是否在执法过程中又无理暴行。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/190108Business商业Chesapeake energy切萨皮克能源Caging a wildcat囚住野猫Shareholders curb Aubrey McClendon股东限制奥布里·麦克兰登的权力;WILDCAT; was once American slang for risky business; then it was applied specifically to drilling for oil or gas in virgin land. Either way, it fits Aubrey McClendon, the boss of Chesapeake Energy. Since co-founding the firm in 1989, the tall Oklahoman has overseen the acquisition of vast tracts of land and found oodles of natural gas under it. As Chesapeake became Americas second-largest natural-gas producer, Mr McClendon became the face of fracking, a gas-extraction technique hated by greens.;野猫;本是美国俚语,意指高风险商业活动。后来专指在未开垦的土地上开采石油或天然气。这两种解释都适用于切萨皮克能源公司奥布里?麦克兰登。自从1989年与合伙人一同创立该公司,这个高大的俄克拉荷马州人就一直监管土地收购业务,使公司获得了大量土地并在地下发现了丰富油气资源。随着切克披萨成长为美国第二大天然气生产企业,Mr McClendon也成为;水力压裂;形象代言人,这是一项令环保人士痛恨的天然气提取技术。More recently Mr McClendon has enraged shareholder activists. On May 1st they clipped his wings. While remaining chief executive, Mr McClendon will give up the chair of Chesapeake to someone independent. Shareholders hope this will stiffen the spine of a boss-friendly board. Mr McClendon will also negotiate the scrapping, by 2014, of a programme by which he was allowed to buy a 2.5% stake in every new well drilled by his company.最近,Mr McClendon触怒了股东中的激进分子。 这些人于5月1日剥夺了Mr McClendon对公司的控制权。尽管保住了首席执行官的位子,Mr McClendon还是要将董事长职位让位于某个独立的第三方。股东们希望此举能够让原本对总裁过于友好的董事会可以挺起脊梁 。同时,Mr McClendon将商议于2014年废除一向(激励)项目,在该项目中Mr McClendon有权在公司开采的所有新油井中占有2.5%的股份。Mr McClendon has long argued that this unusual arrangement was in the best interests of shareholders. ;You could say Im the only CEO in America who truly participates alongside his company in the day-to-day business activity on the same basis as the company,; he told Forbes last year. Presumably he believes that his incentives will now become less well-aligned. Many shareholders disagree.一直以来,Mr McClendon坚持认为这项不寻常的安排是为了实现股东的最大利益。去年在福布斯的采访中,Mr McClendon说;你可是说我是美国唯一一个真正参与公司日常商业事务,并与公司站在同一立场的CEO。;事到如今,大概他也认为这项激励措施使他与公司的立场并不一致。(可是)许多股东对这一点并不认可。As Chesapeake has grown, so has Mr McClendons appetite for debt to finance his stakes in wells. (To avoid cherry-picking, he was obliged to invest in all of each years new ones, or none at all.) In the first year of the programme, according to the Wall Street Journal, the firm drilled 19 wells; last year it was around 1,700, and Mr McClendon had to stump up over 7m.切萨皮克能源公司的逐步发展,Mr McClendon对资本的胃口也越来越大,他不断通过借贷来为购买油井股票融资。(为了避免挑选行为惹人注目,他不得不对每年的新开发的天然气井全部投资或者全都不投)。据华尔街日报报道,在该项激励计划实施的第一年,公司开发了19个天然气井,到2011年,公司天然气井数量约为1700个,Mr McClendon为此需要付4.57亿美元。He did this mostly by borrowing: he admits to personal debts of 6m. In 2008, as natural-gas prices plunged along with the firms market capitalisation, he had to sell most of his shares in Chesapeake to repay debts. The following June, the board gave him a special m bonus to invest in the well programme, while suspending the requirement that he own shares in the firm worth five times his annual salary. This generous move was what first stoked the ire of shareholder activists.Mr McClendon主要靠借贷来付这笔钱,他承认自己负有高达8.46亿美元的个人债务。2008年,随着市值缩水天然气价格大跌,他不得不卖掉自己持有的大部分公司股票来偿还债务。年6月,董事会拨给他价值7500万美元的特殊津贴来投资天然气井项目,同时,他必须持有相当于其年工资五倍的公司股票的这一强制要求也被取消。这种大方的举动第一次激怒了股东中的激进分子。Hedge funds short-selling Chesapeakes shares talk of ;red flags; that suggest trouble ahead. For example, the board is looking into reports that Mr McClendon borrowed money from financial firms that had a business relationship with Chesapeake. The firm also disclosed that the taxman was looking at the well programme as part of an audit. On May 2nd, Mr McClendon complained that ;a great deal of misinformation; has been published.对冲基金卖空切萨皮克股票被人们视为;前方危险;的警告。例如,董事会正在调查的一份报告指出:Mr McClendon从一些与切萨皮克公司有业务关系的金融公司借款。切萨皮克公司也披露税务部门正打算将油气井激励计划(涉及的资产)纳入审计范围。5月2日,McClendon对此表示不满,声称公开报道中含有;大量虚假信息;。To have a boss with such big debts looks risky. Did the board know the details? This much is clear: neither the board nor shareholders can claim they were unaware of the programme that let Mr McClendon invest in new wells, which has existed since the firm went public in 1993.公司总裁负债累累,这看上去不妙。董事会是否了解其中细节?很明显:董事会和股东都无法宣称他们对这项允许McClendon投资新油井的激励计划毫不知情,(事实上)自从1993年公司上市,该计划就已经存在了。As the forthcoming flotation of Facebook may show, investors are often willing to overlook weak corporate governance when offered the chance to buy shares in a newly listed firm run by a brilliant entrepreneur. The turmoil at Chesapeake should remind them:caveat emptor.FACEBOOK上市前的一系列事件也许可以反映出投资者的误区——当一家由天才企业家经营的公司刚刚上市时,投资者在获得机会购买该公司股票的同时却忽视了公司管理中的薄弱之处。发生在切萨皮克能源公司的混乱局面也是对这类投资者们的提醒:一经出售,概不负责。 /201210/204094

Daybreak on Northern Americas Great Plains北美大平原的黎明Denver International Airport is coming to life and about to receive the first arrivals today.丹佛国际机场苏醒了,开始迎来新的一天到来。By midnight, more than 1,500 aircrafts wouldve touched down here, delivering tens of thousands of people to this modern metropolis.到了午夜,超过1500架飞机就会在这里着陆,运送成千上万的人到这座大都市。But when did people first come to the plains?人类第一次来到平原是什么时候呢?Its not so long ago in the life story of the continent, just 13,000 years since this was a virgin territory.这是不久前发生在这片大陆上的事,不过一万三千年前,这里还是处女地。And back then, different giants cruised the landscape.当时,这里生活着不同的上古奇兽。Imagine if we could travel back in time and see these plains as they were then, emerging from the grip of the last great ice age, an area of pristine wilderness, stretching for one and a half million square miles, untouched by man and brimming with extraordinary animals.想象一下,如果我们回到一万三千年前的时空,自从冰河世纪以来,这里是原始野生地区,范围有150万平方英里,没有人类的改造,只是充满了非凡的动物。But 13,000 years ago, an even more extraordinary animal arrived.但是一万三千年之前,还有一个更非凡的动物。What if we could follow in the footsteps of these first hunters as they entered the unknown and staked their claim to these vast spaces?如果我们能够跟随第一批美洲猎人走进未知的、他们生活的这个巨大的空间,会发生什么呢?What would this wild new world have looked like through their eyes?他们的眼中的野生新世界会是什么样的呢?And what strange creatures would they have encountered here on the American Serengeti?在美国塞伦盖蒂平原他们会遇到什么奇怪的生物呢?201302/227605

Business商业Ad space for equity为股票做广告Air for shares股票时间Could an unusual venture-capital model be taking off?一项不同寻常的风险投资模式能够起飞吗?IN AMERICA, venture capital is plentiful.Not so elsewhere. 美国风险资金十分丰富,但是并非所有地方都是这样。In Europe, a handful of companies are helping struggling start-ups with an unusual model: investing advertising space in them instead of money.在欧洲,一些公司正以非同寻常的模式帮助那些挣扎的新成立的公司:投资广告版面而非直接投钱。Start-ups usually get their initial seed funding-a few tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars-from family or friends.新成立的公司通常从家人或朋友那里获得初始的种子资金,通常是数万或数十万美元。A venture-capital firm wont step in until the firm is y to raise maybe ten times that amount.只有公司筹集到了数百万的资金时,风险投资才会介入。In America, intermediate sums tend to come from informal ;angel investors;, typically entrepreneurs who have made a decent bit of money from their own start-ups and want to invest some in projects they like.在美国,过渡的资金通常来自于非正式的天使投资者,特别是由新成立的公司发家且希望投资一些中意项目的企业家。But outside Americas technology hubs, such people are rare.但是在美国科技中心之外,这样的人少之又少。However, start-ups of that size are often making their first baby steps into the market and need publicity.然而,这样规模的新成立的公司通常会迈着婴儿步进入市场并需要广告宣传。Aggregate Media Funds, a Swedish firm started in 2002, pools excess advertising space provided by 15 Swedish media companies that are shareholders in the fund, and gives it to start-ups in return for an equity stake (it also plans their marketing for them).2002年成立的瑞典媒体公司媒体公基金集合了15家瑞典媒体提供的广告版面,并且以交换股权的形式给予新成立的公司。(该公司还会为他们做市场规划。)这15家媒体都是该基金的股东。If the firms do well, they buy back the equity in cash, which goes to the shareholders, with a cut for the fund.如果公司运作良好,他们就会用现金买回股权给予股东,并给基金一份利润。Patrik Rosen, Aggregates boss, says it has made some 120 investments-in both start-ups and established firms that want to advertise a new product or a stock offering-and completed around 80 ;exits;, though he wont disclose how much money has been made.公基金的老板帕特里克?罗森表示给公司已经做大约120笔投资,都是投在需要为新产品或发行股票的新成立的公司或已成型的公司,并完成了大概80个公司的;退市;,但是他并不会透露赚了多少钱。Similar models have taken hold in Germany.德国也兴起了同样的模式。ProSiebenSat.1, a television company, has been offering other firms advertising in return for equity or revenue shares since , and reported making more than /201210/206216

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