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福州仓山区检查精液那家医院最好福州博爱医院不孕不育坑人吗龙岩看不育哪个医院最好 Business.商业。Libraries and e-books图书馆和电子书Literary labours lent文学劳动力已借出The uncertain economics of lending virtual books难以预料的实体书借阅经济LIKE a tired marriage, the relationship between libraries and publishers has long been reassuringly dull. E-books, however, are causing heartache. Libraries know they need digital wares if they are to remain relevant, but many publishers are too wary of piracy and lost sales to co-operate. Among the big six, only Random House and HarperCollins license e-books with most libraries. The others have either denied requests or are reluctantly experimenting. In August, for example, Penguin will start a pilot with public libraries in New York.就像是一个令人疲惫的婚姻,图书馆和出版商之间长期存在着无聊的关系。然而,电子书的出现引起了它们的心痛。图书馆知道,如果它们想保持自己存在的价值,就需要数字化的设备,但对于许多出版商而言,由于在盗版和失去销量问题上太过谨慎的态度,而不予合作。在最大的六家出版商中,只有兰登书屋和哈珀?柯林斯出版社授予了绝大多数图书馆电子书的许可。其它出版社或是拒绝了这项要求,或是在勉强进行试用。例如,在八月份,企鹅出版社将在纽约的公共图书馆开始试验。Publishers are wise to be nervous. Owners of e-ers are exactly the customers they need: book-lovers with money (neither the devices nor broadband connections come cheap). If these wonderful people switch to borrowing e-books instead of buying them, what then?出版商感到紧张是明智的。电子阅读器的所有者们恰恰是他们需要的顾客:有钱(而既不是设备或是便宜的宽带连接)的爱书人。如果这些了不起的人们由借阅电子书而变为购买电子书,将会怎样呢?Electronic borrowing is awfully convenient. Unlike printed books, which must be checked out and returned to a physical library miles from where you live, book files can be downloaded at home. Digital library catalogues are often browsed at night, from a comfy sofa. The files disappear from the device when they are due (which means no late fees, nor angst about lost or damaged tomes).电子借阅非常方便。与印刷版书籍不同,电子书籍文件在家就可以下载,而不需要去离家几英里外的实体图书馆借阅和还书。人们常在晚上在舒适的沙发里浏览数字图书馆目录。当文件到期时,它们将自动从设备上消失(这意味着没有滞纳金,也无需担心丢失或损坏煌煌巨著)。Awkwardly for publishers, buying an e-book costs more than renting one but offers little extra value. You cannot resell it, lend it to a friend or burn it to stay warm. Owning a book is useful if you want to savour it repeatedly, but who s ;Fifty Shades of Grey; twice?这对出版商而言却很尴尬。购买一本电子书比租用一本的花费更多,然而带来的收益增加却相当微小。你不能把电子书二次售出或是借给朋友,甚至不能将它烧了以取暖。如果你想重复品味一本书,那么拥有一本书是非常好的,但谁愿意读第二遍《格雷的50道阴影》?E-lending is not simple, however. There are lots of different and often incompatible e-book formats, devices and licences. Most libraries use a company called OverDrive, a global distributor that secures rights from publishers and provides e-books and audio files in every format. Some 35m titles were checked out through OverDrive in 2011, and the company now sends useful data on borrowing behaviour to participating publishers. Yet publishers and libraries are worried by OverDrives market dominance, as the company can increasingly dictate fees and conditions.然而电子借阅并不简单。电子书的格式、设备和许可之间有极大不同,并常常不能互相兼容。大多数图书馆所采用的是OverDrive公司提供的电子书,这家全球性经销商确保了来自出版商的版权,并提供所有格式的电子书和音频文件。2011年,高达三亿五千万的条目通过OverDrive公司借出,这家公司现在正通过输出借阅行为相关的有用数据参与到出版商中来。OverDrive的市场占有率让出版商和图书馆担忧,因为这家公司可以提高授权费用和条件。Publishers were miffed when OverDrive teamed up with Amazon, the worlds biggest online bookseller, last year. Owners of Amazons Kindle e-er who want to borrow e-books from libraries are now redirected to Amazons website, where they must use their Amazon account to secure a loan. Amazon then follows up with library patrons directly, letting them know they can ;Buy this book; when the loan falls due.去年,当OverDrive公司与世界上最大的在线图书销售商——亚马逊合作之后,出版商们有点恼火。亚马逊Kindle阅读器的所有者们现在如果想从图书馆借阅电子书,就将被带入到亚马逊的网站上,在那里,他们必须使用他们的亚马逊账户来为他们的借阅提供担保。亚马逊还进一步与图书馆的老主顾们直接交涉,告诉他们若是借阅过期,则他们可以直接;购买这本书;。This arrangement nudged Penguin to end its deal with OverDrive earlier this year. The publishers new pilot involves 3M, a rival distributor that does not yet support the Kindle. ;Ultimately Amazon wants to control the library business,; says Mike Shatzkin, a publishing consultant.这一约定迫使企鹅出版社在今年早些时候终止了它和OverDrive的合约。这家出版商的新合作者包括3M公司,OverDrive的竞争对手之一,一家尚未持Kindle的经销商。;亚马逊最终想控制图书馆事务。;出版业咨询师麦克?肖特金说。Library users-nearly 60% of Americans aged 16 and older, according to Pew, an opinion researcher-are a perfect market for Amazon. It woos them by making loans on the Kindle uniquely easy. Late last year Amazon also unveiled its Kindle Owners Lending Library, which lets its best customers (called ;Amazon Prime; members) borrow free one of thousands of popular books each month.根据民意调查研究机构皮尤的数据,16岁以上并占美国人口数近60%的图书馆使用者,是亚马逊最好的市场。它通过在Kindle上极其便利的借阅程序,从而取悦了他们。去年晚些时候,亚马逊还推出了Kindle所有者的借阅图书馆,这个图书馆允许亚马逊最好的客户(被称为;亚马逊会员;的成员)每月在上千本畅销书中免费借阅一本。Library boosters argue that book borrowers are also book buyers, and that libraries are vital spaces for ers to discover new work. Many were cheered by a recent Pew survey, which found that more than half of Americans with library cards say they prefer to buy their e-books. But the report also noted that few people know that e-books are available at most libraries, and that popular titles often involve long waiting lists, which may be what inspires people to buy.图书馆的持者认为,借阅图书者也就是购买图书者,而图书馆则是这些读者发现新作品的重要根据地。许多人为皮尤研究机构最近的调查而感到欢欣鼓舞,这项调查发现,超过一半拥有图书馆卡的美国人说,他们更喜欢购买他们的电子书。但是这项报告也指出,几乎没有人知道电子书在大多数图书馆都是可借阅的,而那些畅销书籍常常有着很长的等候借阅名单,这也许将促进人们的购买行为。So publishers keep tweaking their lending arrangements in search of the right balance. Random House raised its licensing prices earlier this year, and HarperCollins limits libraries to lending its titles 26 times. Penguin plans to keep new releases out of libraries for at least six months, and each book will expire after a year. Hachette is engaged in some secret experiments, and the others are watching with bated breath. In Britain the government will soon announce a review of the matter. The story of the library e-book is a nail-biter.因此出版商在不断微调他们的借阅合约以找到最恰当的平衡点。兰登书屋在今年早些时候提高了授权价格,哈珀?柯林斯出版社限制图书馆借阅条目的次数为26次。在企鹅出版社的计划中,新书从出版后到进入图书馆,至少要等六个月的时间,且一年后就到期。阿歇特出版社正在进行一些秘密实验,而其它出版社则在屏息观望。在英国,政府不久将宣布一份这一事项的报告。电子图书馆的故事实在是一个令人高度紧张的故事。 201208/193681Don: Hey Yael, did you know that people with red hair need more anesthesia during surgery than other people?唐:嘿,雅艾尔,你知道吗,红发的人在做手术时需要注射比别人更多的麻醉剂?Yael: Oh, cmon Don, thats just another superstition about redheads—like redheads have hotter tempers. Back in the Middle Ages they used to think that people with red hair were witches.雅艾尔:啊,少来了,唐,这是人们对红发的又一个迷信——就像红发的人脾气更暴躁。在中世纪人们认为长有红发的人是巫师。Don: But Im not being superstitious. Dozens of studies have shown that it takes about twenty-percent more anesthesia to knock out redheads than it does people with other hair colors.唐:但这次不是迷信。几十项研究表明:相比其他发色的人,红发的人昏迷所使用的麻醉剂要多出20%。Yael: Why?雅艾尔:为什么?Don: Well, its all about pigment.唐:其实,这与色素有关。Yael: You mean the particles that determine the color of hair and skin?雅艾尔:你是指决定头发或皮肤颜色的粒子?Don: Right. So the amount of pigment you have is controlled by a hormone in the brain. Redheads have more of this hormone—and that matters because the pigment hormone is also involved with pain perception. So for some reason, because redheads have an abundance of this pigment hormone, theyre more sensitive to pain...唐:对。因为色素的数量由大脑中的荷尔蒙控制。红发人分泌更多这种荷尔蒙——这是关键的一点,因为色素荷尔蒙也涉及到痛知觉。因此出于某种原因,红发人体内含有更多的色素,因此对疼痛也更加敏感。Yael: ...which is why it takes more anesthesia to knock them out. So does this matter in any major way?雅艾尔:...这就是为什么需要更多麻醉剂才能使其迷昏的原因。那么对某些重要的方面有影响吗?Don: Well, I guess it does if youre a redhead. But its not like you have to be worried about waking up during surgery, screaming in pain. Surgeons and anesthesiologists are well aware of the phenomenon. Because, Yael, its science, not superstition.唐:好吧,我觉得如果你张着红发,就有影响。但不要担心会发生半路在手术台上醒来,痛得大叫这种情况。手术医师和麻醉师也充分了解这种情况。因为这是科学,不是迷信,雅艾尔。Yael: Touché.雅艾尔:言之有理。原文译文属!201210/203863龙岩哪家医院输精管接通

福州哪间医院治疗早泄最好南平那里B超监测卵泡 Yael:Whats the matter, Don? You look worried.雅艾尔:发生什么事了,唐?你看起来很担忧。Don:Well, Yael, you know how people are always predicting that one day women will be able to have babies without men? It turns out that some species of the Whiptail lizard have figured out how to do this and completely eliminated the male sex.唐:嗯,雅艾尔,人们通常预测,如果有一天没有男人,女人也可以自己生孩子,你知道是怎么回事吗?事实明鞭尾蜥蜴已经做到这一点,并将雄性蜥蜴完全消灭掉了。Yael:You mean that the species is all female?雅艾尔:你是说所有的鞭尾蜥蜴都是雌性?Don:Exactly. The females have the ability to lay eggs that hatch and grow into healthy lizards without needing to be fertilized by a male. The offspring are exact and complete genetic duplicates of the mothers.唐:正是这样。雌性鞭尾蜥蜴能不通过受精就产卵并孵化出健康的小蜥蜴。而其后代的基因与母亲的基因完全一致。Yael:So the females are cloning themselves.雅艾尔:那么说雌性蜥蜴是在克隆自己。Don:Thats right. And if that werent enough, the female lizards take turns role-playing. They perform a mating ritual in which one lizard acts like the male, and the second lizard acts like the female. The ritual causes the lizard acting as the female to ovulate and lay her eggs. Then, a few weeks later, the two lizards switch roles and repeat this process so that the second female will be able to ovulate and lay her eggs.唐:说得对。如果那样还不够的话,雌性蜥蜴会轮流进行角色扮演。她们进行一个交配仪式,其中一个扮演雄性,另一个扮演雌性。这种仪式会引起扮演雌性角色的蜥蜴排卵并产卵。然后过几个星期,两只蜥蜴再交换角色,重复这种交配仪式,这样另一只雌蜥蜴就可以排卵,产卵了。Yael:That is strange.雅艾尔:太奇怪了。Don:And it raises a lot of interesting questions. For example, its not clear how well an all-female species can evolve and adapt to environmental changes. A species survival depends in part on variation among its members. If all the members of a species are identical, chances are greater that something like a change in the climate or a disease will wipe them all out.唐:这也引发了许多有趣的问题。例如,对于这种全雌物种如何更好地进化以适应环境变化目前还不清楚。一个物种的生存要部分依靠成员的变异。如果所有的成员基因都一模一样,那么一遇到气候变化或者灾害,她们全军覆没的机会就很大。Yael:So it might be a little early to do away with males.雅艾尔:所以排除雄性还为之过早。Don:Well, you know what they say. You cant live with them.唐:嗯,你知道她们是怎么说的。你没办法和他们一起生活。Yael:You cant live without them.雅艾尔:但你的生活不能没有他们。原文译文属!201207/189587晋安博爱医院黑吗

龙岩做人工受孕大概多少钱 Science and Technology Collective behaviour科技 集体行为A groups ;intelligence; depends in part on its members ignorance集体的;智商;部分取决于成员的无知HUMAN beings like to think of themselves as the animal kingdoms smartest alecks. It may come as a surprise to some, therefore, that Iain Couzin of Princeton University believes they have something to learn from lesser creatures that move about in a large crowd. As he told the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, groups of animals often make what look like wise decisions, even when most of the members of those groups are ignorant of what is going on.人类常常自诩为最聪明的动物。事实真的如此吗?美国普林斯顿大学Iain Couzin认为人类需要向其他生物学习,学习他们的集体行为。正如他在华盛顿美国科学促进会的会议上所说,动物群体往往会做出明智的决定,即便群体中的大多对所发生的事情一无所知。Coming to that conclusion was not easy. Before lessons can be drawn from critters perched on the lower rungs of the evolutionary ladder, their behaviour must first be understood. One way to do this is to tag them with devices that follow them around—motion-capture sensors, radio transmitters or global-positioning-system detectors that can put a precise figure on their movements.得出这个结论并不容易。想要从低等生物上获得研究结果,首先得了解他们的行为。一种做法就是用仪器来捕捉他们的行动,如:动作捕捉感应器,无线电发射器或全球定位系统探测器,这些仪器可以把他们的动作准确记录下来。Unfortunately, it is impossible to tag more than a few individuals in a herd, flock or swarm.Researchers have therefore tended to extrapolate from these few results by using various computer models. Dr Couzin has done quite a bit of this himself. Most recently, he has modelled the behaviour of shoals of fish. He posited that how they swim will depend on each individuals competing tendencies to stick close to the others (and thus move in the same direction as them) while not actually getting too close to any particular other fish. It turns out that by fiddling with these tendencies, a virtual shoal can be made to swirl spontaneously in a circle, just like some real species do.不幸的是,要想标记出一大群动物的行为几乎是不可能的。研究人员因此倾向于通过使用各种计算机模型来推断这些鲜为人知的结论。Couzin士身先士卒。最近,他用计算机模仿了鱼群的行为。他设想,鱼群的游动主要取决于每条鱼之间的相互挤碰(因此鱼群会向着一个方向游动),而实际上并不会挤碰旁边的其他鱼,只是一种趋势而已。事实明,鱼群内部像这样彼此间的相互挤碰,不自然的就会是鱼群形成螺旋状。That is a start. But real shoals do not exist to swim in circles. Their purpose is to help their members eat and avoid being eaten. At any one time, however, only some individuals know about—and can thus react to—food and threats. Dr Couzin therefore wanted to find out how such temporary leaders influence the behaviour of the rest.表面如此,但是真正的鱼群是不会螺旋状游动的。他们的真正目的其实是相互帮助觅食和躲避掠食者。然而,任何时候只有鱼群中的少数才会会对食物和威胁作出反应。因此,Couzin士十分想弄明白这些所谓的;领导;是如何影响鱼群的行为的?He discovered that leadership is extremely efficient. The larger a shoal is, the smaller is the proportion of it that needs to know what is actually going on for it to feed and avoid predation effectively. Indeed, having too many leaders with conflicting opinions results in confusion. At least, that is true in the model. He is now testing it in reality.他发现,领导力至关重要。鱼群越大,花在捕食和躲避掠食者方面的精力就越少。而事实上,领导太多,意见相左,就会陷入混乱,至少在模拟试验中是这样。现在,他要在真实的环境中开始测试了。Tracking individual fish in a shoal is hard. Fortunately, advances in pattern-recognition software mean it is no longer impossible. Systems designed to follow people are now clever enough not only to track a person in a crowd, but also to tell in which direction his head is turned. Since, from above, the oval shape of a human head is not unlike the oblong body of a fish, this software can, with a little tweaking, follow piscine antics, too.追踪鱼群中的个体十分的困难,幸运的是,外形识别软件的进步意味着它不再成为不可能。人类行为识别系统已经十分的智能化了,不仅能在人群中追踪个体,而且还可以告诉他的头正朝向哪里。从上面看,既然人类头颅的椭圆形状与鱼类长圆型的体型没区别不大,那么,这个软件只需稍加调整便可识别鱼了。机器鱼Robo fishDr Couzin has been using a program developed by Colin Twomey, a graduate student at his laboratory, to track individual fish in a tank. The result is not just a model of shoaling fish, but a precise numerical representation of their actual movements and fields of vision. That means it is possible to investigate whether real-life fishy leaders have the same effect on a group as their virtual kin.Couzin士一直在使用研究生科林图梅开发的一个程序,该程序能追踪鱼缸里的鱼的行为。研究结果不仅能反映整个鱼群的活动,并且能用数字精确地表示出鱼群的确切行动和视野。这意味着它可以研究出是否鱼群中的;领导;对整个鱼群有影响。Alas, merely observing a shoal does not make it clear which individuals lead and which follow. Instead, Dr Couzin has built a biddable robot three-spined stickleback. A preliminary study of a shoal of ten flesh-and-blood sticklebacks shows that they do indeed mingle with the robot and that they follow its leadership cues as predicted. He is now making a robot predator to see how the shoal reacts to less benign intruders.唉,只观察鱼群不能说明鱼群中谁是领导,谁是追随者。相反,Couzin士已经设计了一条机器三刺鱼。通过把机器三刺鱼跟10条真正的三刺鱼混在一起对进行研究——正与先前的预测一样,他们的确听其号令。现在,士正在做一个机器捕食者,看看鱼群对这些凶恶入侵者将会会做出如何反映。If the models are anything to go by, the best outcome for the group—in this case, not being eaten—seems to depend on most members being blissfully unaware of the world outside the shoal and simply taking their cue from others. This phenomenon, Dr Couzin argues, applies to all manner of organisms, from individual cells in a tissue to (rather worryingly) voters in the democratic process. His team has aly begun probing the question of voting patterns. But is ignorance really political bliss? Dr Couzins models do not yet capture what happens when the leaders themselves turn out to be sharks.如果这些模型能够说明问题,要得出最好的结果——没有被吃掉,似乎取决于鱼群中的大多数对周围所发生的情况一无所知,而只是默默地接受其他鱼的暗示。这种现象,Couzin士认为在所有生物体中都存在,无论是单个细胞生命,还是在民主进程中(令人担忧的)的选民。士的研究小组已经着手开始使用这一成果来研究投票形式的问题了,可是,无知真的会带来政治上的福音吗?Couzin士的模型没能明,如果鱼群中的;领导;变成鲨鱼会怎样? /201301/218356福州总院不孕不育费用福州治疗卵巢囊肿哪里最好



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