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2019年09月22日 18:56:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新乐园
美国习惯用语-第95讲:on a cloudunder a cloud 大家肯定都知道英文里的前置词有时会使人很混乱,它们在句子里虽然不显眼,但是作用却很关键,用错一个前置词意思可能会完全不同。我们先来讲on a cloud这个词。 On a cloud是很高兴的意思,高兴得走路轻飘飘的好像腾云驾雾一样。下面这个大学生就是一个例子: 例句-1: "I've been on a cloud all day long--I heard this morning that I got an A on my final biochemistry exam." 这个学生说:“我今天一天都很高兴,因为我早上听说,我生物化学期末考试得了一个A。” 令人高兴的事是层出不穷的,下面这位太太也是很高兴,至少她的先生是这么说的: 例句-2: "My wife has been on a cloud since I told her the other day I would spend my year-end bonus at the office to take us to Hawaii to celebrate our twentieth wedding anniversary. And to tell you the truth, I'm really looking forward to it myself." 这位丈夫说:“我那天告诉我的妻子,我要把办公室发给我的年终奖金用来和她一起去夏威夷旅行,以庆祝我们结婚二十周年。自从那天起,我太太一直很高兴。说实话,我自己也非常想去。” 夏威夷虽然是美国领土的一部份,但是由于它位于太平洋中间,离开美国本土很远,所以去那里旅行不如去别的地方那么容易。当然,夏威夷那岛国风光非常吸引人,因此能去夏威夷一游实在是令人向往的。 我们刚才讲的是on a cloud。下面我们把前置词on换成under,也就是under a cloud。任何人under a cloud是绝不会高兴的,因为他不是丢尽了面子,就是被怀疑做了什么坏事。下面是一个人在讲另外一个被逮捕的人,这人被指控和贩毒有关: 例句-3: "The judge had to let him go because there wasn't enough evidence against him. But he's going around under a cloud because most people think he's guilty." 这个人说:“法官由于没有足够的据来定罪,所以只好放了他。但是,他到哪儿都受怀疑,因为大多数人都认为他是有罪的。” 下面这个例子是一个人在饭馆里对别人说的话: 例句-4: "See that man sitting at the table by himself? He's supposed to be a very smart lawyer, but he's been under a cloud ever since he was mixed up in a scandal involving a company that was run by a mobster." 这人说:“瞧那个桌子边独自坐着的人,看见吗?他 本来是一个很能干的律师,但是自从他和一个公司的丑闻有牵连以来,他一直被人怀疑,而那个公司是由流氓集团经营的。” 今天我们讲了两个表面上看来很相似的习惯用语,它们是on a cloud和under a cloud。别看它们只差一个前置词,可是它们的意思却很不同:on a cloud是高兴的意思,而under a cloud是丢面子、被怀疑的意思。 「美国习惯用语」第九十五课就讲到这里。欢迎下次再一起来学习美国习惯用语。再见。 /200601/3050Why? Because we cannot ignore the metaphorical meaning of words either.这是为什么?因为我们同样也不能忽视这些词暗喻的意义。One of the sentences was, ;Some jobs are jails.;其中一句话是:“有些工作是监狱”Now, unless youre a prison guard, the sentence ;Some jobs are jails; is literally false.当然,除非你是监狱看守,“有些工作是监狱”这句话字面上是错的。Sadly, its metaphorically true.不幸却在暗喻上是对的And the metaphorical truth interferes with our ability to identify it as literally false.而暗喻上的真实干扰了我们的辨识能力,以至于难于区分字面上的真假。Metaphor matters because its around us every day, all the time.暗喻很重要,因它随时随地,无处不在。Metaphor matters because it creates expectations.暗喻很重要,因它带来期待Pay careful attention the next time you the financial news.下次你看财经新闻可要注意,Agent metaphors describe price movements as the deliberate action of a living thing, as in, ;The NASDAQ climbed higher.;拟人化的暗喻用来描述价格运动,就像是有人有意那么做。比如:“NASDAQ指数攀至新高”Object metaphors describe price movements as non-living things, as in, ;The Dow fell like a brick.;拟物化的暗喻用物体来描述价格运动,比如:道琼斯指数象砖头一样下跌。Researchers asked a group of people to a clutch of market commentaries, and then predict the next days price trend.研究人员请一群人在读了一些股评之后,来预测第二天的股价走势。Those exposed to agent metaphors had higher expectations that price trends would continue.那些读过拟人化暗喻的人更多地期待股价走势会持续。And they had those expectations because agent metaphors imply the deliberate action of a living thing pursuing a goal.而他们这样期待是由于拟人化的隐喻暗示了有人在刻意追逐一个目标。If, for example, house prices are routinely described as climbing and climbing,如果房价总是被说成是不断攀升,higher and higher, people might naturally assume that that rise is unstoppable.越走越高,人们自然会以为房价上升势不可挡。They may feel confident, say, in taking out mortgages they really cant afford.他们会感觉良好,以至于背负超过付能力的按揭。Thats a hypothetical example of course. But this is how metaphor misleads.当然这只是个虚构的例子。但是暗喻确实会这样误导人。Metaphor also matters because it influences decisions by activating analogies.暗喻很重要,因为它通过激活类比机制来影响决策。201704/506189

This week, I traveled to Chicago to deliver my final farewell address to the nation, following in the tradition of Presidents before me.本周,我去芝加哥向全国人民发表了我的告别演讲,继续着我之前总统们的传统。It was an opportunity to say thank you.这是个说声谢谢你们的机会。Whether weve seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people - in living rooms and schools;不管我们观点一致或者几乎没有任何相同的观点,我和你们,美国人民的对话--在客厅里或是在学校里;at farms and on factory floors; at diners and on distant military outposts在田间地头或是在工厂的车间;在路边饭馆或是在遥远的军事哨所All these conversations are what have kept me honest, kept me inspired, and kept me going.所有这些对话,都让我正直,让我受到鼓舞,让我继续前行。Every day, I learned from you. You made me a better President, and you made me a better man.每一天,我都能从你们身上学到东西。你们让我成为更好的总统,也让我成为更棒的人。Over the course of these eight years, I have seen the goodness, the resilience, and the hope of the American people.在这八年里,我见到了美国人民的友善,坚韧和期望。Ive seen neighbors looking out for each other as we rescued our economy from the worst crisis of our lifetimes.在我们从生命中最严重的危机中拯救经济时,我见到了彼此照顾的邻里关系。Ive hugged cancer survivors who finally know the security of affordable health care.我曾拥抱癌症的幸存者,他们最终收获了平价医疗保险带来的安全感。Ive seen communities like Joplin rebuild from disaster, and cities like Boston show the world that no terrorist will ever break the American spirit.我曾见到像乔普林这样从灾难中重建的社区,还有像波士顿这样的城市向全世界明着:恐怖分子将永远不会挫败美利坚精神。201701/488772

即学即用英语会话词典D部分:反对进入《即学即用英语会话词典文本》下载页面即学即用英语会话词典这部词典着眼日常生活、学习、工作等语言环境,囊括了当今美国最最简洁、最地道的日常口语表达方式。本词典获得2002年全国优秀畅销书奖 /200707/15578

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