福州精子检测那个医院好赶集常识

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月19日 11:23:04
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For years, many tech workers in Silicon Valley have enjoyed free meals — one of several cushy perks offered the likes of Google, Facebook, and countless startups. But complimentary grub could become a thing of the past if the Internal Revenue Service has its way.多年来,许多硅谷科技公司的员工一直享用免费员工餐。这是谷歌(Google)、Facebook和无数初创公司为员工提供的福利之一。然而如果美国国税局(Internal Revenue Service)落实了收税意向,这些免费食品就将成为过去了。A report on Tuesday by the Wall Street Journal revealed the IRS is pushing to tax employees for their free meals. Companies would have to add in the value of free food when calculating employee tax withholding.《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal )本周二报道称,美国国税局正准备就免费员工餐向员工征税。在计算员工的预扣税款时,公司必须加入免费食物的价值。News of a potential tax on free meals has many worried in Silicon Valley, where all-you-can eat buffets are a basic recruiting tool. They’re also a subtle way to get employees to work longer hours by giving them no reason for them to leave the office except to sleep.这一消息让硅谷许多公司感到担忧,因为“管饱吃”的员工自助餐是他们招聘时开出的基本条件之一。提供员工餐也是一种巧妙的手段,让员工除了睡觉以外没有理由离开办公室,从而工作更长时间。“Having food available or catered in is kind of expected of most tech firms, so this is a bit of a concern,” admits Steve Sarner, VP of Marketing, at the social networking site Tagged, where employees get at least one free meal a week cooked up by nearby restaurants in San Francisco’s Financial District.社交网站Tagged公司营销副总裁史蒂夫o萨尔纳承认:“提供食物是人们对大多数科技公司的正常预期,因此征税问题引发了一些关注。”在这家公司,员工每周至少会享用一次由旧金山金融区附近的餐厅烹制的免费餐。Nathan Grady, a front-end engineer at Weebly, a service that lets users build web sites with custom software tools, called the idea of taxing free food awkward. The practice is a social catalyst that makes it easy for a company’s staff to talk to one another, he said. Weebly makes that easy enough by serving free catered lunch daily.Weebly是一家让用户利用定制软件工具创建网站的务提供商,该公司的前端工程师南森o格雷迪认为,对免费员工餐征税的想法“令人尴尬”。他表示,提供员工餐可以促进社交,公司员工在用餐时可以轻松地交谈。Weebly每天都提供免费午餐,从而创造这种交流的机会。“You start doing that, well then, do you start taxing free coffee as well?” Grady said. “It just doesn’t make sense.”格雷迪表示:“最开始是向免费员工餐征税,然后呢,是不是还要向免费咖啡征税?这根本没有道理。”Google, which popularized the free Silicon Valley buffet, did not immediately respond to a request for comment. Facebook, which followed in Google’s footsteps by offering its employees free food, declined to comment.引领硅谷免费自助餐潮流的谷歌公司并未立刻发表对此事的看法。在提供免费食物方面追随谷歌脚步的Facebook也拒绝发表。The idea of a food tax rankles Matt MacInnis, CEO of the digital publishing startup Inkling. His company has served its employees free lunches for nearly four years via the catering business Ryan Scott 2 Go. ZeroCater, another caterer, was hired last year to serve dinner. MacInnis argued that free meals in the tech industry are a lot like standard benefits such as employers matching 401k contributions by their workers.Inkling数字出版公司首席执行官马特o麦金尼斯对征收食物税的想法非常不满。他的公司通过餐饮公司Ryan Scott 2 Go,已经向员工提供了近4年的免费午餐。去年,公司还聘请另一家餐饮公司ZeroCater提供晚餐。麦金尼斯认为,科技业提供免费员工餐就像是雇主给员工提供401K企业养老保险一样,属于常规福利。Companies like Google GOOG 1.00% , Facebook FB 2.49% , and Apple AAPL 0.78% can easily afford to pay employees more to cover any additional taxes for free meals, he said. Therefore, their recruiting wouldn’t suffer. But start-ups, which feel compelled to offer free laundry, yoga classes, and free food to compete for top talent, would be put at a big disadvantage, he said. In Inkling’s case, MacInnis says he would need to increase employee’s annual salaries by more than ,000 to cover any extra food taxes.像谷歌、Facebook和苹果(Apple)这样的公司可以轻松地给员工加薪,抵消免费员工餐导致的额外税费。但初创公司通常都不得不提供免费洗衣、瑜伽课程和免费食物,以此争取顶级人才,这个政策会让它们处于极为不利的情况。麦金尼斯表示,在Inkling公司,他需要将员工的年薪提高5,000美元以上,才能抵消额外食物税对员工收入的影响。“It seems there would be pretty terrible, unintended consequences,” MacInnis said.麦金尼斯说:“看起来这将导致出人意料的可怕后果。” /201409/326811What can be said about Apple Inc.#39;s upcoming iPhones?对苹果(Apple Inc.)即将问世的新iPhone有什么可以说说的?What we do know is that the company#39;s suppliers in Asia are working simultaneously on two models. One is a higher-end design with a metal shell, the other a lower-performance one with non-metal shells in multiple colors, which sounds reminiscent of the route it went with iPods.我们确实知道的是,苹果在亚洲的供应商正在同时开发两种款型的iPhone手机。其中一款较为高端,有金属外壳;而另外一款功能较为简单的手机则没有金属外壳,不过这款手机有多种颜色可供选择。这种高低搭配使人不禁回想起苹果当年在iPod上用过的策略。Launch dates haven#39;t been finalized, but The Wall Street Journal reports it could be possibly summer for the upmarket phone, as people familiar with the situation say production will begin this quarter. The lower-cost one is being developed simultaneously but will likely come to the market later.虽然新款iPhone的推出时间尚未最终确定,但据《华尔街日报》报道,其中的那款高档手机可能在今年夏天面市,因为据知情人士说,这款手机的生产工作将于本季度开始。而那款成本较低的手机也正在开发之中,但面市的时间预计会晚一些。Rumors of a larger-sized iPhone seem unfounded for now, despite ripples that Apple might cave into the trend for big screens (and despite fears that the phones may stretch forever more .) This is not just because of Apple#39;s philosophy that a smartphone should be small enough to control with one hand, but due to economics, too. One person with direct knowledge of the projects explains that the company gains advantages of scale by sticking with the 4-inch screen size of the current iteration, so it has no plans to change phone dimensions this year.尽管据传苹果可能会屈从于大屏幕手机受到消费者欢迎的市场潮流(虽然已经有人担心手机的屏幕可能会变得越来越大),但到目前为止,有关苹果将推出屏幕较大iPhone的传言似乎还无法得到实。苹果不推出大屏幕手机不仅是因为它一向秉承智能手机应该小到单手能自如操控的理念,还有经济方面的考虑。一位直接了解iPhone项目的人士解释说,苹果坚持让其手机屏幕保持目前这种4英寸大小获得了规模效益,所以它今年没有改变手机尺寸的计划。One question that remains is how Apple will present the lower-cost iPhone to consumers. While surely aimed at attracting a non-elite clientele, it#39;s unclear whether this is a play to attract straying users in its traditional turf, or to target the vast market of first-time smartphone users in developing economies. Either way, Apple has a balancing act of making its products more affordable, while keeping that exclusive luster that draws consumers to the brand in the first place.一个依然没有的问题是,苹果将如何向消费者介绍那款成本较低的新iPhone。虽然这款手机肯定旨在吸引那些非精英阶层消费者,但人们不清楚的是,苹果推出这种新手机究竟是要吸引其传统客户群里那些喜欢不断更新手机的人,还是将目标对准了发展中国家首次购买智能手机的庞大人群。无论怎样,苹果都需要在以下两个方面之间掌握好平衡:它一方面要让消费者能负担得起自己的产品,另一方面又要保持住苹果产品的独特光,毕竟消费者首先正是因为这种光才喜欢上苹果品牌的。 /201304/235312

Samsung Electronics’ new high-end smartphone will go on sale in China early next week, ahead of any other market except South Korea, as the company tries to steal a march on Apple’s new iPhones and halt its sliding share of the world’s biggest mobile phone market.三星电子(Samsung Electronics)最新款的高端智能手机下周初起将在中国发售。该款手机将在韩国首发,紧接着便来到中国,早于其他任何一个海外市场。三星此举的用意是抢在苹果(Apple)新款iPhone之前进入中国市场,同时终止自身在这个全球最大手机市场份额不断下滑的态势。Samsung, the world’s leading smartphone producer by sales, has lost market share in China over the past two years to cheaper homegrown rivals, and in the second quarter gave up the top spot, according to leading research firms.按销量计算,三星是全球第一大智能手机生产商。然而根据主要研究公司的数据,最近两年来,三星在中国的市场份额被更为廉价的中国本土厂商不断蚕食,今年第二季度甚至丢掉了市场老大的宝座。The Galaxy Note 4 is an upgraded model of Samsung’s large-screen “phablet”. It will go on sale in South Korea on Friday and in China before the end of the month, Samsung said on Wednesday, marking the first time the South Korean smartphone maker has given China priority over other export markets with a new device in the flagship Galaxy range.Galaxy Note 4是三星大屏“平板手机”的升级版。三星于周三表示,该款手机将于周五在韩国发售,并将于本月底以前在中国发售。这标志着,三星在推出旗舰Galaxy系列的最新款机型时,首次把中国市场摆在了其他出口市场之前。Samsung unveiled the Note 4 on September 4, just five days before Apple announced the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. The latter is Apple’s first foray into the phablet segment, which Samsung has dominated since launching the first Galaxy Note in 2011.三星在9月4日发布Note 4,五天后,苹果发布了iPhone 6和iPhone 6 Plus。iPhone 6 Plus是苹果首次推出的平板手机产品,而三星自2011年推出首部Galaxy Note以来,一直在这个领域占据主导地位。Apple says it sold 10m of the new iPhones in the three days after their September 19 launch – a record for the company despite the fact that the phones are not yet for sale in China, where regulators have yet to give final approval for the devices.苹果表示,新款iPhone在9月19日上市后,三天里销售了1000万部。由于中国相关主管部门仍未最终批准这两款手机在中国上市,新款iPhone并未在华出售。尽管如此,苹果公司这次还是创下了iPhone的最佳销售纪录。While Samsung’s early launch of the Note 4 in China could help mitigate the threat from Apple to its phablet market share, analysts say a more serious problem for Samsung is the success of lower cost Chinese competitors.三星抢先在华推出Note 4,可能会有助于减轻苹果对其平板手机市场份额的威胁。然而分析师表示,对三星来说,更严重的问题是成本较低的中国竞争对手所取得的成功。“Chinese phones with the same functions as Samsung’s phones may cost only Rmb3,500 (0), while Samsung’s cost Rmb5,300,” said Wang Yanhui, secretary-general of the Mobile Phone China Alliance, an industry group. He warned that many Chinese consumers did not consider Samsung’s phones, with impressive technical specifications but pedestrian plastic exteriors, as deserving of a premium price tag.手机中国联盟(Mobile Phone China Alliance)秘书长王艳辉表示:“与同样功能的三星手机相比,国产手机的价格可能只有3500元人民币(合570美元),而三星手机的价格却高达5300元人民币。”他警告说,许多中国消费者认为三星手机不值那么多钱,因为尽管三星手机的技术规格令人印象深刻,却配了乏味的塑料外壳。“If it cannot lower its prices, Samsung’s market share in China will soon be washed away by Chinese competitors,” Mr Wang said.王艳辉表示:“如果三星不降价,它在中国的市场份额将很快被中国竞争对手抢光。”Samsung accounted for nearly a quarter of mobile phone sales in China in late 2011, but that fell to 12 per cent in the third quarter of this year as Samsung was overtaken by Chinese rival Xiaomi, according to the research group Canalys. A separate report from IDC also said Samsung had lost its leading position in the third quarter, but named Lenovo as the new top seller.根据研究机构Canalys的数据,2011年末,三星占了中国手机销量近四分之一的份额,但今年第三季度却下滑到12%,其市场地位被中国小米(Xiaomi)超过。由IDC发布的另一份报告也表示,三星在今年第三季度失去了市场领导地位,不过该报告表示新的销量冠军是联想(Lenovo)。The problems in China have contributed to a broader slowdown for Samsung, which has reported three consecutive quarterly declines in operating profit including a 24 per cent fall in the second quarter.在中国遭遇的问题导致了三星整体业绩的放缓,其营业利润连续三个季度出现下滑,在今年第二季度下降幅度达到24%。However, Lee Don-joo, president of strategic marketing at Samsung’s mobile phone division, said business conditions were “temporarily difficult”, predicting the Note 4 would “far outsell its predecessor”.然而,三星手机部门战略营销总裁李唐珠(Lee Don-joo)却表示,三星手机业务状况只是遭遇了“暂时的困难”,并预言Note 4“销量将远超上个版本”。Samsung shipped 10m units of the Note 3 to vendors in the first two months after its launch last year.Note 3于去年上市,在头两个月里,三星向经销商交付了1000万部该款手机。“We expect earnings to recover soon, given our technological innovation and strong fundamentals,” Mr Lee said.李唐珠表示:“考虑到我们的技术创新及坚实基础,我们预计盈利将很快恢复。” /201409/332818

  Six months after a jury awarded Apple (AAPL) .05 billion in its landmark patent infringement suit against Samsung, the judge in the case finally sorted through the paperwork and issued what amounts to a split decision.六个月前,苹果(Apple)在“世纪专利大战”中大获全胜,陪审团裁决三星(Samsung)付赔偿金10.5亿美元。日前,负责此案的法官终于完成文书工作,发表了一项非一致性决定。In a 27-page order released Friday, Judge Lucy Koh vacated 0 million of the original award and ordered a new trial to sort out how much Samsung should pay for 13 devices where the jury#39;s math is in dispute.上周五公布的判决书长达27页,法官高兰惠减免了三星4.5亿美元的赔偿金,同时要求重新审理,以确定陪审团存在争议的13款设备,三星究竟应该付多少赔偿金。;When a Court detects an error in the jury#39;s damages verdict,; she wrote, ;the Court has two choices: the Court may order a new trial on damages, or the Court may reduce the award to a supportable amount.;高兰惠写道:“一旦法院发现陪审团的损害赔偿裁定有误,有两种方案可供选择:法院要求对损害赔偿重新审判,或者直接将赔偿金降至合理水平。”On Friday she did both, reducing Apple#39;s award to cover 14 of the devices at issue and ordering a new trial on the other half.高兰惠上周五同时采纳了两种方案,将苹果获得的赔偿金减到只覆盖14款侵权的三星设备;而对另外13款三星设备则要求重新审判。Apple can now demand that Samsung pay the nearly 0 million of the award that the judge let stand, plus whatever the court decides to add in terms of interest and supplemental damages from Samsung#39;s sales.苹果现在即可要求三星赔偿法官所裁决的6亿美元,外加法院所持的其它赔偿,例如利息以及源自三星营收的补充赔偿。But since the case is headed for an appeals court, both the new damages trial and the 0 million check may have to wait.不过,由于两家公司仍可对案件提起上诉,无论是新的审判还是6亿美元赔偿看来都还要等上一段时间。FOSS Patents#39; Florian Mueller, as usual, has the most detailed analysis.FOSS Patents网站的专利专家弗洛里安·穆勒照例给出了最详细的分析。The full ruling, via AllThingsD.完整判决书请参阅科技客AllThingsD。 /201303/228830

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  Apple unveiled new iPads at the tech giant’s Cupertino, Ca. headquarters on Thursday. Fortune had 30 minutes to try them both out. While Apple clearly fine-tuned last year’s models — one much more than the other — instead of entirely remaking them, the latest iPads seemingly uphold company’s reputation for making quality products.周四,苹果公司(Apple)在加州库比蒂诺总部发布了全新iPad。《财富》杂志(Fortune)花半小时试用了这两款新品。尽管看起来,苹果只是大幅升级了去年的老款——其中一款升级幅度更大,这并不是一次彻底的产品革新,但新款iPad的品质对得起苹果的名声。The iPad Air 2:iPad Air 2:What the iPad Air 2 lacks in sheer novelty, it makes up for with tweaks across the board. The new 9.7-inch tablet looks a lot like last year’s model, but manages to be 18% slimmer — a design feat that makes the iPad Air 2 thinner than a pencil. It’s the thinnest tablet on the market. (“Can you even see it?” Tim Cook quipped at the unveiling.) A new screen cuts glare and reflections by roughly half, according to Apple. And now there’s Touch ID, the same fingerprint scanning technology found in last year’s iPhone 5s that lets users unlock their devices by placing a finger on the home button.尽管iPad Air 2缺乏创新亮点,但却进行了全面的小幅升级。这款全新的9.7英寸平板与去年的老款看起来别无二致,但却轻薄了18%——这使它比一铅笔还薄,成为市面上最薄的平板(蒂姆o库克在发布会上开玩笑称:“你还能看得见它吗?”)据苹果公司称,全新的屏幕使炫光和反光减少近半。同时它也搭载了了Touch ID,也就是去年亮相iPhone 5S的指纹扫描技术,用户把手指放在Home键上就可以解锁。The rest of the iPad Air’s improvements are beneath the hood: a faster processor and graphics chip, a Burst mode feature that quickly snaps a series of photos and more storage on iPad models priced 9 and above. It will be available starting Oct. 24.iPad Air的其他改进都在意料之中:更快的处理器和图形芯片,能快速抓拍多张照片的Burst模式,定价599美元及以上的机型享有更大存储空间。10月24日起,新iPad Air开始接受预订。All those nips and tucks won’t blow users away, but they do add up to a better experience overall for iPad users. Apps open faster, websites load more quickly and a graphics-heavy driving game I tried zipped by. As for that new screen? It cuts down on glare and reflections, but I only appreciated the effect when I placed the tablet alongside the iPad Mini 3 under a lamp. It’s there, but far more subtle than I expected.所有这些小幅升级都不会让用户感到惊艳,但它们整体上确实让iPad用户的使用体验更好了。应用打开得更快,网站加载速度更快,我试玩的一款有大量图形界面的游戏也运行得飞快。而新屏幕到底如何呢?它号称大幅减少了炫光和反光,但只有当我把它放在灯下的一台iPad Mini 3边上时,才能感受到这种效果。确实有一定效果,但远不如我期待的那么明显。The iPad mini 3:iPad mini 3:If the larger iPad received something of a face lift this year, its smaller sibling got a half-hour facial. Available Oct. 24, the iPad mini 3 is more portable thanks to its 7.9-inch size, but there’s very little new here besides the addition of Touch ID. Sure, it comes in gold now, as well as silver and “space gray,” but so does the iPad Air 2. And yes, the iPad Mini 3 offers more storage on models priced 9 and over, but again, the iPad Air 2 does that, too.如果说体型较大的iPad今年算是做了点“整容”的话,那它的就只能说做了半小时的“脸部养护”了。iPad mini 3也是10月24日开售,7.9英寸的迷你身材让它轻松便携,但除了加了个Touch ID之外,它就没多少升级了。确实它现在有土豪金、银色和“太空灰”几个颜色了,但iPad Air 2也这样。此外,定价499美元及以上的iPad Mini 3存储空间更大了,但iPad Air 2同样如此。In fact, the iPad mini 3 is virtually identical to last year’s model down to the dimensions, processor and camera, so much so that handling the device gave me déjà vu. Compared to the Air 2, it’s noticeably thicker, runs significantly slower and lacks the Air 2’s glare-resistant screen. It’s still a solid, affordable tablet — it just doesn’t offer much that’s new.实际上,iPad mini 3在尺寸、处理器和摄像头等方面和去年的老款几乎一模一样,以至于拿着这台“新款”给我一种似曾相识的错觉。跟Air2相比,它显然更厚,运行速度慢得多,也没有Air 2那块防炫光的屏幕。它仍然是一款便宜耐用的平板——只是没什么新东西罢了。Conclusion:结论:To say that Apple AAPL -1.31% served up “more of the same” with its new iPads would be right and wrong. It improved the larger iPad just enough so users will pick up on things like faster performance, a thinner body and a screen that’s easier to . A good chunk of the 225 million iPad users aly out there will find those features worth upgrading for.要说苹果这两款新iPad提供了“大同小异的特色”,这话既对也错。大些的那款改进较大,所以用户会注意到运行更快、体型更轻薄、屏幕看起来更轻松等新特性。iPad 已有的2.25亿用户中,大部分会觉得这些特性是值得为之买单的。But the iPad mini 3 seems to take a lesson from the plasticky iPhone 5c: for the most part, it’s last year’s model masquerading as something new. In other words: iPad Air 2 might not be revolutionary, but it’s evolutionary. The mini 3? It’s not even that.但iPad mini 3似乎从那款塑料感极强的iPhone 5c身上学到了教训:在很大程度上,它就是去年的老款伪装成了新款。换言之:iPad Air 2也许算不上革命性产品,但它还是大有改进的。但mini 3呢?它连这点都谈不上。 /201410/336505

  

  Online sales now represent as much as one-tenth of all retail sales in the ed States. This has led traditional stores to seek new ways to keep their customers loyal.目前,网上销售占到了美国零售总额的十分之一。这导致传统卖场需要寻找新的途径来保持客户忠诚度。Lynne Shaner used the Internet to buy everything she needed for her wedding and holiday gifts for her husband and step-daughter. Other than food, 90 percent of her purchases were made on her home computer.Lynne Shaner使用互联网购买了婚礼所需的一切东西,以及给丈夫和继女的节日礼物。除食品外,她90%的交易都是在家里电脑上完成的。;I find that, by being able to go online and choose the things that I need to choose, and have them delivered to me right at my doorstep, I eliminate all the driving, all the crowds, all the noise of that, and I usually get a better selection.;她说,“我发现,通过网上购物和送货上门,我远离了开车、人群、噪音等等,而且通常我能得到更好的选择。”There are a lot of people like her. Experts say American online shopping hit records in both November and December. Fifty-seven percent of Americans have bought something electronically.美国有很多人像她一样做。专家表示,美国网上购物在11月和12月再创纪录。57%的美国人进行了电子购物。Store owners worry that this growing amount of online sales will hurt their business. Cornell University marketing professor Ed McLaughlin says they should be worried. He spoke to VOA by Skype.商店老板担心网上销售日益增长会损害他们的生意。康奈尔大学营销学教授埃德·麦克劳克林(Ed McLaughlin)表示,这些老板们应该为此担忧。他通过Skype接受了美国之音采访。;Anything that can move online, will. And it#39;s just a matter of time.;“任何东西都能转到网上销售,这只是个时间问题。”Professor McLaughlin says traditional stores can keep their customers by selling goods like clothing, which buyers may want to see and try on before purchasing. He says the stores could also offer things that are difficult to ship. He also says some stores can please customers by offering to set up or repair electronic products.麦克劳克林表示,传统商店可以通过销售装之类的商品维持客户,客户购买这类商品前希望亲眼看到并试穿。他说,商店还可以销售不方便运输的东西。他还表示,一些商店可以通过提供电子产品的设置和维修来取悦客户。Bill Martin is the founder of ShopperTrak. His business helps stores learn about their customers. He told VOA by Skype that traditional stores offer a social experience that some people enjoy.比尔·马丁(Bill Martin)是ShopperTrak公司的创始人。该公司帮助商店了解其客户。他通过Skype对美国之音表示,传统商店提供了部分人喜欢的一种社会经历。;There is still a lot of emotion in the buying decision, you know, that takes place. Oftentimes, you know, you need that last sense of ‘Boy, this is exactly what I want#39; -- that feeling before you#39;re y to part with money, and you can#39;t always get that on-line. It#39;s a rather cold process.;“在购物决策中还有许多情感因素起作用。通常情况下,你需要‘小伙子,这就是我想要的’这种花钱前的感受,在网上找不到这种感受。网上购物是一种比较冷淡的过程。”Bill Martin says traditional stores can provide goods to buyers more-quickly than online stores. And some retailers are using websites to persuade people to visit their stores.马丁说,传统商店能够比网上商店更快地向客户提供商品。一些零售商开始使用网站说人们去他们的商店。While e-commerce worries some business owners, the only worry for delivery services like FedEx and UPS is keeping up with the number of packages. UPS Manager Dana Kline says her company is very busy at this time of year. UPS is so busy that it has filled 55,000 temporary worker positions during the holiday season.反过来电子商务也担忧一些企业主,这种唯一对FedEx和UPS这类快递务的担心也随着包裹数量一路增长。UPS经理达纳·克莱恩(Dana Kline)表示,她们公司每年这个时间都很忙。UPS是如此之忙,以至于它们在节日期间补充了55000个临时工职位。 /201301/222317

  

  

  Global warming could make humans shorter, warn scientists who claim to have found evidence that it caused the world#39;s first horses to shrunk nearly 50 million years ago.科学家警告说,全球变暖可能会使人类变矮。科学家宣称已经找到据:近5000万年前全球变暖就曾让世界上最早的马个头变小。In fact, a team from the universities of Florida and Nebraska says it has found a link between the Earth heating up and the size of mammals ; horses, in this case, the last time the world heated up.事实上,来自佛罗里达州和内布拉斯加州的大学的一研究团队称,他们已经找到地球变暖和哺乳动物个头之间的联系。这一案例中马变矮的现象是上一次全球变暖时发生的。The scientists used fossils to follow the evolution of horses from their earliest appearance 56 million years ago.科学家用化石来追溯马从5600万年前诞生至今的进化历程。As temperatures went up their size went down, and vice versa; at one point they were as small as a house cat, said Dr Jonathan Bloch, curator of the Florida Museum of Natural History, was ed by the ;Daily Mail; as saying.随着气温的上升,马的个头变小,反之马的个头就变大。《每日邮报》援引佛罗里达自然历史物馆馆长乔纳森bull;布洛赫士的话说,它们曾一度像家猫那么小。The scientists say that the current warming could have the same effect on mammals ; and could even make humans smaller.科学家称,当前的全球变暖可能也会对哺乳动物产生同样的影响,甚至可能会让人类的个子也变小。;Horses started out small, about the size of a small dog like a miniature schnauzer. What#39;s surprising is that after they first appeared, they then became even smaller and then dramatically increased in size, and that exactly corresponds to the global warming event, followed by cooling.布洛赫士在《科学》杂志中写道:;马最初的个头很小,和一只小的个头差不多,大约也就像一只迷你型雪纳瑞犬那么大。令人惊讶的是,在马诞生后过了一段时间,它们的个子变得更小,之后个头又显著变大,而这些变化与全球变暖和变冷正好是相对应的。;It had been known that mammals were small during that time and that it was warm, but we hadn#39;t understood that temperature specifically was driving the evolution of body size,; Dr Bloch said in the ;Science; journal.;我们已经知道哺乳动物在那个时期个头较小,而那个时期气候也较暖,但我们还未意识到正是温度驱动着身体大小的进化。; /201203/173165

  They have no name and no leader. But you could call them “techno-hippies”. Somewhere between the cheerful profiteering of Silicon Valley and the libertarianism of online hackers, this loose collection of artists and entrepreneurs is using the profusion of new devices and digital networks to challenge mainstream ideas about capitalism, consumption and the relationship between humans and nature.这群人没有名字,也没有领袖。但你可以把他们称作“技术嬉皮士”。他们介于硅谷兴高采烈的逐利主义和在线黑客的自由主义之间,是一个艺术家和企业家的松散群体,他们正利用层出不穷的新设备和数字网络,挑战有关资本主义、消费以及人类与自然之间关系的主流观念。Last month, they descended on Linz, a pretty city perched on the banks of the Austrian Danube that hosts the annual Ars Electronica festival, a digital media event that has become a magnet for counter-cultural technologists from around the world.上月,他们来到位于奥地利多瑙河沿岸的美丽城市林茨,参加一年一度的电子艺术节(Ars Electronica),这场数字媒体盛会吸引了全球各地的反主流文化技术专家。Colonising Linz’s shopping malls, schools and even the local bishop’s residence, this year’s installations ranged from a cathedral being played with lasers like a giant musical instrument, to hermit crabs scuttling around under the burden of miniature 3D-printed city#173;scapes, to a display of “agriculturally printed” farmland in which algorithms had calculated the optimum planting pattern and ratio of crops to bug-resistant grasses.今年的装置作品占据了林茨的购物中心、学校甚至当地主教的居所,包括一个用激光演奏的大教堂,就像一件巨大的乐器,还有在3D打印的城市高楼微型复制品的压力下四散奔逃的寄居蟹,以及“经过农业印刷”的农田,利用算法计算出最优种植模式和农作物与防虫害青草的比率。“Ars Electronica is an early warning system,” says Hiroshi Ishii, the associate director of MIT’s Media Lab, who was visiting the festival. “It shows we are living in an era when the connectivity of people and machines can contribute to solving societal problems.”“电子艺术节是一个预警系统,”参加此次电子艺术节的麻省理工(MIT)媒体实验室(Media Lab)副主任石井裕(Hiroshi Ishii)表示,“它显示出在我们生活的这个时代,人和机器的互联互通有助于解决社会问题。”Where a typical start-up preaches the values of disruption and convenience, these alternative futurists point to the social or environmental impact. Instead of swooning over the latest high-profile product launch, they find playful ways to ask who controls and benefits from that technology. And with each new proprietary device, they question whether “open source” strategies might be better at empowering individuals to direct their own destinies and create incentives for innovation other than the profit motive.一般的初创企业宣扬颠覆和便利的价值,而这些另类未来主义者指向社会或环境影响。他们没有为最新发布的高调产品尖叫,而是找到好玩的方式提问:谁控制并受益于这种技术。每当有新的专有技术设备问世,他们会提问,“开放源”战略会不会更有利于让个人得以执掌自己的命运,并给创新提供利润动机以外的激励?Their initiatives include “repair cafés” that encourage people to avoid waste by sharing skills to fix defunct electronic objects, and “open source gardens”, where crates full of soil, flowers and plants are left in public spaces to see who takes care of them. Those projects were kicked off by Martin Hollinetz, my host for the festival. Mr Hollinetz, who trained as an engineer and a psychotherapist, runs a chain of so-called “open technology labs” or “Otelos” in rural Austria, which act as a cross between community groups and high-tech research laboratories.他们发起的计划包括“修理咖啡馆”,鼓励人们通过分享修理坏了的电子产品技能来减少垃圾,还有“开放源花园”,在公共场所放置装满土壤、花和植物的大盒,看看谁能照看它们。这些计划是由我在此次电子艺术节的东道主马丁#8226;霍林耐茨(Martin Hollinetz)推出的。他是科班出身的工程师和心理治疗师,他在奥地利乡村地区运行着一个所谓的“开放技术实验室”(被称为Otelos)连锁,它们兼具社区组织和高科技研究实验室的特点。Mr Hollinetz, who lives in a yellow house he and his wife built from reclaimed freight containers previously used to transport refrigerators, took his cues for Otelos from the “maker” movement, a collection of digital do-it-yourselfers who gather in clubs to tinker with high-tech devices such as 3D printers. But he wanted Otelos to be more inclusive than the traditional hacker crowd.霍林耐茨居住在他和他妻子用回收的货运集装箱建造的黄色屋子里,这个集装箱以前用来运输冰箱。他是从“maker”运动中获得建立Otelos的灵感的。这个运动是一个由数字DIY爱好者组成的群体,他们会聚集在俱乐部,摆弄3D打印机等高科技设备。但他希望Otelos成为更具包容性的组织,不仅包括传统的黑客人群。“We wanted to create something like the ‘hackerspaces’ you see in Berlin and Barcelona, but to do it in a way that was more welcoming to people of all ages, to stop the brain drain to cities,” he explains. “We wanted to help show people that they had valuable knowledge to share.”“我们希望创造一些类似于你在柏林和巴塞罗那看到的‘黑客空间’那种组织,但更欢迎各种年龄的阶层,以阻止人才向城市流失,”他解释道,“我们希望帮助展示给人们:他们有宝贵的知识可以分享。”With around 500 active members, Otelo projects to date include the design and fabrication of a plug-and-play microchip for broadcasting community radio, and a special soil-tilling machine to help farmers revive a traditional organic agricultural technique.Otelos项目大约有500名活跃会员,迄今的成果包括设计和制造一种用于播放社区广播的即插即用芯片,以及一种特殊的田地耕作机,帮助农民恢复传统的有机农业方法。Artists and entrepreneurs like Mr Hollinetz are weighing in to a big debate about how technological development should happen. Because making technology can be expensive, innovation tends to come from companies that can generate returns on capital by convincing consumers to buy their products. “There is a real tension in the altruistic or utopian conception of the development of technology on the one hand, and market forces on the other,” says Roland Lamb, the founder and chief executive of London-based music start-up Roli.艺术家和霍林耐茨等企业家正加入一场大规模辩论,焦点是科技发展应如何实现。由于研发技术明可能成本高昂,因此创新往往来自那些通过说消费者购买其产品而获得资本回报的公司。伦敦音乐初创企业Roli创始人和首席执行官罗兰#8226;莱姆(Roland Lamb)表示:“确实存在紧张,一方面是科技发展的利他或乌托邦概念,另一方面是市场力量。”Mr Lamb, who has a degree in comparative philosophy from Harvard, credits eastern thinking with helping him challenge western ideas about identity and discreteness in designing his company’s flagship Seaboard product, a piano that uses soft digital sensors in place of keys to allow a continuum of pressure from the player’s fingers to create changes in sound.莱姆拥有哈佛大学(Harvard)比较哲学学位,他认为,在设计他公司的旗舰产品Seaboard的过程中,东方思维帮助他挑战了西方有关身份以及分离性的观点,该产品是一台钢琴,用软性数字传感器取代钢琴键,利用来自演奏者手指的连续压力,实现声音的变化。There is a certain irony, Mr Lamb notes, in corporations that have encouraged consumers to be reliant on their devices now having to t more carefully as a result.莱姆指出,具有某种讽刺意味的是,那些一直鼓励消费者依赖它们设备的企业,现在不得不更为谨慎地行事。“Phones in particular are beginning to cross a line from being understood as an external object, separate from oneself, to an internal object,” Mr Lamb adds, pointing to the recent outrage over Apple automatically downloading U2’s album Songs of Innocence on to unsuspecting iPhone users. “The very intimacy and closeness of these devices means people want to forget that they have been developed by a company that can push things on to them.”“尤其是,手机正开始从一种被视为与人们脱离的外部产品变成一种内部产品,”莱姆补充称,他谈到,最近人们对苹果(Apple)自动向不知情的iPhone用户下载U2专辑Songs of Innocence感到愤怒,“这些设备与人们的亲密性意味着,人们希望忘记,这些设备是由那些能够将内容强行推给它们的公司开发的。”But do these experimental interventions produce lasting benefits? Tech businesses such as Apple and Google have shown a willingness to use bottom-up approaches to turn themselves into “platforms”, sharing some of the secrets of their technology in exchange for a share of the revenues that developers get from building on top of it.但这些实验性干预会产生持久效益吗?苹果和谷歌(Google)等科技企业显示出愿意利用自下而上的方法把自己变成“平台”,共享一些技术秘密,并从开发者基于这些秘密创造的收入中得到分成。“There’s still the question of who has control, in the end,” says Erkki Huhtamo, a media historian at UCLA. “It’s quite clear that the corporate world is not interested in releasing control for anybody; rather it’s a strategy or lesson they’ve learnt – that it’s wiser to give people leeway in moulding the technology in certain ways.”“最终,仍是一个谁拥有控制权的问题,”加州大学洛杉矶分校(UCLA)媒体历史学家埃尔基#8226;胡塔莫(Erkki Huhtamo)表示,“很明显,企业界对于拱手让出控制权不感兴趣;它们学到了一项战略或者说吸取了一个教训:以某些方式在技术形成方面给人们留出余地是更为明智的做法。”Still, Professor Huhtamo thinks artists and alternative futurists serve a valuable role in helping society adjust to massive technological shifts. He notes that Victorian-era fairground rides helped people come to terms with the mechanical culture of the industrial revolution at a time when many were still terrified of the escalators on the new London Underground. “Artists can help prepare the public for new technological paradigms.”然而,胡塔莫教授认为,在帮助社会适应大规模技术变革方面,艺术家和另类未来主义者发挥着重要作用。他指出,维多利亚时代的露天游乐场帮助人们接受了工业革命的机械文化,当时很多人仍害怕新建伦敦地铁(London Underground)的自动扶梯。“艺术家能够帮助让公众为新的科技范式做好准备。” /201411/343549

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