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楼主:百度新闻 时间:2017年10月20日 05:43:29 点击:0 回复:0
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Facebook doesn#39;t hold many press conferences. But when the world#39;s biggest social network does talk to journalists, the briefings are always best when founder and chief executive Mark Zuckerberg goes off script.Facebook没有召开很多新闻发布会。但当这个世界上最大的社交网络确实与记者交谈时,简报总是最佳的当创始人兼首席执行官马克#8226;扎克伯格即兴演讲时。The 28-year-old man did so on Tuesday, at the launch of Graph Search, when he openly described a ;wider strategic rift; with Google and revealed for the first time why negotiations between Facebook and the search giant broke down over privacy.这位28岁的男人是周二在图像搜索发布会上这么做的,当他公开描述了与谷歌的一种“更广泛的战略分歧”,并首次透露为什么Facebook与该搜索巨头在隐私方面的谈判破裂。According to Zuckerberg, Google was less willing (or able?) to change its search algorithm so that once a wall post or photograph was deleted from Facebook it vanished from the rival company#39;s search results. Microsoft was able to do this and has partnered with Facebook since 2010.据扎克伯格说,谷歌不愿(还是不能?)改变其搜索算法,这样一旦一张海报或照片在Facebook被删除后它就从竞争对手公司的搜索结果中消失了。微软能够做到这一点,自2010年以来就与Facebook合作了。;Trying to think whether it#39;s reasonable to get into this,; said Zuckerberg in a Qamp;A session, prompting a flurry of sudden interest from the assembled journalists. ;I think the main thing is about when people share something on Facebook, we want to give them not only the ability to broadcast something out but also change their privacy settings later and take the content down.“试想进入这是否合理,”扎克伯格在一个问答环节说,激起与会记者的一时兴趣。“我认为最主要的事情是当人们在Facebook上分享东西时,我们想给他们的不仅是能传播一些东西,而且也在改变了他们的隐私设置后把内容记录下来。;That requires incredibly quick updating ... We need that content to be gone immediately ... You need infrastructure that can support that and that takes a lot of commitment from the partner.”“这需要难以置信的快速更新…我们需要这些内容立即消失……你需要基础设施可以持,这需要从合作伙伴那获得很大的承诺。”;Microsoft was more willing to do things that were specific to Facebook. Google has a system that works really well for them about how they treat information across their company, and I think that our system was different in ways that people share information and want to give them flexibility after the fact – that was the biggest stumbling block.“微软更情愿做的事情都是针对Facebook的。谷歌有一个系统真的非常有效,关于他们怎样对待经过他们公司的信息,我认为在人们分享信息的方式上我们的系统是不同的,并想要在事实之后给予他们灵活性,那是最大的绊脚石。;That may have just been the specific thing in the negotiation, it may have been a symptom of a bigger strategic rift, but that is at least where the discussion fell apart the last time we spoke about it.;“那可能只是在谈判中特定的东西,它可能是一个更大的战略分歧的症状,但那至少是上次我们谈到它时讨论土崩瓦解的地方。”Zuckerberg was responding to a question by Search Engine Land#39;s Danny Sullivan, who covered the launch of Graph Search in depth on his site.扎克伯格是在回应搜索引擎专家丹尼#8226;苏利文提出的问题,报道了他网站上深度图谱搜索的发布。According to Facebook insiders, Zuckerberg was not referring to fresh discussions with Google ahead of the launch of Graph Search. The dispute goes back to the ;cold war; days when Google and Facebook fell out over the ownership of personal data and, latterly, Google#39;s move into social with Google+.根据Facebook的内部人士,扎克伯格指的并不是在图谱搜索发布前与谷歌的新讨论。争议回到了“冷战”那些日子当谷歌和Facebook在个人数据的所有权之争的争吵,最近,谷歌以谷歌+进军社交领域。It is significant because, if correct (and Google refuses to comment), it adds to the emerging theory that Google#39;s highly complex search algorithms are increasingly at odds with the social web. Put simply: how would you feel if a photograph you removed from Facebook could still be found by people searching Google? Or an embarrassing Facebook that appeared in Google searches for your name even though you had been deleted on the social network?它是重要的,因为如果正确的(谷歌拒绝),它增加了谷歌高度复杂的搜索算法越来越不符合社交网络的新理论。简单地说:如果你在Facebook上删除的照片仍然可以在人们搜索谷歌时被发现你会有什么感受?或者一个令人尴尬的Facebook视频以你的名字出现在谷歌搜索上,即使你已经在社交网络上删除了?The worry for Google is that it will come to be seen as the reason why nothing can ever be fully removed from the internet. That is a problem for Google#39;s brightest brains to address as Facebook and Twitter expand the social web into more areas of our lives.谷歌担忧的是它将被视为任何东西都不能从互联网上完全删除的原因。这是一个需要谷歌最聪明的大脑来解决的问题当Facebook和Twitter将社交网络更多的地扩大到我们的生活中。 /201301/220953In the past few months, I started noticing that I’ve become a slave. I’m a slave to the internet, and I’m a slave to my phone. I tried remembering how many times I haven’t used my phone for more than an hour in the last few years, but I couldn’t.在过去的几个月里,我开始察觉自己俨然成了一个奴隶。一个被英特网和手机驱使的奴隶。我试图回想在前几年里究竟有多少次远离手机超一小时,但我无能为力。Don’t get me wrong, I’m a huge fan of the internet. I hear the old-schoolers talk about how the internet is killing everything, how we humans are deteriorating because of it. I hear them say that bloggers are not journalists and that social connections are not relationships, but I think they are wrong.不要误解,我其实是英特网的拥簇者。但却听起守旧派说网络是如何如何地摧毁一切,我们人类又是如何如何地被其腐蚀。还听说客写手不是新闻工作者,网络社交也不算社交,可我却不敢苟同。Technology, including in large part the internet, alongside human relationships, is one of the connections that moves our society forward. The innovation that appears in all aspects of our daily lives allows us to be smarter, faster, better. So every time I hear the old-schoolers talk about how the internet is a bad thing, I wonder why they wouldn’t want to be better.人类关系和科技,也包含广泛应用的网络,相辅相成,它们共同推进社会进步。日常中各领域的革新,促使我们的生活更智能,更迅捷,更美好。所以每当我听见守旧派讨论网络是个坏东西的时候,我就好奇难道他们不想过得更好么?The BIG problem with the internet is that it makes us dependent. Quite often, I see people (and I’m one of them) that actually look and act like junkies. They can’t stop playing with their phone, iPod, PC, or tablet. They can’t disconnect themselves from the non-stop stream of information that the internet provides us. Like everything in life, when you find yourself dependent on something, it might be the right time to start thinking about whether you need to stop and restart yourself.网络头号问题就是它把我们变得更依赖它了。好些时候,我看人们(我也是其中一员)的气色和行为都像瘾君子。他们离不开电话,iPod,或者平板电脑。也无法脱离网络给予我们不断流动的信息流。正如身边的任何事物,当你发觉你对它们产生了依赖,就是时候开始考虑是否需要停下来,或重新来过了。Here are a few tips to help you take a break from your digital addiction:这里的小贴士可以帮你戒掉数码瘾:1. Put your phone face-down.把手机面朝下放I recently had the good fortune of discovering a fantastic project called undigitize.me. This project is a creation of a young entrepreneur who had enough. He wanted to focus on the things that mattered the most, mainly the people he encountered and his thoughts. One day he realized that the phone was his biggest obstacle.最近我很幸运地发现了一个叫做“摆脱数码”的项目。这个项目是由一个曾经历许多的年轻企业家创办。他希望将精力集中在重要的事情,还有平时遇见的人物和思考上面。某天他意识到手机是他最大的障碍。So what does it mean to put your phone face-down? It means that you are preventing your mobile device from capturing your attention every time you receive an email, message, or any other stream of information. It’s not just a statement; it’s a way of life. Keeping your phone face-down means that you are trying to normalize the way you think and act, it means that once again you are in control of your time and focus and will not let any app or service control you.那么把手机面朝下放是什么意思呢?就是说你要让你的移动设备与你的注意力分开,无论是顾盼电子邮件、短信还是其他的信息流。这不是说说而已;这是一种生活方式。把手机向下放意味着你在努力回归正常的思维方式和表现行为,说明你再次获得了控制时间和集中精力的力量,再也不会让任何软件和电子务操控你。2. Go back to sleep.继续睡眠Since moving to New York (while my team remains in Tel Aviv), I have been suffering from severe jet lag. This basically causes me to wake up at least three times throughout the night.自从搬到了纽约(而我的团队留在特拉维夫),我就一直被严重的时差困扰着。基本上每晚我都会至少醒来3次。The big problem with waking up in the middle of the night, is that while its 3:30 AM in New York it’s also 10:30 AM in Tel Aviv. This means that in the middle of the night, I wake up to at least thirty emails, messages, and push notifications. For some reason, I can’t help but check each one of those notifications until I’m so awake that sleep has become impossible. One thing leads to another, and I suddenly find myself answering emails and going on Facebook and Twitter, all because I picked up my phone instead of going back to sleep.当纽约时间是凌晨3:30时,特拉维夫正是上午10:30,这就是午夜醒来的大问题的原因。意思就是说每到午夜,我就会失眠,然后查收少则30余封的信件、短信和发送报告。不知怎地,我会不由自主地查看每条报告,直到彻底清醒,最后难以入睡。接二连三下去,我便猛然发现自己在回电邮,刷新Facebook和Twitter,这一切皆因我拿着手机而不是回到床上继续睡觉。 /201307/247960If multiple communication systems aboard Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 were manually disabled, as investigators increasingly suspect happened, it would have required detailed knowledge of the long-range Boeing Co. 777#39;s inner workings.调查人员愈发怀疑马来西亚航空(Malaysia Airlines)失联370航班上的多个通讯系统是被人为破坏的,如果真是这样,则蓄意破坏的人需要对波音(Boeing Co.) 777客机的内部情况拥有详细的知识。The first loss of the jet#39;s transponder, which communicates the jet#39;s position, speed and call sign to air traffic control radar, would require disabling a circuit breaker above and behind an overhead panel. Pilots rarely, if ever, need to access the circuit breakers, which are reserved for maintenance personnel.首先被关闭的应答器可向空中交通控制雷达发送飞机位置、速度和呼叫信号,关闭它需要切断顶部仪表板上方和后面的一个断路器。飞行员很少需要动用断路器,这些断路器是为维修人员准备的。Pulling one specific circuit breaker, which is labeled, would render inoperative both of the 777#39;s transponders, according to documents reviewed by The Wall Street Journal and bolstered by comments from according to aviation industry officials and those who have worked with the 777.根据《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)见过的文件、航空业官员,以及曾务过波音777的人员提供的信息,拔掉某一个断路器(断路器上有标签)将导致飞机上两个应答器停止工作。Becoming familiar with the 777#39;s systems requires extensive training for pilots and aircraft mechanics alike, experts said. However, considerable technical data on the airplane is also available online in discussion groups or other websites.专家称,要熟悉波音777系统,需要接受大量有关飞行员和机械师的培训。不过这种机型的相当多技术数据也可以在讨论小组或其他网站上获得。Investigators are trying to establish a sequence of events that transpired on the jet, which vanished from radar March 8, most critically the loss of communication.对于这架在3月8日消失在雷达屏幕上的飞机,调查人员正试图对机上发生的事件理出一个顺序。The shutdown of the on board reporting system shortly after the jet was last seen on radar, can be performed in a series of keystrokes on either of the cockpit#39;s two flight management computers in the cockpit. The computers are used to set the performance of the engines on takeoff, plan the route, as well as other functions to guide the 777.在飞机最后一次出现在雷达屏幕后不久机上应答系统关闭,这一操作可以通过在驾驶舱内两台飞行管理电脑中的任意一台上敲一系列键就可完成。这些电脑用于设置发动机在起飞时的性能、规划飞行路线以及指导777飞机的其他功能。After vanishing, the jet#39;s satellite communications system continued to ping orbiting satellites for at least five hours. The pings ceased at a point over the Indian Ocean, while the aircraft was at a normal cruise altitude, say two people familiar with the jet#39;s last known position. Investigators are trying to understand that loss, and whether or not #39;something catastrophic happened or someone switched off#39; the satellite communication system, says one of the people.在失联后,飞机的卫星通讯系统在至少五个小时内继续向卫星发出连接请求。两名知情人士表示,卫星连接请求在印度洋上方某处中断,当时飞机处在正常的巡航高度。其中一人称,调查人员正试图了解中断原因,是否发生了一些灾难性事情,或者是有人关闭了卫星通讯系统。A physical disconnection of the satellite communications system would require extremely detailed knowledge of the aircraft, its internal structure and its systems. The satellite data system is sp across the aircraft and disabling it would require physical access to key components. Disconnecting the satellite data system from the jet#39;s central computer, known as AIMS, would disable its transmission. The central computer can be reached from inside the jet while it is flying, but its whereabouts would have to be known by someone deeply familiar with the 777.物理阻断卫星通讯系统需要极为详细地了解飞机、其内部结构和系统。卫星数据系统遍布机身,要关闭这一系统需要能够实际接触到关键部件。从被称为AIMS的飞机中央电脑关闭卫星数据系统可以切断数据传输。在飞机飞行过程中,机上人员可以接触到其中央电脑,但是需要对这架波音777极为熟悉。Getting into the area housing the 777#39;s computers would #39;not take a lot#39; of knowledge, said an aviation professional who has worked with the 777. However, this person added, #39;to know what to do there to disable#39; systems would require considerable understanding of the jet#39;s inner workings. Some airlines outfit the access hatch to the area below the floor with a special screw to prevent unauthorized intrusion, the person added.据一位曾务过777机型的航空专家称,进入777飞机放置电脑的区域不需要许多知识。但是这位专家表示,知道如何关闭系统需要相当了解该飞机内部工作原理。这位专家还说,有些航空公司会为进入这一地板下区域的舱门安装一个特别的螺丝,以防的进入。Orbiting satellites are designed to check in with the aircraft#39;s satellite-communication system hourly if no data is received during that time. The pings from the aircraft became a subject of scrutiny earlier this week, said a person familiar with the matter, several days after the plane first went missing.轨道卫星如果没有接收到数据的话,每小时都会检查一次飞机的卫星通讯系统。一位知情人士称,在马航客机失联数天之后,该架航班的数据连接请求在本周早些时候成为调查目标。Because the pings between the satellite and the aircraft registered that the aircraft#39;s satellite communications system was healthy and able to transmit, the data did not immediately raise any red flags in the hours after the jet#39;s disappearance.由于卫星与这架客机之间存在数据连接请求,显示飞机的卫星通讯系统情况正常且能够进行信号传输,所以在飞机失联之后的几个小时里,相关数据并没有立刻引起警惕。At first, the origin of the final ping from the Malaysia Airlines jet seemed like an anomaly to investigators, according to a person familiar with the matter, given that the plane was believed to have crashed off the coast of Vietnam, hundreds if not thousands of miles from the location of the final ping.据一位知情人士称,最初阶段,考虑到这架马航客机被认为已经在越南海域坠毁,距离最后发出数据连接请求的位置有数百甚至上千英里之远,客机最后发出数据连接请求的地点在调查人员看来似乎有些异常。Until just a few years ago, the satellite communication system used by jetliners didn#39;t include data on an aircraft#39;s location in the pings, the electronic equivalent of handshakes used to establish initial contact.直到数年之前,客机使用的卫星通讯系统并不包含有关飞机发出数字连接请求的位置信息。For instance, before Air France Flight 447 crashed into the Atlantic Ocean in 2009, the jet sent some diagnostic data indicating problems with various onboard systems, including the autopilot#39;s deactivation. But notably the plane#39;s position wasn#39;t transmitted with that data.比如,在2009年法国航空公司(Air France) 447航班在大西洋坠毁之前,该机发送的诊断数据表明,飞机上多个系统出了问题,其中包括应答器关闭。但值得注意的是,该飞机的位置信息并未得到传输。Partly as a result it took nearly two years to locate the plane#39;s #39;black boxes#39; and the majority of the wreckage. In the case of the missing Malaysian jetliner, precise locations were provided. However, it is unclear why the transmission ceased and where the plane may have ended up after the final ping.其中一个后果就是,寻找这架飞机的黑匣子和主体残骸用了将近两年的时间。而在马航失联飞机事件中有精确的位置信息。但目前还不清楚为何这种信号传输会中断,以及在最后一次数字连接请求发出之后飞机可能最终去了哪里。 /201403/280282Odds are, you’re ing this article when you’re supposed to be working.你在阅读这篇文章的时候,很可能正是你应该在工作的时候。A new study from Kansas State University suggests that we spend even more time than previously thought aimlessly browsing the Internet during our office hours.据堪萨斯州立大学的一项新调查显示,我们在办公时间内花在漫无目的浏览网页上的时间比我们预想的还要多。“Cyberloafing” — wasting time at work online — takes up as much as 80 percent of the time people spend online at work, according to the data collected by Joseph Ugrin, an assistant professor at Kansas State, and John Pearson, an associate professor at Southern Illinois University. The results were published in the latest issue of the journal Computers in Human Behavior.根据堪萨斯州立大学副教授约瑟夫#8226;乌格林和南伊利诺伊大学副教授约翰#8226;皮尔逊所收集的数据,“网上闲逛”——上网工作时浪费时间——占据了人们网上办公高达80%的时间。研究结果将刊登在《计算机在人类行为中的应用》杂志最新一期上。Their results also suggest that traditional work guidelines surrounding Internet use are not enough to police worker behavior, and that if companies really want to scale back the amount of time their employees spend surfing the Web, they must “consistently enforce” sanctions to uphold their cyberloafing policies.研究结果还表明,用规范互联网使用的传统工作守则来管辖员工的行为已经远远不够了,如果公司真想减少员工上网浏览网页的时间,就必须“始终如一地执行”相关处罚措施,以保网上闲逛政策的实施。;We found that for young people, it was hard to get them to think that social networking was unacceptable behavior,; Ugrin said. ;Just having a policy in place did not change their attitudes or behavior at all. Even when they knew they were being monitored, they still did not care.;乌格林说道:“我们发现很难让年轻人觉得(上班时间)上社交网络是不良行为。仅是制定出相关政策根本不能改变他们的态度或行为。即使他们知道自己的行为被监控,他们也会若无其事。”Then again, not necessarily all ;cyberloafing; can be measured as a net loss for businesses. A 2011 study found that in certain fields, when people spend time casually browsing the Web at work, they actually end up being more productive and creative.话说回来,并不是所有的“网上闲逛”都是企业的净损失。2011年的一项研究发现,在某些领域,当人们在上班时间随意地浏览网页时,他们的工作更富成效和创造力。The risks for employers go beyond lost productivity. Ugrin and Pearson point out that cyberloafing also poses legal risks for companies, if their employees are engaging in activities like viewing pornography or taking part in illegal transactions.员工“网上闲逛”的风险远不止使生产率下降。乌格林和皮尔逊指出,如果员工浏览色情网站或参与非法交易等行为,网上闲逛还会给企业带来法律风险。Ugrin and Pearson found that time-wasting was employed in nearly equal measure across different age groups but that generational differences were expressed in the various ways in which people specifically waste their time.乌格林和皮尔逊发现,不同的年龄组在网上浪费的时间几乎一样多,但人们以不同的方式浪费时间,从中体现了代际差异。;Older people are doing things like managing their finances, while young people found it much more acceptable to spend time on social networking sites like Facebook,; Ugrin said.乌格林说:“年长一些的人会做管理自己财务的一类事,而年轻人则认为在脸谱网这样的社交网站花费时间很理所当然。”And while the study’s authors endorse tougher sanctions to enforce productivity and worker conduct, they say employers must maintain a healthy balance in order to not negatively affect office morale.尽管研究的作者持采取更严厉的惩罚措施来保生产效率和员工的行为表现,但他们表示雇主必须让办公环境保持健康的平衡,不对办公室士气造成负面影响。;People will feel like Big Brother is watching them, so companies need to be careful when taking those types of action,; Ugrin said.乌格林说:“公司在采取这种处罚措施时一定要谨慎,否则人们会总感觉有‘老大哥’在盯着他们。” /201302/224867

Apple issued an update for its OS X software for Mac computers to patch a security risk first spotted in its mobile operating system.苹果公司发布了Mac电脑所用OS X软件的更新版本,对旗下移动操作系统中出现的首个安全隐患打上了补丁。The company said the software addresses a flaw that allows a would-be attacker to intercept data to or from a Mac computer, such as email. Last week, Apple issued a similar security fix for its iOS software that runs on the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch.该公司称,更新后的软件消除了一个缺陷,这个缺陷允许潜在攻击者拦截Mac电脑发出或接收的数据,比如电子邮件。上周,苹果针对iPhone、iPad和iPod Touch运行的iOS软件发布了类似的安全补丁。At the time, it said that it was aware that the Mac operating system had a similar security risk and that it was working on a fix.当时苹果公司称,已了解Mac操作系统存在类似的安全隐患,公司正着手开发补丁。In addition to the security fix, the latest OS X update also adds the ability to make audio calls on Apple#39;s FaceTime service as well as other improvements to its Mail software and Safari browser.除了安全补丁之外,最新更新的OS X操作系统也增添了使用苹果公司FaceTime务进行语音通话的功能,同时还对苹果Mail软件和Safari浏览器进行了完善。Even as Apple released the fixes, security firm FireEye said it has discovered a way that a hacker could monitor activity on Apple#39;s mobile software. FireEye said it has created a proof-of-concept monitoring app for iOS 7 devices that can record whatever a user touches on the screen, similar to the way some programs log keystrokes on a computer. FireEye said it is collaborating with Apple to address the issue.尽管苹果发布了补丁,但安全公司FireEye表示,已经发现黑客能使用一种方法来监控苹果移动软件的活动。FireEye称,公司已经针对iOS 7设备创建了一个概念验型监控应用,可以记录用户在屏幕上触碰的任何东西,其方式类似于一些程序记录电脑按键信息的方式。FireEye称,公司正与苹果开展合作以解决相关问题。An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment on FireEye#39;s claim.苹果公司发言人对FireEye的说法不予置评。 /201402/277636

It takes more than money to rid the world of a scourge such as polio - though having buckets of cash certainly helps. Also needed are ambitious thinking, organisational know#173;how and the ability to bring new ideas to bear on old #173;problems. These are also the kind of things that go into creating a successful technology company. This time around, though, Bill Gates the CEO has had to take a back seat to a less familiar persona: Bill Gates the diplomat.要让世界根除小儿麻痹症这样的灾祸,光有金钱是不够的,虽然雄厚的资金必然是有益的。我们还需要深远的思考、组织技巧、以及用新理念来对付老问题的能力。这些也恰恰是用来创建一家成功高科技企业的要素。但这一次,首席执行官比尔#8226;盖茨不得不让位于一个世人不太熟悉的人物:外交家的比尔#8226;盖茨。When the Gates Foundation made polio eradication a priority five years ago, the global anti-polio effort was running into the sand. More than 10 years of progress had given way, at around the turn of the millennium, to a stalemate as vaccination efforts in the countries still harbouring the disease failed to reach the coverage levels needed to push it into extinction. The organisations behind the existing drive - such as Rotary International, the business group that had long led the effort - “had sort of naively assumed it was on track, but it wasn#39;t”, Gates says. “The idea that business as usual was going to get us there - it had to be broken out of that, because it wasn#39;t going to #173;succeed. It #173;probably would have been better to just give up than do business as usual. But that would have been horrific.”当盖茨基金会在5年前决定优先努力根除小儿麻痹症时,全球范围抗击这种疾病的努力正举步维艰。在世纪之交前后,当时已经进展10多年的项目在现实面前非常无力,那些仍存在小儿麻痹症病例的国家里,疫苗接种的覆盖尚未达到能根除疾病的水平。这些致力于该运动的组织,比如长期领导这一努力的商业团体“国际扶轮社”(Rotary International)“似乎有点天真地认为一切都在正轨上,但事实却并非如此。”盖茨说,“有人认为一切照常就会达到目标,但这不会成功,我们必须跳出这种想法。干脆放弃也许比一切照常更好,但那将是非常可怕的。”Gates seems to relish nothing more than challenging business as usual, often by applying a dose of more ambitious thinking. It was the same impetus that led him to rethink familiar approaches to philanthropy, throwing his money into the urgent pursuit of solutions to big problems rather than attempting a drip-feed of donations that would amount to little more than a Band-Aid. While the foundations started by the likes of Howard Hughes and pharmaceuticals boss Sir Henry Wellcome are still among the handful of the world#39;s richest decades after their founders#39; deaths, the Gates Foundation has been programmed to dole out all its cash and wind itself up 20 years after their deaths.盖茨似乎最喜欢挑战“一切照常”,他经常为此展开更为深远的思考。同样的动力促使他反思人们熟悉的慈善做法,并最终决定把自己的大量财富花在为重大问题寻找解决方案这一紧迫任务上,而不是进行小打小闹的捐赠、到头来不能彻底解决问题。尽管霍华德#8226;休斯(Howard Hughes)和制药业大佬亨利#8226;惠康爵士(Sir Henry Wellcome)创立的基金会,在其创始人去世几十年后仍位居世界上少数财力极为雄厚的基金会之列。盖茨基金会则计划在盖茨夫妇去世后的20年内捐出所有资金,然后进入清盘程序。The instinct to shake up the complacent and challenge the intellectually lazy doesn#39;t always win Gates friends. Putting his personal money and reputation on the line to eradicate a disease has also risked accusations of vanity - a case of the “ego philanthropy” that can distort goals when the super-rich get involved. Wiping out a disease has only happened once before, when the World Heath Organisation declared in 1980 that #173;smallpox had been eliminated. Helping to finance and organise a second #173;eradication would cap the Gates Foundation#39;s emergence as the most significant private charity in the world of global health. It would also set the stage for the next items on the list of diseases it hopes eventually to wipe out, starting with malaria.撼动自满、挑战思维惰性的本能,并不总能让盖茨赢得朋友。为根除一种疾病而押上自己财富和声誉的做法,还有可能被人指责为“虚荣”——“自我慈善事业”指的就是这种情况。当牵扯到超级富豪时,这种慈善可能会扭曲目标。根除一种疾病的案例以往只发生过一次——世界卫生组织(WHO)在1980年宣布天花已被根除。若能帮助资助和组织根除第二种疾病,盖茨基金会将一跃成为全球健康领域最重要的私人慈善机构。此举还将为该基金会奠定基础,利于将目标转向其希望最终根除的其他疾病,为首的就是疟疾。Gates brushes off questions about the merits of the eradication effort and whether other initiatives might be a better investment in terms of the immediate number of lives saved. “Eradications are special,” he says. “Zero is a magic number. You either do what it takes to get to zero and you#39;re glad you did it; or you get close, give up and it goes back to where it was before, in which case you wasted all that credibility, activity, money that could have been applied to other things.”有人质疑根除疾病努力的价值,认为若按被挽救之生命的直接数量来衡量,其他善举会不会是更好的投资。面对这些质疑,盖茨表示不屑。“‘根除’是一件很特别的事情。”他说,“零是一个神奇的数字。你要么尽一切努力来达到零,然后对自己实现了目标感到欣喜;要么在接近目标后放弃努力,然后发病率反弹至原有水平——在这种情况下,你白白浪费了大量信誉、精力和资金,而这些你原本可以投入到其他事业上。”Since he threw his organisation behind the effort, polio has been eradicated in India. But it remains rooted in Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan, spilling over sporadically into their #173;neighbours. That these three countries remain among the world#39;s most #173;difficult to operate in - in Pakistan, the Taliban has taken to bombing vaccination teams, accusing them of being in cahoots with the CIA - provides a clue about why, nearly 30years after the eradication campaign began, polio persists. Eradication has little to do with making advances in science and technology - though work on new vaccines targeted more directly at the strains of the disease that remain has helped in the fight.有赖盖茨基金会的持,小儿麻痹症在印度已得到根除。但这种疾病在阿富汗、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦仍然流行,偶尔还蔓延到邻国。这三个国家仍是世界上最难开展慈善工作的,在巴基斯坦,塔利班曾对疫苗接种小组实施炸弹袭击,并指责他们与美国中央情报局(CIA)同流合污。这一事实实则说明了为什么在“根除”努力启动近30年后,小儿麻痹症仍然存在。能否根除疾病与科技是否取得进步关系不大,尽管在这一努力中,新疫苗(这些疫苗更直接地瞄准现存疾病类型)的研制工作起到了帮助作用。Take one of the biggest challenges to managing immunisation campaigns against polio and other diseases in the developing world: getting vaccines to where they#39;re required while keeping their temperature in a narrow 2C-8C range to prevent them spoiling. Running the so-called “cold chain” needed for this to happen - from big refrigerators in regional distribution centres to the cases vaccinators carry into the field - requires painstaking logistical organisation. Often, kerosene or other fuels used in refrigeration are in short supply or antiquated equipment fails due to lack of maintenance. According to Gates, problems like these are too low-tech to attract the world#39;s best brains. “Unfortunately, it#39;s a very mundane, practical thing,” he says. “It#39;s not sexy from a scientific point of view.”在发展中国家开展针对小儿麻痹症和其他疾病的免疫活动,最大的挑战之一是把疫苗运送到需要的地方,并在这一过程中确保它们的温度保持在2至8摄氏度的狭窄温度范围内,以防它们变质。要做到这一点,就需要所谓的“冷链”:从区域配送中心的大冰箱,到接种人员手中的接种箱。运营“冷链”需要进行周密的后勤组织。经常发生的情况是,制冷所用的煤油或其他燃料供应短缺,或者设备陈旧,年久失修出现故障。盖茨称,这样的问题技术含量太低,难以吸引世界上最优秀的大脑。“遗憾的是,这是一件很平凡、实际的事,”他说,“从科学的视角看,它不够‘性感’。”A businessman#39;s understanding of incentives helps. The number of fridges needed is not large enough to provide a #173;profitable market for manufacturers so the foundation has had to make financial commitments in advance. The business model of the vaccine makers gives them little reason to lower their manufacturing costs to make their products more affordable, he adds. Their high costs are more than covered by prices they can charge in the developed world and any mistakes they might make as a result of tampering with their carefully regulated #173;production processes would jeopardise that existing business. “That#39;s not science - that#39;s, how the hell do you make 50 cent vaccines?”此时商人盖茨对激励机制的理解是非常有用的。由于所需的冰箱数量不够、不能为制造商提供一个有利可图的市场,盖茨基金会不得不预先作出财务承诺。他补充说,疫苗制造商的商业模式使得它们没理由降低生产成本、让自己的产品在价格上更合适。在发达国家能够开出的价格,足以覆盖它们的高成本。如果它们因改变自己精心调校好的生产工艺而酿成任何差错,那就可能危及现有业务。“这与科学无关——这个问题是,你如何才能制造50美分的疫苗?”Management methods that would be immediately familiar to anyone involved in the fast-moving technology world are also being brought to bear. These include employing the rapid cycle of trial and error that new tech companies engage in before #173;pouring money into a formula that works - a process known as #173;“scaling”, which takes place as they race to capitalise on a new market before rivals emerge.瞬息万变的科技行业的参与者所熟悉的管理方法也被引入。包括采用快速的试误周期——新的科技公司往往会先进行试误,然后再砸下重金将其中一种管用的设计方案投产,这个过程称为“规模化”,目的是让它们抢在竞争对手出现之前独占一个新市场。Apoorva Mallya, a senior program officer who works on #173;country implementation, puts the success in stamping out the disease in India partly down to pouring money into local initiatives that had the potential to be effective across the #173;country, but which were being conducted on too small a scale to make a difference. These included assigning community #173;mobilisers to individual districts and neighbourhoods before vaccination drives began in order to organise meetings of women and overcome distrust or resistance. “We went in and funded them for a massive expansion across India,” he says.在国家层面负责实施的高级项目官员艾普瓦#8226;马尔雅(Apoorva Mallya)认为,他们之所以能够在印度成功根除这种疾病,一定程度上是因为他们将大笔资金投向了地方性的项目;这类项目本已具备在全国有效实施的潜力,但因规模过小影响力不足,包括在疫苗接种活动开始之前向各区和街道指派社区动员者,由其组织妇女开会,克不信任或抵制情绪。他说:“我们介入其中并提供资金,让他们在印度各地大规模推广。”Another method familiar from the tech world involves more effective data collection and analysis. Vaccination drives fail if too many children fall through the net. To get a better understanding of effectiveness, the foundation has paid for teams of researchers to use statistical sampling to see if adequate coverage levels have been reached.从高科技行业借鉴的另一种方法涵盖了更有效的数据收集和分析。如果有太多儿童“漏网”,疫苗接种努力就会失败。为了更好地掌握行动的效果,盖茨基金会资助了一些调研小组,用统计抽样来判断是否已达到足够高的接种率水平。Measurement is also being brought to bear to build a more detailed understanding of how costs are incurred in vaccination drives. Without that data, it#39;s hard to know where to focus attention to make global health programmes more effective, says Orin Levine, who runs the foundation#39;s vaccination efforts. “We don#39;t necessarily differentiate where the costs are in the system yet, so it makes it harder to say an innovation in [a particular area] will be something we really want,” he explains.为了更细致了解疫苗接种项目的各项成本,盖茨基金会还引入了一些测算手段。负责该基金会疫苗接种工作的奥林#8226;莱文(Orin Levine)表示,如果没有这些数据,就很难知道应当在哪里集中注意力,才能使全球健康计划变得更加有效。他解释说:“目前我们并未把整个系统中的各项成本都细列出来,也就是说很难说某一领域的某项创新是我们真正想要的东西。”This kind of rigour would be familiar inside an engineering-centric company such as Microsoft, where rationality reigns. But in the more chaotic world of global aid, with its loose alliance of government agencies, NGOs and charities - many of them operating with only partial information - it does not pay to assume such disciplines. Learning to work in that world is one of the greatest adjustments.在微软这种以工程为中心、理性至上的企业中,人们对这种严谨不会陌生。但在由政府机构、非政府组织和慈善机构组成松散联盟的全球援助领域,局面则更为混乱,很多机构是在仅掌握部分信息的情况下开展工作。在这样的环境中,要贯彻这样的纪律难免吃力不讨好。学会在该领域工作是盖茨作出的最大调整之一。“The fact that people don#39;t understand numbers and systems thinking and science and logic, that#39;s OK,” Gates says - though his famous impatience might belie such a claim. “I only need a half of the people who contribute to really think in a way where I can say, hey, come on, there#39;s a theory of change here, do you get it, do you get if that piece doesn#39;t happen, it completely messes up that piece?”“人们不理解数字和系统思维、不理解科学和逻辑,这没什么,”盖茨说——尽管他那出了名的不耐烦令我不敢全然相信他的这一说法。“我只需要一半参与者真正以合理方式思考,我可以说,嗨,这是变革理论,你要明白,如果不(按照变革的要求)去这么做,就会彻底搞砸。”Like many self-made business people, Gates is wary about the ability of governments to deal with some of society#39;s most pressing problems. Personal experience might have something to do with it. More than a decade ago, his fight with the US Department of Justice over whether Microsoft had acted illegally to defend its PC software monopoly ended in defeat, though a settlement with the George W Bush White House saved the company from the forced break-up that a judge had ordered.与许多白手起家的商人一样,盖茨也担心政府应对某些最紧迫社会问题的能力。他的这种担心可能在一定程度上源自他的亲身经历。10多年前,他与美国司法部(US Department of Justice)围绕微软是否曾采取非法行动维护其PC软件垄断地位展开过较量,并最终成为战败的一方——尽管与小布什(George W Bush)政府达成的和解挽救了微软,幸免不必按照此前法官命令的那样强制分拆。Gates describes himself as a natural optimist. But he admits that the fight with the US government seriously challenged his belief that the best outcome would always prevail. With a #173;typically generalising sweep across history, he declares that governments have “worked pretty well on balance in playing their role to improve the human condition” and that in the US since 1776, “the government#39;s played an absolutely central role and something wonderful has happened”. But that doesn#39;t settle his unease.盖茨称自己是一个天生的乐观主义者。但他承认,与美国政府之间的那场斗争严重挑战了他的信念,他原来一直相信最终胜出的总是最好的结局。他以一种典型的、归纳总结历史的语气宣称,政府“总的来说在改善人类生存条件方面很好地发挥了自己的作用”,在美国,自1776年以来,“政府发挥了绝对核心的作用,推动实现了一些壮举”。但是,这并没有缓解他的不安。“The closer you get to it and see how the sausage is made, the more you go, oh my God! These guys don#39;t even actually know the budget. It makes you think: can complex, technocratically deep things - like running a healthcare system properly in the US in terms of impact and cost - can that get done? It hangs in the balance.”“你越接近第一线、看到腊肠是如何制作出来的,就越有可能说,天哪!这些家伙其实对预算一头雾水。你不由得会想:如果让他们去做些复杂的、在专业管理方面有点深度的事情,比如在美国运行一个有影响又具有成本管理的医疗系统,他们能够办到吗?这有点悬。”It isn#39;t just governments that may be unequal to the task. On this analysis, the democratic process in most countries is also straining to cope with the problems thrown up by the modern world, placing responsibilities on voters that they can hardly be expected to fulfil. “The idea that all these people are going to vote and have an opinion about subjects that are increasingly complex - where what seems, you might think... the easy answer [is] not the real answer. It#39;s a very interesting problem. Do democracies faced with these current problems do these things well?”问题不只是政府可能无法胜任相关任务。按照这种分析,多数国家的民主进程也在艰难应对现代世界带来的种种问题,让选民承担他们显然很难履行的责任。“有人主张,让所有人都去投票、就某些领域中日益复杂的课题形成一个意见——而在这些领域中,你也许会认为,那些貌似……容易的并不是真正的。这是一个很有意思的问题。面对当前这些问题的民主国家,在此类事情上做得到底好不好”Compared with fixing the US healthcare system, the issues of global health and development taken on by Gates#39; foundation are, by his own estimate, relatively straightforward. But the work has required him to develop new skills: a willingness to engage with politicians and to develop reserves of diplomacy and #173;persuasiveness. With more than 1,000 staff members and the ambition to shape the broad strategies directed at solving the problems it takes on, the foundation does much more than simply hand over money. It relies on partnerships with a wide range of government agencies and other bodies to have any effect - and that has forced Gates, the uncompromising and impatient tech leader, to apply the human touch.按照他自己的估计,与修复美国医疗体系相比,盖茨基金会应对的全球健康和发展问题要更加直截了当。但这项工作要求他习得新的技能:培养与政界人士接触的意愿,修炼外交手腕和说力的内功。盖茨基金会所做的远不只是发放资金,该基金会拥有1000多名工作人员,并立志要针对问题塑造整体上的解决战略。要想产生实际影响,它必须与各类政府机构和其他组织建立合作关系,这迫使盖茨这个不妥协和不耐烦的科技行业领袖学会跟人打交道。Workers at the foundation say that he has been closely involved even at a regional and district level in winning the needed political backing. Gates, for instance, says he personally “bonded with” Nitish Kumar, the highly rated chief minister of the Indian state of Bihar, over the latter#39;s strong backing for vaccination efforts.基金会的工作人员称,盖茨一直密切参与争取必要政治持的工作,甚至在区域和地区层面上也是如此。例如,盖茨说,他与印度比哈尔邦(Bihar)备受好评的首席部长尼蒂什#8226;库马尔(Nitish Kumar)结下了很好的私交,以确保后者能够鼎力持疫苗接种。Sometimes in the field of global development, however, it is enough simply to be Bill Gates: the fame and wealth work their own magic. “If... I need to go to the Indian parliament and say, #39;Let#39;s get serious about vaccines,” then yes - since I#39;m giving my own money [on a] large scale and spending my life on it and I#39;m a technocrat - yes, that can be quite valuable.”然而,在全球发展这个领域,有时仅仅做回比尔#8226;盖茨就足够了:他的名气和财富会自动产生魔力。“如果……我需要去印度议会说,‘让我们认真对待疫苗接种工作’,那么没错——由于我拿出自己的大量财富、全身心地投入这项事业,而且我是个技术官僚——这一切可能相当有价值。”If this brand of international development diplomacy has required new skills, however, some things haven#39;t changed. Talk to almost anyone who has worked with Gates and they have a story about his intensity. On trips to the developing world his tirelessness wears out those around him. Inside the foundation, he shows the kind of endurance that once inspired and exhausted Microsoft product managers. “He wants to do the work with us at the most granular level. He will sit in four-hour meetings with us going over slide page after slide page,” says Raja Rao, who heads the foundation#39;s work on perfecting the cold chain. “I#39;ve seen him sit in a room for 11hours non-stop just talking about #173;technology, eating snacks and drinking Diet Coke.”不过,如果说进行此类关注国际发展的外交活动需要习得技能,那么有些东西是一直没有改变的。曾与盖茨共事的人几乎都会谈到他对工作的高度投入。在前往发展中国家的旅途中,他马不停蹄让周围的人筋疲力尽。在盖茨基金会内,他展现出了曾经鼓舞(并且累坏)微软产品经理的那种耐力。“他要和我们一起做那些最琐碎的事。他会参加我们的4小时会议,逐页审阅幻灯片。”在该基金会负责冷链完善工作的拉贾#8226;拉奥(Raja Rao)表示,“我见过他坐在一个房间里,连续11个小时不停地谈论技术、吃零食、喝健怡可乐(Diet Coke)。”Many of the works on the bookshelves in Gates#39; office overlooking Lake Washington are scientific tomes on the diseases that he is combatting - of which, with characteristic diligence, he now has a deep personal understanding, according to others at the foundation. A voracious er - he has always taken #173;periodic breaks from his regular routine to about and ponder the biggest problems he has taken on- his conversation is littered with references to authors. Given the smallest excuse, he plunges into a description of the different types of polio and vaccines - and then into the genetic tests that show how the disease once #173;persisted and sp in areas like Uttar Pradesh even when full outbreaks were rare.在盖茨俯瞰华盛顿湖的办公室里,书架上摆放着很多关于盖茨所抗击疾病的科学著作。据盖茨基金会的人介绍,凭借着标志性的勤奋,如今盖茨对这些疾病有了深刻的个人理解。盖茨是一个览群书的人,他有一个保持了很久的习惯,那就是每隔一段时间暂时告别日常事务,专心阅读和思考自己选择应对的重大问题。他在谈话中也频频引用不同作者的观点。哪怕得到最小的由头,他也会滔滔不绝地介绍不同类型的小儿麻痹症和疫苗,然后又说,基因测试显示,这种疾病如何一度在印度北方邦(Uttar Pradesh)等地持续出现和传播,尽管极少有疫情全面爆发的情况。This is the Gates who once ruled Microsoft with a command of detail and intellectual intensity that led to the kind of culture that was capable of dominating the tech world - even as it tipped over into behaviour that brought a regulatory backlash. “I was a kind of hyper-intense person in my twenties and very #173;impatient,” he says. “I don#39;t think I#39;ve given up either of [those] things entirely. Hopefully it#39;s more measured, in a way.”当年的盖茨正是凭借这样高强度的思维和对细节的掌握来领导微软的,它催生了能够主导高科技行业的那种文化——也催生了最终招致监管反弹的越线行为。“我在20多岁时是那种绷得非常紧的人,非常没有耐心。”他说,“我并不认为自己在这两方面已完全改变。只是希望自己变得更有分寸了。”If the manner has mellowed, though, the uncompromising attitude is still very much in evidence. It is at once one of the strongest assets and one of the biggest hindrances in his plan to save some of the world#39;s poorest from the fate to which a sometimes oblivious world has left them. Knowing how to pursue an unflinching personal logic without alienating people remains a work in progress for him.不过,如果说盖茨的举止已变得更有分寸,那么他的不妥协态度可以说仍十分明显。盖茨的计划旨在拯救世界上一些最贫穷的人群,使他们摆脱这个有时对苦难视而不见的世界带给他们的命运。就该计划而言,盖茨的不妥协态度既是最强大的资产之一,也是最大的障碍之一。明白如何在不得罪人的情况下追求坚定的个人逻辑,对他而言仍是一种需要进一步修炼的内功。“When we had a meeting a couple of years ago, when people weren#39;t thinking through the polio thing very well, I was pretty critical,” he says. His message to the assembled workers: “#39;Hey, this is not good thinking, this is not good, this is not going to get us there.“”盖茨说:“在两三年前的一个会上,当有关人员未能周密考虑根除小儿麻痹症的项目时,我的态度相当不客气。”他向与会工作人员传达的信息是:“这种思路可不行,它不够好,不能让我们达到目标。”The new Gates, though, was not prepared to leave it at that. After the meeting was over, he did what husbands the world over are liable to do at such times: “I said to Melinda, was I too tough on that, who should I send mail to, was that motivational, #173;de-motivational? It#39;s all a matter of degree.”不过,“新”的盖茨并没有打算不去想这件事了。会后,他做了世界各地的有家男人在这种时候都可能会做的事:“我对梅琳达说,我在这事上太严厉了吗?我应该给谁发封邮件?我的话是有激励作用还是让人泄气?这些全都是一个‘度’的问题。” /201312/270459

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