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陕西渭南市人民医院男科大夫中医专家

楼主:新华媒体 时间:2018年04月23日 06:07:24 点击:0 回复:0
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Business.商业The psychology of discounting.“打折”心理学Something doesnt add up.就是算不对How marketers can take advantage of consumers innumeracy.且看营销人员如何利用“数学盲”消费者WHEN retailers want to entice customers to buy a particular product, they typically offer it at a discount. According to a new study to be published in the Journal of Marketing, they are missing a trick.零售商想吸引顾客购买某种特别商品时,典型做法就是打折促销了。但是,一项发表在《市场营销杂志》的新研究则说明了他们并未统揽全局,掌握所有窍门。 A team of researchers, led by Akshay Rao of the University of Minnesotas Carlson School of Management, looked at consumers attitudes to discounting. Shoppers, they found, much prefer getting something extra free to getting something cheaper. The main reason is that most people are useless at fractions.以明尼苏达大学卡尔森管理学院的阿卡什?劳为首的调查小组研究了消费者对打折的态度。他们发现,购物者们更喜欢赠品胜过打折品。主要原因在于多数人对分数运算束手无策。Consumers often struggle to realise, for example, that a 50% increase in quantity is the same as a 33% discount in price. They overwhelmingly assume the former is better value. In an experiment, the researchers sold 73% more hand lotion when it was offered in a bonus pack than when it carried an equivalent discount (even after all other effects, such as a desire to stockpile, were controlled for).比如,消费者们常常很难意识到,加量50%就等同于折扣33%。绝大多人都以为前者更划算。在一次实验中,调查者们出售手霜,一种是带赠品的,另一种是打折品,两者价值相当(即使排除如囤货需要之类的其他因素),但是结果前者多售出73%。This numerical blind spot remains even when the deal clearly favours the discounted product. In another experiment, this time on his undergraduates, Mr Rao offered two deals on loose coffee beans: 33% extra free or 33% off the price. The discount is by far the better proposition, but the supposedly clever students viewed them as equivalent.即便当买打折品明显更划算时,人们还是无法走出数字盲区。另一次实验在本科生中展开,Rao先生出售散装咖啡豆时提供两种选择:赠送33%或者折扣33%。打折远远更加划算,但那些本以为十分聪明的学生们却认为两种促销都是一样的。Studies have shown other ways in which retailers can exploit consumers innumeracy. One is to befuddle them with double discounting. People are more likely to see a bargain in a product that has been reduced by 20%, and then by an additional 25%, than one which has been subject to an equivalent, one-off, 40% reduction.根据学生们的反映,零售商们发现了其他方式来利用消费者对数字上的不敏感。比如利用二次折扣来迷惑他们。人们觉得一件商品如果先打8折再打75折,那肯定比一次性打6折要划算。Marketing types can draw lessons beyond just pricing, says Mr Rao. When advertising a new cars efficiency, for example, it is more convincing to talk about the number of extra miles per gallon it does, rather than the equivalent percentage fall in fuel consumption.Rao先生说,这不仅对营销手段的价格方面有所启发,其他方面也是如此。比如,在宣传新车效率时,引用每加仑汽油多跑的英里数要比引用减少的耗油量的比值要更有说力。There may be lessons for regulators too. Even well-educated shoppers are easily foxed. Sending everyone back to school for maths refresher-courses seems out of the question. But more prominently displayed unit prices in shops and advertisements would be a great help.这对监管者也有所启示。即便是受过良好教育的购物者也很容易被骗。我们不可能让每个人都重新回到数学课堂。但如果商店和广告上能更清楚地标明单价的话必定可以帮上大忙。 201207/192560

Application here is so notorious, the worlds scientists have a nickname for this seismic horror:the Mexico City Effect. In the quest of Mexico city earthquake proof, the shifting earth poses its challenge to every construction project, whether above ground or below. Mexico city has the worlds third busiest subway system, behind only Moscow and Tokyo, one hundred and seventy six stations, two hundred and seven kilometers of track, more than four million riders a day. But most impressive is that the systems conquest of the rein.这里有着臭名昭著的应用设施,以致于全世界的科学家有对这个地震的恐怖都有了一个绰号:那就是墨西哥城效果。对于哥城地震的探索明,地球的姿势偏移挑战着每一项无论是地面或以下的建筑工程。墨西哥城市有着仅次于莫斯科和东京的世界第3繁忙的地铁系统,176家电视台,207公里的铁路,一天400多万人的流量。但最令人印象深刻的是驾驭这个控制系统。;When we begun to build the subway ,we discovered that the soil was very muddy, so construction was very difficult.; The answer was a construction technique called Milan walls, two parallel trenches dug,then filled with concrete and steel rods to form the subway tunnel s walls, between these walls, the tunnel itself is dug. But engineers run into an obstacle, a law brought in called Archimedes Principle, the same principle allows the submarine to rise, dive or float, the tunnel had to weigh the same as the earth was escalated, weigh less and it would rise, more and it would sink. Instead the tunnel had to float in the soil, to ensure equilibrium, engineers precisely calibrated the weight of the walls to match the displace its soil. Over the open stations, they made up the difference by putting up buildings, no one knew if the Milan walls withstand the earthquake, then came 1995, the quake leveled the worried hospital, the subway station below, not a scratch, the entire system rolled out the seismic waves by floating in the subsoil, in fact the subway was the only way to reach many disaster zones, yet even there is subway tunnel in advance ,the greatest feat of engineering is happening on the surface.;当我们开始建设地铁时,我们发现,土壤非常泥泞,因此建设是很困难的。;解决办法是被称为米兰墙的建筑技术,两条沟挖墙,填满混凝土和钢棒形成了地铁区间隧道的墙壁,在这些墙壁之间,隧道本身就是挖掘。但是工程师们则遇到一个障碍,一个被称为阿基米德原理的法律,同样的原则允许潜艇上升,潜水或漂浮。由于土地问题,隧道也必须从这一原理,体重较轻,就会上升,反之则会下沉。相反隧道不得不浮在土壤上,以确保平衡,工程师精确校准墙的重量以替换它的土壤。在开放的地铁站,他们通过建造建筑找到了平衡,没有人知道米兰墙能否承受地震。之后就是1995年的大地震。这次地震夷平了医院,地铁站,不是雁过留痕,而是整个系统随着地震波浮在地基上,事实上地铁是唯一能够到达很多受灾区域的途径,但即使提前有了地铁隧道,最伟大的壮举工程也要建设在表面上。注:听力文本来源于普特201201/166949

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