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2019年07月24日 15:25:23

东至县人民医院是公立医院吗池州包皮切除Woodpeckers puncture the bark of dead or dying trees,also known as snags, to find the wood-boring insects that makeup their diet, and some species also excavate cavities in thesetrees for their nests.啄木鸟啄破死树或垂死的树的树皮,觅得吃木头的昆虫为食。有些物种也会在这些树上筑巢。So where does the fungus come in?那么真菌是从哪来的呢?Well, scientists observed that the snags woodpeckersexcavate generally contain decayed wood, which is caused by wood-decay fungi.恩,科学家们观察到啄木鸟啄洞的断枝通常包含由木腐菌造成的蛀木。Right. And thisled them to wonder whether woodpeckers are attracted to certain types of decay, or if theyrethe ones actually sping the fungus that causes the decay.是的。而且这引起观察家们思考:是某些类型的腐烂吸引了啄木鸟,还是说啄木鸟实际上传播了引起腐烂的真菌呢?So what did come first?那么到底哪个在先?Well, it turns out that the relationship between the two is pretty complex.恩,事实明两者关系相当复杂。When woodpeckers puncture bark, they provide a way for airborne fungal spores to infect the wood.当啄木鸟啄树皮时,它们为空气传播的真菌孢子感染树木提供了方便,They also act as vectors, unintentionally picking up fungal spores and other microbes from onesnag and carrying them in their beaks to another.它们同时也是带菌者,无意中携带了真菌孢子和来自某根断枝的其他细菌,它们的喙载着这些细菌再传播给其他树木。And not surprisingly, species of woodpeckersthat nest in cavities carry a significantly larger number of these, which is synergistic, because the decay makes it easier for them to excavate.毫不奇怪的是,那些在树洞里筑巢的啄木鸟携带着更大量的真菌,它们是协同作用着的,因为腐烂使得啄木鸟啄洞更容易了。So even though we still dont know which came first, this also isnt merely an intellectual exercise.因此,即使我们不知道先有哪个,这也不仅仅是一种智力测验。Woodpeckers are pretty important ecologically because the sites they excavate are used forforaging, roosting, and nesting by many other species as well.从生态学的观点看,啄木鸟的角色相当重要,因为啄木鸟挖掘的树洞可以用于觅食,栖息,还可以被其他物种用来筑巢。And now that theres debate overwhether snags contribute to forest fires and should be removed, its especially important to studypotential ramifications.既然人们关于断枝是否会导致森林火灾而应该被移除争论不休,那么研究一下可能出现的后果就特别重要了。 201405/296982The answer is, no!当然是“No”。Evidence indicates that prior use of some drugs impairs the brains ability to forge new connections between neurons in response to new experiences.科学据表明在接触新事物之前用某些药物会破坏大脑因新事物刺激神经元之间建立连接的能力。Scientists took a bunch of rats and gave some of them either amphetamine or cocaine for twenty days, while giving the others a saline solution for twenty days.科学家们用大量的老鼠来进行试验。他们将老鼠分成两组,第一组老鼠喂食20天的安非他命或是可卡因,第二组老鼠喂食20天的盐水。When the twenty days were up, half of the rats were moved from ordinary laboratory cages to fancy new cages equipped with all kinds of bridges, ramps, tunnels, and other toys.20天过后,他们将一半的老鼠从普通的实验笼子转移到配备有桥梁,坡道,有隧道以及其他玩具的“超豪华”的新笼子里。After three and half months the scientists examined all of the rats brains.三个半月后,科学家们对老鼠的大脑进行了仔细的研究。They discovered that the saline solution rats that were moved to the new cages had a greater number of neuronal connections than all the other rats, including the drugged rats in the new cages.他们发现,搬入新环境的喂食盐水的老鼠比其他的老鼠建立了更多的神经元连接。These findings may aid in explaining some of the behavioral and cognitiveimpairments viewed in people who are addicted to drugs.这些研究发现可能有助于解释为什么那些吸毒成瘾的人会有一定的行为和认知障碍。 201312/267414石台县中医院什么时候建立

池州九华看泌尿科怎么样池州市九华是民办还是公立医院Dear Annie: My unmarried 30-year-old daughter has a drinking and behavioral problem that has escalated over the past year. 亲爱Annie:我还未婚的30岁女儿养成了饮酒的坏习惯,这么多年都没有得到改善。We have encouraged Terrie to get alcohol counseling or attend A.A. 我们鼓励过Terrie去戒毒所或参加戒酒互助会。She tried it once and quit. I believe she is bipolar, but mental health counselors will not treat her until she quits drinking. 她曾经尝试过,但还是放弃了。我觉得她处于两个极端,但是心理健康咨询师说直到她把酒瘾戒掉才能给她心理上的治疗。After her last outburst, I sent her a text message and said we could no longer have a relationship unless she gets help. 在她上次发病后,我写给她一张便条,上面写着除非她接受治疗,要不我们就断绝关系。Shortly after, she left town and moved to Florida with a friend who also drinks. 不久后,她离开了,和一个同样酗酒的朋友搬去了佛罗里达州.Should I keep the lines of communication open, or will my ultimatum help her reach bottom so she can start climbing back up? 我应该与她保持沟通,或者再最后忍耐一下,也许这样她就可以回来了?I tried Al-Anon, but the members only offer support and friendship to each other, which is nice, but it doesnt change my daughter. 我去过匿名戒酒者协会,但那儿的成员都是彼此提供持与帮助,那儿很好,不过却没能改变我女儿。— Concerned Mom Dear Concerned: Al-Anon is not intended to change the alcoholics behavior, only your response to it. 一位母亲提到:匿名戒酒者协会不是在有意改变酗酒者的行为,而要改变你们的反应。Choosing not to stay in touch would be for your mental health, not hers. 选择不去交流,可能对你的精神健康有益,而不对她有益。No one can ;fix; Terrie until she admits she has a problem, and she doesnt seem y. 没人能修正Terrie的人生,除非她能正视自己的问题,而且现在看来,她好像还没有准备好。Many who are bipolar self-medicate with alcohol and drugs, and there are treatment programs that address both disorders. 世界上有很多极端地使用酒精或毒品的人,而且现在也有许多针对这两种神经错乱的治疗方案。If Terrie wants help, she should contact a university medical center department of psychiatry for a referral. 如果Terrie需要帮助,我建议她联系大学医疗中心的心理科。201307/248935池州市医院是正规医院吗Science and technology科学技术Male attractiveness男性魅力Abs-olutely fabulous腹肌,绝对是极好的!Womens expectations of the opposite sex are at least as unrealistic as mens男女对异性抱有的期望都不切实际,但女性更甚。MEN have long wondered what exactly it is that women want.女人到底看重男性身材的哪一点,男人们一直在苦苦寻求。Some pore over mens magazines, with their promises of washboard abs, for guidance.有些人研读教男人如何获得搓衣板般腹肌的男性杂志,想从中找到。The more scientifically minded look for experimental data.而更具科学精神的人则会希望从实验数据中寻找。The latest evidence comes from a group of researchers led by Brian Mautz, then of Australian National University.由布莱恩·莫茨带领的研究小组发现了最新据。They gathered 105 heterosexual Australian women and showed them a series of digitally generated pictures of men in which three bodily characteristics were varied—height, shoulder-to-waist ratio and flaccid penis size.他们选取了105名国内异性恋女性,给她们展示了三种能展现男性魅力的组图,The women were asked to rate the men as sexual partners.并让她们以性伴侣的角度去评价这些男性。In an article just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr Mautz and his team describe their results.莫茨及其小组在《美国国家科学院院刊》刚发表了一篇文章描述了他们的研究结果。Happily for the insecure, although the women did indeed find a larger penis alluring, it was not the most important factor.结果让那些对自己阴茎没自信的男性感到庆幸:尽管女性的确会认为阴茎更大更有吸引力,但这并不是最重要的因素。That honour went to the combination of broad shoulders and a narrow waist, which accounted for around three-quarters of the variation in attractiveness all by itself.最重要的是要同时拥有宽肩和窄腰,单单这点就能解释所有男性魅力方差的四分之三。Height was also only a weak predictor of appeal.结果还得出,男性魅力也与身高关系不大。That is odd, says Dr Mautz, because other studies have linked height with all sorts of benefits, from higher salaries to longer lives.莫茨士说,但有点很奇怪,因为其他研究经常拿身高和好的方面联系起来,比如高薪和长寿。The bigger-is-better effect was also subject to diminishing returns: each extra centimetre, whether of height, shoulder width or penis size, was less significant than the previous one.越大越好的效应也遵循收益递减定律:无论身多高,肩多宽,阴茎多大,每多一厘米,那这一厘米的重要性都会递减。Nonetheless, even the tallest, broadest-shouldered and best-endowed digital hunks that the researchers generated fell short of perfection.然而,即便在研究者所合成的数字照片中,拥有最高身高,最宽肩膀和最大阴茎的健壮男性也算不上完美。The optimum values appear to lie outside the tested range, they note, adding that the maxima are more than two standard deviations from the population mean for each trait.研究者说,最优值似乎在测试范围外,每项特征的极大值都在总体均值的两个标准差之外,That means that, for each trait, fewer than 2.5% of the men whom women encounter in the real world will be as generously proportioned as they might hope.这也就是说,在女性现实世界遇到的所有男性中,就该特征而言,尺寸能符合所愿的少于2.5%。Men with perfect scores in all three traits will be rarer than hens teeth.这三方面都很完美的男性算是凤毛麟角。The study is not perfect.该研究并非精确无误。There was no danger of the women mistaking the digital men for the real thing.参加测试的女性并不会把虚拟男性看作是真人。Other factors—such as social status, for instance—may, in the real world, override the physical preferences that the researchers were measuring.现实世界中,其他因素可能比研究者一直在测量的身材偏好这个因素更为重要,比如社会地位。And it is hard, when all the subjects come from a single country, to disentangle the effects of nurture from those of nature.而且如果参与测验的女性仅来自一个国家,那她们就很难将后天形成因素和先天自带特点区分开来。It is commonly pointed out, for instance, that mens apparent preference for slim women seems to be a relatively modern construction.比如,普遍观点指出:男性对窈窕女子有明显偏好,似乎是现代西方文化做出的解释。Erotica from the turn of the 19th century tend to feature much curvier women than their modern equivalent.相比现代的色情书籍,十九世纪初的则更着重描述拥有曲线美的女性。Womens preferences may be just as influenced by the culture in which they grow up.女性喜欢什么样的男性,也许正会因她们成长中所经历的文化的不同而不同。相比现代情色书刊中出现的女性,19世纪初情色书刊会将女性描述得更为妖娆。她们成长所处的文化背景些许会影响女性对男性的偏好吧。On the other hand, it is a rule of thumb in biology that females are much pickier than males.而且从生物学的角度来看,有这么一条常理,雌性都比雄性更挑剔。There are good evolutionary reasons why that is so.进化论就很好地解释了这一点。Even in humans, who share the burden of child-rearing more equally than many animals, having children requires far more of an investment of resources from a female than it does from a male—after all, it is the woman who must endure nine months of pregnancy and then breast-feed the baby.即便在分担子女抚养责任方面,人类在所有动物中算是做得比较公平的了,但是就生小孩而言,还是需要女性从自己身上投入更多。Women therefore face stronger incentives to spend their relatively limited reproductive resources on only the most attractive men, whose children will be most likely to breed in turn.毕竟,女性需要怀胎十月,小孩生下后还需母乳喂养。因此就能强烈诱发女性将自己十分有限的生殖资源献给更具吸引力的男性身上,他们的孩子才最有可能接着生养自己的孩子。Back to the sit-ups, boys.所以,小伙子,还是仰卧起坐走起吧! /201312/267411东至人民医院治疗好不好

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