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郑州第一人民医院做隆胸手术多少钱河南省华山整形医院激光去掉雀斑多少钱If the human genome is the book of life, then Crispr technology is its Microsoft Word. The cut-and-paste technique, invented only three years ago, can be used on fledgling genomes to snip out bits of DNA and, if required, insert new stretches.如果说人类基因组是生命之书,那么Crispr技术就是用来编写这本书的Microsoft Word。这种基因“剪切和粘贴”技术3年前才问世,可用于从初露端倪的基因组中剪除DNA片段,如有需要,还可向基因组中插入新的片段。The amendments are permanent and can be passed down the generations. The technology works on mice and men; a team in China recently revealed they had partially succeeded in excising the gene for beta thalassaemia, an inherited blood disorder, from a human embryo. It is a wonder society is not yet spooked by what could be a defining technology for the future of humanity.这种修改是永久性的,可以代代相传。这种技术可以用于小鼠和人类;中国的一个科研小组最近透露,他们从一个人类胚胎上切除β-地中海贫血症(一种遗传性血液疾病)基因的操作取得了部分成功。奇怪的是,这种可能界定人类未来的技术还未震惊社会。Crispr — short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats — is the simplest of a suite of new gene-editing technologies, and is a trick borrowed from the bacterial immune system. Bacteria, when invaded by a virus, deploy “molecular scissors” — a DNA-cutting enzyme that chops up the invader. Pair the scissors with a guiding molecule capable of directing the blades to a specific point, and you are y to edit a genome. After the DNA is severed, cellular repair machinery kicks in to close the gap and the embryo continues to develop. This is how the Chinese scientists banished the mutant gene from their human embryo.Crispr是“规律成簇的间隔短回文重复”(clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)的简称,是一套新的基因编辑技术中最简单的一种,借鉴了细菌的免疫系统。当细菌遭到病毒的入侵时,会使用“分子剪刀”——一种DNA内切酶来切掉入侵者。将分子剪刀与一个能将“刀锋”引导到特定点的分子进行配对,你就能够对基因组进行编辑了。DNA被切除后,细胞修复机制开始发挥作用,接合断裂的部分,胚胎继续发育。这就是中国科学家从人类胚胎中去除突变基因的方法。The deletion was not perfect. It was carried out in a non-viable embryo so we will never know if it would have developed into a thalassaemia-free baby. Nonetheless, the research was so controversial that both Nature and Science declined to publish it. But publication elsewhere in April ignited a debate that still burns. A group of mostly US biologists has called for a moratorium, noting that modifications to the human germ line (changes that would be passed down generations) constituted a Rubicon not to be crossed lightly. UK scientists, working in a tight regulatory regime, are loath to back this call given the risk to basic science.这一切除还不完美。由于实验是在一个不能存活的胚胎上进行的,我们永远无从得知这个胚胎能否发育成一个不会患地中海贫血症的婴儿。尽管如此,这项研究极富争议性,以至于《自然》(Nature)和《科学》(Science)都拒绝发表这项研究。但该研究今年4月发表在别处,引发了一场仍在激烈展开的辩论。以美国生物学家为主的一组科学家呼吁中止研究,指出对人类生殖细胞系的修改(这种修改会代代相传)是一条不可轻率跨过的界线。在严格的监管制度下工作的英国科学家考虑到对基础科学构成的风险,不愿呼应前者的呼吁。This reluctance to impede fundamental research is shared by Jennifer Doudna of University of California, Berkeley, who co-invented Crispr and won a m Breakthrough prize last year (she is also tipped for a Nobel). US politicians, however, are twitchy; a proposal being considered in Congress would ban the Food and Drug Administration from approving clinical applications in human embryos.美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的珍妮弗#8226;杜德纳(Jennifer Doudna)也不太情愿阻碍基础研究,她是Crispr技术的发明者之一,去年赢得了300万美元的“突破奖”(Breakthrough Prize)(很多人认为她还将获得诺贝尔奖)。然而,美国政界人士焦虑不安;国会正在考虑一项禁止美国食品药品监督(FDA)批准人类胚胎相关临床应用的法案。The cancellation of human disease at genome level, which affects an individual and all their descendants, requires contemplation beyond the laboratory — by philosophers, lawyers, clerics and the public. This has been absent. In the UK there has been febrile discussion over the prospect of creating “three-parent babies”using donated mitochondrial DNA; but genome editing could be capable of far greater things, and affects nuclear DNA — from which we derive our genetic identity.在基因组层面消除人类疾病,将影响个人及其所有后代,这需要实验室以外的社会各界进行考量——哲学家、律师、宗教人士和公众。而这些人现在缺席。在英国,人们正在热烈讨论使用捐献的线粒体DNA生育“三亲婴儿”的前景;但基因组编辑能够做到更加伟大的事情,它会影响我们获得遗传特征的来源——核DNA。Inserting new genes, which has yet to be carried out in human embryos, raises further questions. If, in one embryo, I paste in a royal flush of genes conferring resistance to Ebola, cancer and Alzheimer’s, have I created a superhuman? Will perfect health become the preserve of the super-rich? Start-ups such as Editas Medicine of the US are aly gambling on this. We may one day have unaltered people living alongside a younger, gene-edited generation.目前新基因插入还未在人类胚胎上进行过,这种技术提出了更多问题。如果我向一个胚胎插入一套基因,使其获得对埃拉、癌症和阿尔茨海默病的抗性,我是否创造了一个超人?完美的健康会不会成为超级富豪的专属?美国的Editas Medicine等初创公司已经启动这场豪赌。有一天,未曾进行基因修改的人或许会和更年轻、进行过基因编辑的一代人共同生活在一个世界上。That the discussion has not gone fully public might be because genome- editing technology is complex — and because, un#173;like with mitochondrial disease, there are no heart-wrenching personal tales on which to hang the debate. The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, a UK-based charity, is considering genome-editing; its views cannot come too soon.这场讨论还未完全公开,或许是因为基因编辑技术比较复杂,也可能是因为不像线粒体疾病的相关技术,这场辩论无法用催人泪下的个人故事大做文章。英国慈善机构纳菲尔德生命伦理委员会(Nuffield Council on Bioethics)正在考虑基因组编辑;该委员会的意见让人期待。Imagining ourselves as glorified books, penned in the language of genes, is a fitting analogy as we muddle on. At some point, society must decide whether any person deserves to be a perfect piece of prose, or whether we should each remain an unedited thriller with an unpredictable ending.在我们继续摸索之际,一个合适的类比是把我们自己想象成一本用基因语言书写的精的书。在某个时间点,社会必须决定,是不是有任何人应该成为一篇完美的散文,还是该保持现状,继续做一篇未经编辑的、结尾不可预测的惊险小说? /201507/383905新乡市做狐臭手术多少钱 First dates can be awkward, and most people don#39;t know how to act. And if you#39;re going out to dinner, getting the wrong type of food can make everything even more uncomfortable. So here#39;s a suggested list of things you should NOT order on a first date.第一次约会本就可能会令人尴尬,而大多数人又并不知道该怎么来。如果你约了人共进晚餐,点错菜会让场面更加尴尬。因此为了帮助大家避免出现这样的情况,这里列出了一些食物,第一次约会千万别点这些哦!1. Spaghetti and Meatballs意大利面和肉球Slurping and chewing your long noodles will only add to the awkward pauses in conversation. Red sauce is also notoriously known to splatter; whether it#39;s on your clothes or on your date.吃出声音咀嚼你碗里长长的面条只会让你们的对话陷入尴尬的沉默。众所周知红色的酱汁经常很容易就会溅出来:无论是溅你身上还是你约会的对象身上。Alternative: Gnocchi. This small dough dumpling is easy to eat and will save you from a shirt-stain disaster.备选:意大利土豆丸子。这个小丸子吃起来方便,还不会有弄脏你上衣的危险。2. Ribs and Wings排骨和鸡翅There#39;s a reason why they come served with bibs and towelettes. Don#39;t order anything that requires a lot of man-handling, it#39;s just not attractive.这些菜送上来的时候常会带有围嘴和小围巾,这是有理由的。不要点任何吃起来要大费周章的菜,因为吃起来一点不迷人。Alternative: Steak. While it may be on the pricier side, it#39;s neater and easier to eat. So get your meat, but look classy too.备选:牛排。虽然牛排贵了点,但是它整齐匀称,而且吃起来很方便。所以吃肉归吃肉,但要吃的优雅。 /201506/381989河南哪个医院面部脱毛好

河南中医学院第一附属医院整形美容1. Given the current state of the economy, many people are choosing to double up with a roommate to help share expenses。考虑到现在的经济形势,很多人都选择找一个室友来分摊房租。 /201507/384769郑州/中牟县切割双眼皮哪家好 郑州光子脱毛

河南省华山整形医院修眉多少钱ROME — Samantha Cristoforetti had an espresso on Sunday that was out of this world, and she did it in the name of science.罗马——周日,萨曼莎·克里斯托弗雷蒂(Samantha Cristoforetti)享用了一杯世间难寻的意式浓缩咖啡,而且是以科学的名义。Ms. Cristoforetti is an astronaut, the seventh Italian and the first Italian woman to venture into orbit. She has been at the International Space Station since November, and over the weekend got to do something quintessentially Italian: She became the first person to drink an authentic serving of what she called “the finest organic suspension ever devised” in space.克里斯托弗雷蒂是一名宇航员,她是进入过太空的第七名意大利航天员,也是首位意大利女性。从去年11月以来,她一直待在国际空间站(International Space Station)里。上周末,她做成了一件非常具有意大利特色的事情:她成了第一个在太空品尝到纯正意式浓缩咖啡(espresso)的人。她把这杯咖啡称作太空中“有史以来最细腻的有机悬浮液”。“Fresh espresso in the new Zero-G cup! To boldly brew ... ” she posted on social media, where she has been chronicling her stay on the station with photos and explanatory s.“新的零重力杯里的新鲜意式浓缩!大胆地煮……”她在社交媒体上说。她一直在上面用照片和视频记录自己在空间站的生活。However much she may have enjoyed her first espresso in more than five months, making the drink in orbit was no lark, but “a very serious study in fluid physics,” Roberto Battiston, president of ASI, the Italian space agency, wrote in an emailed statement. “Until Sunday, we didn’t know exactly how hot fluids under high pressure reacted” in the near-weightless environment of the space station, he said. “Now we do.”无论她多么享受这五个多月以来的第一杯意式浓缩,在太空中制作这杯饮料可不是为了好玩,而是“一项非常严肃的流体物理学研究,”意大利航天局(ASI)局长罗伯托·巴蒂斯顿(Roberto Battiston)在一份邮件声明中说。“在上周日之前,我们都不能确切地知道,热流体在高压下会出现何种反应,”他说。“现在我们得到了。”A special espresso maker, named ISSpresso, was designed for the task by Argotec, an engineering and software firm based in Turin, and the Italian coffee producer Lavazza, with help from the space agency. It was included among the experiments and technical demonstrations that Ms. Cristoforetti, a captain in the Italian Air Force, was scheduled to carry out on her mission to the station, which ends in mid-May.这台特制的意式浓缩咖啡机叫做ISSpresso,在ASI的帮助下,由位于都灵的设计和软件公司亚果科技(Argotec)和意大利咖啡生产商Lavazza制作。它是克里斯托弗雷蒂计划在空间站完成的实验和技术演示中的一项。克里斯托弗雷蒂是意大利空军的一名飞行员,她的这次任务将于5月中旬结束。“Coffee represents one of the distinctive elements of Italian culture,” said a spokeswoman for the agency, who requested anonymity under her agency’s rules for employees.“咖啡是意大利文化中的独特元素之一,”航天局的一名发言人说。由于该局对雇员的相关规定,她要求匿名。Making a proper espresso — a singular alchemy of high temperature, water pressure and perfectly tamped coffee — is difficult enough to master on earth. Microgravity conditions made the task still more complicated, and Argotec took two years to work out how to do it.制作一杯像样的意式浓缩咖啡——这个流程需要高温、水压,还要把咖啡粉完美地压实——在地球上就已经很难了。微重力条件让这个任务更加复杂,亚果科技花了两年时间才解决这个问题。“We developed our hardware on the basis of the parameters for making good coffee, while considering safety requirements,” said Valerio Di Tana, an engineer at the company.“我们根据制作好咖啡的标准开发了我们的硬件设备,同时还考虑了安全方面的要求,”公司的工程师瓦莱里奥 ·迪塔纳(Valerio Di Tana)说。The squat, 44-pound machine wound up looking something like an old-fashioned laboratory incubator, built from military-standard components. “You don’t see those on terrestrial machines,” Mr. Di Tana said.这台低矮的机器重44磅(约合20千克),采用军工标准的零件打造而成,看上去就像是一台旧式的实验室孵化器。“你在地球上的机器里看不到这些零件,”迪塔纳说。The dripless system is even designed to emit a small waft of coffee odor when the straw is inserted into the pouch containing the brew. Two small flaps on the side allow an astronaut to hold it without burning a hand.通过不滴水系统的特殊设计,当把吸管插入盛有咖啡的小袋时,还可以释放出少量的咖啡香气。侧面设计了两个小活板,宇航员拿着的时候不会烫手。The ISSpresso machine makes other hot drinks as well, including tea and consommé. “This is important from the nutritional aspect, but also gives the astronauts a psychological boost,” David Avino, the managing director of Argotec, said in a telephone interview on Monday.这台ISSpresso还能制作其他热饮,包括茶和清炖肉汤。“它不仅能在提供营养方面能够发挥作用,还能让宇航员在心理上更加振奋,”亚果科技的执行董事戴维·阿维诺(David Avino)周一接受电话采访时说。The company had aly begun the project when another Italian astronaut, Luca Parmitano, remarked in a June 2013 interview from the space station that the one thing he really missed in space “was a good cup of espresso.”在这家公司启动这个项目之后不久,2013年6月,另一名意大利宇航员卢卡·帕米塔诺(Luca Parmitano)在空间站接受采访时曾说,他在太空中唯一十分想念的东西,“就是一杯香醇的意式浓缩咖啡”。 /201505/373444 Be it breakfast, lunch or dinner or maybe just tea time, good meal time habits are always essential because not only do they reflect you as a person, but it is a good time for everyone to bond and build relationships. But with every family and every meal, there are a set of things that nearly every family might do wrong and these set of tips just promote good habits that we must all inculcate the next time we have a meal with our families or friends just for the betterment of ourselves as individuals。无论是在吃早点,中餐、晚饭还是喝茶时人们都应保持有良好的用餐习惯,好的习惯不仅能反映出一个人的形象问题,而且它还是一个建立和加强人际关系的良好时机,因此用餐时养成好的习惯非常重要。但是几乎所有的家庭在用餐时,都不同程度上会犯些错误。而这些教你养成好习惯的贴士下次我们在与家人或者 朋友一起用餐时务必遵循。1.Always eat together as a family.1.一家人应时常聚在一起吃饭。Many families with young children, older persons or teenagers will know that a lot of times, meals have to be brought to the person’s room but try not to encourage this and have at least one meal that the entire family eats together. Preferably make this dinner because if it is breakfast, family members might be hurrying up to get to school or work and lunch might be spent at the school or work place so try going for a family dinner together. Encouraging a good family dinner means that the family learns to bond together and members who like to be in isolation most of the time are pulled into the family too。家有小孩,老人与青少年的家庭都知道,很多时候,他们会把饭带到自己的房间里去吃,但尽量不要提倡这种做法,每天至少应有一餐整个家庭成员聚在 一起吃。或许晚餐是个最好的选择,如果选择早餐一起吃,家庭成员中可能有人要敢赶时间去学校或上班,而中餐大部分时间则在学校或工地度过,因此尽量在晚餐 时大家聚在一起。一个气氛令人鼓舞的家庭晚宴能使家人的心紧密联系在一起,而且对家庭成员中那些内心孤僻的人来说很多时候他们也会感到家的温馨因而融入其 中。2.Promote good dinner time chat.2.营造良好用餐谈话氛围。It is no use getting your entire family to sit around the dinner table if it feels awkward because no one is talking. Teenagers and children might even turn against you because of this. Try to talk to everyone asking what they’ve been up to the whole day, whether or not they like the food, what they could change in it and just keep the conversation flowing。一家人围坐在餐桌前如果因为觉得尴尬而彼此不说话就没有意义。孩子们也可能会对你的这种安排产生憎恨的情绪。尽量跟家庭成员的每一个人说说话,了解下他们今天做了些什么事情,是否对你做的饭菜感到满意,他们能否对你做的饭菜再进行些调味等使整个谈话继续下去。3.Never watch TV whilst eating meals.3.吃饭勿看电视。That is probably one of the worst things you can do because sometimes, you are just so engrossed watching the telly that you don’t know what you are eating. I know it sounds strange but part of good meal time habits is that you concentrate on your food and appreciate what you are eating. Also, the telly will prevent good meal time chat and you are only going to bond with the TV rather than with the rest of the family。吃饭看电视可能是你最易犯的不良习惯之一,有时候当你全神贯注看电视时会忘记自己吃的是什么。我知道这听起来有点怪,但良好的用餐习惯之一就是专心吃饭与品位你正在食用的食物。此外,看电视会影响用餐谈话氛围,会使你只顾着电视里的情节进展而忽略与家人的沟通。4.Get the family cooking.4.让家庭成员参与烹饪。This will definitely work with children but try to get even the older members of your family cooking together rather than dumping it all on to one person. Someone can chop the vegetables while someone else does the meat so divide the work among the members of the family so they all feel involved。做饭时最好与孩子们一起忙活,同时也尽可能让家庭成员里的长辈参与其中而不要一味的将任务推给某一个人。他们中有人可能会切菜,而另一些人中有的会做肉制佳肴,这样就可以将工作在家庭成员中得以分配,他们也会有种参与的感觉。5.Wash your hands before every meal.5.饭前应洗手。My parents who are doctors always ask me to wash my hands before every meal even if I am going to eat with a knife and a fork. I never really understood why I should do this but when they gave me a valid answer, they did have a point. Children and teenagers and sometimes even adults will touch their food if they have to sometimes. They may touch the rim of their plates and this means that you are depositing all of the bacteria from your hands on to the plate. When you eat off the plate, all of those bacteria go into your stomach. If you are eating something like a sandwich or a burger and sometimes, some people like eating pizzas with their hands, this is directly feeding yourself bacteria so wash your hands even though you might use a knife and a fork。我的父母是医生,他们总要求我每顿饭前洗手,即使是用刀叉时也会这么要求。他们说的非常有道理。但在他们给我确切的解释前我一直不大理解为什么 我应该这样做。儿童和青少年,有时甚至成年人在必要时也会用手去接触食品。他们可能会用去手接触盘子的边缘,而这就意味着将手中的细菌带到了盘子里。当你 吃掉了盘子里的食物时,这些细菌就会进入你的肚子。如果你喜欢用手拿着吃三明治或汉堡包,当然有些人喜欢吃用手拿着的比萨饼,这样就等同于自己在直接饮用细菌,因此,即便是你用刀叉吃饭请洗洗手。 /201507/386044郑州/大学第一附属医院做双眼皮多少钱河南科技大学第一附属医院做丰胸手术多少钱



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