第一句：Id like to reserve a room.我想预定一个房间A: Good morning, Room reservations. May I help you?早上好，房间预定处需要什么帮助？B: Id like to reserve a room.我想预定一个房间A: what date?您订哪天的？B: From June 7th to June th, please.从6月7号到6月号第二句：Is there a room available tonight?今晚有空房吗？A: Good morning. Is there room available tonight in your hotel?早上好！贵宾馆今晚有空房间吗？B: What kind of room do you want?您想要什么样的房间？A: Id like a double room, please.我想要双人间B: Oh, sorry. Im afraid they are fully booked.哦，抱歉恐怕都已被预定了A: Thanks anyway.不管怎样，还是谢谢你预定旅馆的类似表达法还有：Id like to book a single room six days.我想订一个单间，为期六天Can I reserve a double room on the night of May nd?我可以预定5月号晚上的一个双人间吗？Will you have free rooms tomorrow evening?明晚有空房吗？Do you have any vacancies tonight?今晚有空房吗？ 19779。
Lewis Kemper from Calinia took an amazing photograph of two bear cubs watching their mother hunt in Lake Clark National Park in Alaska.来自加利福尼亚州的路易斯·肯珀在阿拉斯加州克拉克湖国家公园拍下了一张两只小熊看着熊妈妈捕猎的让人称奇的照片The picture shows the two cubs stood side-by-side as the smaller one paws at the bigger sibling back while they stare intently at their mother, who was hunting salmon.照片中，这两只小熊肩并肩站着，小点的那只将爪子搭在大点的兄弟的背上，它们都目不转睛地注视正在捕鲑鱼的熊妈妈;The two bears held hands around seconds, hoping their mother would bring them some dinner but untunately, she came back fishless,; said Kemper.肯珀称：;这两只小熊手拉手大约秒，期待它们的妈妈能给它们带回一些晚餐，但不幸的是，熊妈妈空手而归;;Although bears love their fish, most of them are omnivores and mainly eat plants and of course, a lot of grass.;;虽然熊类都喜爱鱼，但是其中大多数都是杂食动物，主要吃植物，当然也吃很多的草;;Bears are usually very calm, which makes them great animals to photograph.;;熊类通常都很安静，这使得它们得以成为最适合拍摄的动物;Lake Clark is known as Qizjeh Vena by the First Nations Athabascan people, which means place where people gather lake.克拉克湖因原住民阿萨巴斯卡人所说的;Qizjeh Vena;而为人所知，该词的意思是;人类收集湖水的地方; 66A: What seems to be the problem?B: Oh, my God! It’s my stomach. It’s killing me!A: Where does it hurt the most?B: Right here! It hurts right here!A: How long has it felt like this?B: I felt OK when I woke up, and then, suddenly, I had this really sharp pain.A: Do you have a history of stomach pain?B: No, and I haven’t done anything out of the ordinary.A: Well, I think that we are going to have to get you to an emergency room right away.B: Thank you helping me.
5.Stanislaw Jerzy Lec5.斯坦尼斯洛·耶日·勒克The Polish poet Stanislaw Jerzy Lec was a journalist working in Poland when the Nazis invaded. He tried to flee to Romania but was caught and wound up at the Ternopil concentration camp, where he was led into the woods, given a shovel, and ced to dig his final resting place.波兰诗人斯坦尼斯洛是一位记者，纳粹入侵时正在波兰工作他努力逃往罗马尼亚，但是被抓到了捷尔诺波尔集中营他被带到树林里，被迫拿铁锹给自己挖墓穴The guards who had taken Lec became bored and hungry. One of them was ced to stand with the prisoner while the rest left to get supper. Lec waited until the right moment and killed his captor with a blow to the neck. He later captured the moment with the following poem: He who had dug his own grave looks attentively at the gravedigger work, but not pedantically: this one digs a grave not himself看管斯坦尼斯洛的卫兵感到烦躁、饥饿其中必须有一个卫兵在其他人去吃晚饭时与犯人站在一起斯坦尼斯洛等到时机成熟，重击卫兵脖子杀了他后来他在一首诗中描述了这一刻：给自己挖坟墓的人 看起来坚决果断 对掘墓人的工作，但并不书生意气：因为他 掘的墓 不为自己Donning the dead man SS unim, Lec made his way to Warsaw, where he met members of the Polish resistance. There, he put his literary skills to use publishing underground newspapers. He was also fluent in German and wrote leaflets the resistance. He ended the war as a major in the Polish army and fought in battles pushing back against the Nazis.穿上死去党卫军的制，斯坦尼斯洛来到华沙，碰到了波兰抵抗军的成员在那里，他运用他的文学技巧发行地下报纸他的德语还十分流利，为抵抗军写了宣传册子战争结束时，他是波兰军队的少校，参加过推翻纳粹的战斗.Yoram Friedman.约拉姆·弗里德曼Yoram Friedman was five years old when Nazi troops arrived in his Polish hometown of Blonie. It was 1939, and within three years, Friedman and his family were ced into the infamous Warsaw Ghetto. About three-quarters of the 00,000 Jews who lived in the Ghetto were killed by the Nazis. Yet Friedman was smuggled out, leaving him to try to keep himself alive in Nazi-occupied Poland at the age of eight.纳粹来到他的故乡——波兰的布隆尼时，约拉姆·弗里德曼才5岁那是1939年，3年之后，弗里德曼和他的家人被赶进臭名昭著的华沙犹太区住在贫民窟的00000犹太人中，约有四分之三被纳粹杀害而弗里德曼8岁时被偷偷运出，靠自己在纳粹占领下的波兰生存He initially joined a group of Jewish orphans who survived by raiding farms, but that didnt last. Alone again, he knocked on the doors of Polish farmers to beg help. After being rejected and beaten, he was taken in by a Catholic woman named Magda. She taught Friedman Catholic prayers, renamed him, and warned him never to urinate around Poles because it would reveal that he was circumcised. Local villagers nonetheless suspected that Magda was housing a Jew and reported her to the SS. Her home was burned to the ground, but Friedman was able to get away.He lived in the wild, tying himself to branches high in trees to sleep. He ate wild berries and whatever animals he could catch. A seemingly miraculous chance meeting with his father lasted only moments, when the elder Friedman was caught by Nazis and shot in a potato field.Friedman resumed his Catholic identity, going by the name of Jurek, and he found work on a farm. His arm got caught in a wheat grinder one day, and local doctors refused to treat him when they realized he was Jewish, so he lost his right arm entirely. Yet Friedman overcame even this, finding a place in an orphanage when the Soviets arrived in Poland. Three years later, he was found by a Jewish agency and arrived in Israel. Despite being illiterate at that point, teenage Friedman went on to earn a master degree in math and spent his life as a teacher. In a film, Run Boy Run, was produced based on his story.最初他加入了一群犹太孤儿他们通过掠夺农场生存，但这没有持续太久再次落单之后，他敲开波兰农户的门乞讨、求助遭到拒绝和打骂后，他被天主教妇女玛格达收留她教弗里德曼天主教的祈祷文，给他另起名字，还警告他不要在柱子旁边撒尿，以免暴露尽管如此，当地村民仍旧怀疑玛格达屋里藏有犹太人，并把这件事举报给了党卫军她家化为灰烬，但弗里德曼却逃跑了他在荒郊野外生存，把自己绑在高高的树枝上睡觉他吃野果子和任何抓得到的动物他奇迹般地碰到了父亲，尽管两人见面的时间非常短暂；随后父亲被纳粹抓住，在一片土豆地里被毙弗里德曼继续使用天主教身份，叫做朱瑞可，他在一个农场找到了一份工作一天，他的手臂卡在小麦研磨机里，当地的医生发现他是犹太人后拒绝为他医治，导致他丢掉了整条右臂然而，弗里德曼克了这些艰难困苦，苏联人到达波兰时，他在一家孤儿院找到了安身之处3年以后，一个犹太办事处找到他，他来到以色列尽管那时大字不识，少年弗里德曼获得了数学硕士研究生学位，成为一名教师年的电影《孩子快跑！就是以他的故事为蓝本的3.Rolf Joseph3.罗尔夫·约瑟夫The Joseph brothers, Rolph and Alfred, had everything against them. They were teenagers in a Jewish family when Hitler came to power, and they lived in Berlin. Their father had fought Germany during World War I, so they clung to hope that the family would be okay in his home city. But by the 190s, the boys were left on their own, their parents arrested and shipped away by the Nazi regime.约瑟夫兄弟，罗尔夫和阿尔弗雷德，事事不顺希特勒掌权时，他们还是一个犹太家庭里的少年，住在柏林父亲在一战期间为德军打仗，所以他们以为自己家在家乡不会出事但是到0年代，父母被纳粹逮捕后送走，孩子们被迫自力更生No one who knew the brothers could shelter them together. So they lived separately but met every Wednesday at :00 AM, until one morning in 19. Rolf was accosted by a German soldier and was taken away interrogation. He was locked in a cell by the Gestapo and whipped hours to reveal his hiding place and the whereabouts of his brother. Rolf held out, and he was on a train to Auschwitz the next day. Rolf grabbed a pair of pliers from a toolbox in the van that transported him to the train station. He used them to work himself out of his handcuffs. Rolf and his fellow prisoners were able to break a plank away from the side of their cattle car and jump from the train. Yet Rolf freedom was short-lived. On the way to Berlin, he was betrayed to the Gestapo and arrested again. He was beaten so severely that he developed epilepsy. But Rolf was unbreakable, and he hatched a plan. When he was left alone, he scratched himself and convinced his guards that he was suffering from scarlet fever. The Germans, fearful of catching something, moved Rolf to a hospital. A guard stood outside Rolf third-floor room, so he jumped out of the window.Despite breaking part of his spine, Rolf crawled through the city to his old hiding place. His brother was there, and the old woman who had taken them in moved them to some land she owned in Berlin outskirts. The brothers were liberated by the Soviets in 195, and Rolf went on to become an engineer.知道这两兄弟的人都不敢同时收留他俩他们分别待在两个地方，每周星期三上午点见一面，直到19年一天早上出了事罗尔夫被一名德国士兵诱骗并带走问话他被盖世太保锁在一间牢房里，还挨了几小时鞭子——被审问他的藏身之所和兄弟的行踪罗尔夫招了，第二天就被火车送到了奥斯维辛在运自己去火车站的货车上，罗尔夫在一个工具箱里找到一把钳子他用这把钳子打开了手铐罗尔夫和其他犯人得以打破牛车一侧的木板，跳车逃跑但罗尔夫的自由转瞬即逝在去柏林的路上，他被出卖给盖世太保，再次被捕他遭到严刑拷打，以至患上癫痫尽管如此，罗尔夫坚忍不拔，酝酿了一个计划被单独留下后，他挠抓自己，让卫兵相信自己患上了猩红热德国人害怕染上什么病，把罗尔夫移送给医院他的病房在三楼，门外只站着一个卫兵，于是他跳窗逃跑虽然摔伤了部分脊椎，罗尔夫爬着穿过城市，回到藏身的老地方他的兄弟还在那儿，之前收留他们的老妇人把他们转移到她在柏林郊外的另一个处所195年，兄弟俩被苏联军队解放，罗尔夫后来成为了工程师.The Chiger Family.恰杰一家One of the largest Jewish ghettos created by the Nazis was in Lwow, Poland. When the Nazis invaded, 0,000 Jews lived in the city, half of them refugees from Germany. In June 193, the Germans liquidated the ghetto, killing thousands of Jews in the process. Weeks bee, a small group led by a man named Ignacy Chiger had dug their way through the floor of their building, using only cutlery. They wanted to find a place to hide, but bee they could find a new home, they were found by Polish sewer workers. Among them was Leopold Socha, chief supervisor of the city entire sewage system.波兰的罗乌纳粹建立的大型犹太区之一纳粹进犯时，城中住着0000犹太人，其中一半是德国难民193年6月，德国人清算这个犹太区，杀掉几千犹太人几周之后，一个名叫伊格纳西·恰杰的人带领一群人仅用餐刀，从他们的建筑下面挖出一条地下通道他们想找一个藏身之所，但还没找到就被波兰下水道工人发现了利奥波德·索查也在其中，他是整个城市下水道系统的主要监管人Socha was sympathetic to their plight, but surviving in the sewers was hellish. The city sewage system drained into the fast-moving River Poltwa. Early in their -month stay underground, the children uncle slipped into the river and was washed away to his death. The sewer was shared with the city rats, who tried to steal the group food. Five weeks into the stay, the group was discovered by unfriendly workers and had to run into the darkness. They were lucky enough to bump into the workers who knew them, who guided them deeper to a new hiding place.When it rained heavily, their area of the sewer would flood and leave only a few inches of space. The parents held their children with faces pressed against the ceiling to breathe. Krystyna Chiger developed a phobia of rain. ;I would sit and listen to hear if it was raining, and panic as soon as I heard rain drops,; she said later. Both her children developed measles, but both miraculously survived. One of the women was pregnant when they entered the sewers. When their baby was born, its cries threatened to give away the group existence. Giving testimony in 197, Krystyna described how ;they covered this child with a washbasin. It suffocated and was thrown into the Poltwa.;Out of 1 who entered the sewers originally, only survived. Krystyna was overjoyed when the Soviets arrived and she could leave the sewers. Brother Pawelek, too young to remember much of life out of the sewers, was scared of the light and people. He cried to go back underground.索查很同情他们的困难，但是待在下水道难以忍受城区的下水道系统接入湍急的河流他们在地下度过了个月；开始不久，孩子们的叔叔溜进河里，被河水冲走，一命呜呼下水道里有老鼠，会抢他们的食物待了5个星期后，他们被凶恶的工人发现，不得不逃进黑暗深处幸运的是，他们碰上了熟悉的工人，被带到一处新的庇护所下水道排水量大时，他们待的地方就会涨水，只留下几英寸空间父母把孩子脸向上托起来，让孩子能够呼吸克雷斯蒂娜·恰杰患上了怕雨的恐惧症;我会坐下来听有没有下雨，只要听见雨滴声就会恐惧;她后来说虽然她的两个孩子都患上了麻疹，但都奇迹般地活了下来逃进下水道的人中还有一名妇婴儿出生时，它的哭声差点儿暴露他们197年克雷斯蒂娜出庭作时描述，;他们用一个水槽盖住这个婴儿，它窒息死了，被扔进河里;共有1人逃进下水道，最后只有人幸存克雷斯蒂娜对苏联人的到来高兴过度，她本可以离开下水道的帕威尔勒克当时太小，对外面世界的生活没有记忆，很害怕光线和陌生人他总说要回到地下去1.Michael Kutz1.迈克尔·库兹Michael Kutz was when the Nazis arrived in Nieswiez, Belarus in June 191. At first, they ced the town ,500 Jews to work. Kutz cleaned streets and toilets by day. At night he sneaked out and traded textiles food, to feed him and his mother. On October 30, the Nazis made every Jew gather in the town square. Those who could work were placed in one group to be kept alive. The rest, including the children, were to be shot.191年6月纳粹来到白俄罗斯小镇涅斯维兹时，迈克尔·库兹才岁起初，全镇500名犹太人被强迫工作库兹白天打扫街道和厕所，晚上悄悄溜出去用丝织品换食物，养活自己和母亲月30日，纳粹让所有犹太人集中到小镇广场有工作能力的人被分为一组，活了下来其他人，包括孩子，都被毙了Nazi soldiers marched the condemned 5 kilometers (3 mi) into the countryside. Many were shot on the way. The Jews were ced to undress completely and lined up beside a mass grave. Yet the Nazis didnt shoot all of their captives bee burying them. They ordered those remaining to jump into the pit to be buried alive. Kutz hesitated, and an officer smashed his head with a rifle. The young boy fell in and was slowly buried beneath the dead and the dying. He later recalled. ;I tried as a kid to throw away dead bodies, dead parts of bodies and everything, and to be able to breathe, and then it was quiet.;Kutz crawled up through the pit of bodies and saw that no one was there. He ran, still completely naked. He didnt stop until he reached a convent, where the nuns gave him clothes and some food. They were too fearful to harbor a Jewish runaway, though, and Kutz was on his own.He eventually met up with some Russian resistance fighters, who were impressed by Kutz survival of the pits. They spent the next three years living in the est, fighting the invading ce. Only other Jews from his town survived.Kutz wrote an autobiography, If, By Miracle. The title was inspired by the last words from his mother, whispered to him during their march to the death pit. ;If, by miracle, you survive, you must bear witness,; she told him. Through the hunger, rough sleeping, and difficulty of fighting, he says his mother final words inspired him to go on.纳粹士兵出城走过的5千米（3英里）备受唾弃——他们一边走一边射杀市民犹太人被迫脱光衣，在大坑边上站成一排然而，纳粹并没有开打死所有俘虏就开始掩埋万人坑他们命令活着的人跳进去，活埋他们库兹犹豫了一下，一个警官用来复敲打他的头男孩儿掉了下去，慢慢被尸体和快死的人掩埋他后来回忆到，;我还是个孩子，努力推开尸体、肢体和要死的人，终于能够呼吸，随后一片安静;库兹爬出死人堆，没有看见一个人他撒腿就跑，连衣也没穿等跑到一个女修道院，他才停下来女修士给了他衣和食物他们不敢收留犹太逃犯，库兹独自逃跑了他最终遇到一些俄罗斯的抵抗战士，他们很欣赏库兹从万人坑死里逃生的经历随后3年，他们住在森林里，与侵略军对抗镇上只有另外个犹太人幸存库兹写了一本自传，《如果，有奇迹标题的灵感来自母亲的遗言——在去万人坑的途中，母亲对他耳语到，;如果，有奇迹，你活了下来，你一定要作;他说母亲临终的话鼓舞他在饥饿、不眠和艰难的战斗中坚持下来翻译:罗惠月 来源：前十网 38
5.Vaccines5.疫苗Beginning in the 90s, when Edward Jenner developed the world first vaccine against smallpox using a less virulent strain called cowpox to inoculate patients, vaccines have saved countless millions of lives. Since then, several different types of vaccines have been developed.90年，爱德华·詹纳发明了世界上第一用;牛痘;的微毒菌株合成的疫苗从那时起，人们开始注射疫苗来预防天花，芸芸众生也得到了拯救随着时间的推移，各种疫苗也陆续得以面世Attenuated or ;live; vaccines use live viruses that have been weakened or altered so that they do not cause illness, while inactivated or ;killed; vaccines contain dead microorganisms or toxins that are usually used against bacterial infections. Some vaccines—including sub and conjugate vaccines, as well as recombinant and genetically engineered vaccines—only use a segment of the infectious agent. When a vaccine is injected, the pathogen goes to work, but there is not enough of it to replicate at the rate it needs to in order to take hold. The body mounts an immune response, killing the pathogen or breaking down the toxin responsible disease. The body immune system now knows how to fight the disease and will ;remember; if it comes across it again. In other words, scientists have figured out how to get a pathogen to help its own target defend itself against it. They have even taken the first steps toward developing vaccines several ms of cancer, with three vaccines approved by the FDA the hepatitis B virus (which causes liver cancer), human papillomavirus types and 18 (which cause cervical cancers), and metastatic prostate cancer in some men.Thanks to vaccines, several diseases have been driven to virtual extinction. Smallpox is the most famous example, but polio, though not totally eradicated, comes in at a close second. Several other diseases might be gone by now if vaccines werent so hard to come by in the underdeveloped nations that still struggle with them. Things are getting worse instead of better, with diseases coming in from an unexpected source: affluent, educated Westerners who should know better.Untunately, the anti-vaccination movement is making a comeback in regions where these diseases were once under control. Bee the introduction of the measles vaccine in 1963, approximately 500,000 people per year were infected in the US, 500 of whom—mostly children—ended up dead. By 1983, there were only 1,97 cases reported, and after a brief resurgence in the 80s and 90s, reported cases were down to just 37 in . After the anti-vaccination movement began gaining traction, 8 cases were reported in the US alone in . That number keeps growing, fed by travelers coming in from areas with higher rates and finding less resistance. Whooping cough, once thought to be gone ever in the US, is also on the rise.减毒活疫苗能对病毒进行改变或者减毒，，疫苗病毒并不会对人体健康产生威胁另外，那些被杀灭了毒素的灭活疫苗则经常被运用到细菌感染的治疗中而亚单位疫苗、合成疫苗、重组疫苗、基因工程疫苗则是利用病原体的一部分来制作疫苗当人们接受完疫苗注射后，病原体便开始在体内发挥作用了但是，人体内注射的病毒并不足以使它们有足够高的繁殖率以致在人体内扎根，随着少量病毒进入体内，人体的免疫反应也会增强，免疫系统会积极消灭病原体或者削弱毒物的致病几率在经过一番;演习;后，人体免疫系统便有了与此类病毒的;作战经验;，并且能牢牢记住;敌人;面孔，在下一次同样的病毒;入侵;时便可以轻易;击败;它们换句话说，科学家们弄明白了如何运用病原体帮助人类防御病毒的道理科学家们甚至已经开始了癌症疫苗的初步研究，其中，已有三种疫苗得到了美国食品药品的持，这三种疫苗分别是：乙型肝炎病毒疫苗（该病毒通常导致肝癌）、乳头状瘤病毒型和18型疫苗（该病毒通常导致宫颈癌）和针对男性的转移性前列腺癌疫苗多亏了疫苗，很多疾病才被彻彻底底地消灭掉，天花就是一个典型的例子，另外，脊髓灰质炎这种疾病即使至今没有完全根除，但是它也离末日不远了如果当初疫苗进入发展中国家更加顺利一些的话，许多其他疾病在当今也已不复存在了但是，事情并没有那么乐观，病毒总是在人们意想不到的地方出现，，人们不该放松警惕，尤其是经济富裕、受教育程度高的西方国家的人们更应该重视这一问题不幸的是，反疫苗接种运动使部分病情曾得到快控制的地区再次爆发疫情在1963年麻风疫苗问世之前，美国每年大约有500,000人感染麻风病，其中大约500人是儿童，并且大多死亡到了1983年，仅仅有97例麻风病例被报道在世纪80年代到90年代间，除了一次短暂的爆发，年麻风病降低到仅仅37例然而，在反疫苗接种运动受到追捧后的年，仅仅美国就报道了8例麻风病例并且这个数字仍在持续增长，来自于各个地区的旅行者由于对病毒的抵抗力较弱，总是更容易感染上病毒就连一度被认为在美国已经绝迹的百日咳也在逐渐出现.Bacterial Waste Breakdown.细菌分解废物Some of the smallest and simplest of creatures on Earth play some of the most important roles in safeguarding all of life. Bacteria have perhaps the most important role of all: breaking down and recycling waste.地球上存在着一些十分简单而微小的生物，它们均在保护生命健康方面起着某些至关重要的作用细菌可以分解废物并使其循环再利用，，细菌也许在这些生物身上扮演着最重要的角色The dead remains of animals and plants, along with the excrement of all organisms, contain vital nutrients and stored energy. Without a way to reclaim these nutrients, though, the available sources would be quickly depleted. Luckily, many bacterial species feed upon these energy sources, breaking them down to their smallest molecules and returning them to the soil, where they reenter the food chain.As helpful as this process aly is, humans have found many ways to exploit it a variety of even more advantages. Bacteria are used in sewage treatment, industrial waste management, and the clean-up of oil spills, leaked pharmaceuticals, and wastewater. They have also been useful in the development of aqua-farming, algae control, and waterless toilets. Researchers and engineers are currently looking into their potential use in the production of environmentally friendly bioplastics, glues, and building materials. They may even be used to break down plastic waste.动植物的残余物，有机体的排泄物当中，都含有重要的营养物质，它们储存着大量的能量但是，如果无法对这些营养物质进行回收再利用，这些可用资源就会很快枯竭值得庆幸的是，许多细菌都靠这些能源才能得以生存，它们可以把这些能源分解成微粒，然后使其回到土壤里，以便它们再次进入食物链的循环系统里这个过程十分值得借鉴，人类已经发现了许多方法利用这一过程来得到更多的益处如今，细菌用于污水处理，工业废水处理，净化油溢出物、废水和泄露的药品细菌也已经成功地用于淡水养殖，抑制藻类生长，还有无水马桶的使用最近，研究人员和工程师们正在寻求细菌在环境友好型生物塑料、胶粘物以及建筑材料的进一步可用价值细菌也许可用于分解塑料垃圾3.We Would Quickly Die Without Our Gut Bacteria3.肠道细菌的缺失威胁我们的生命Poorly understood until recently (and there is still quite a bit of research to be done), the natural bacteria that lives in our guts works with our immune system to drive out pathogens, produce vitamin K, stimulate peristalsis, and perhaps most importantly, digest our food. Without our gut bacteria, we wouldnt be able to perm any of these functions, and we would quickly die.肠道中的生物细菌同我们的免疫系统一起发挥作用：驱除病原体，产生维生素k，促进肠道蠕动，还有最重要的一点，帮助消化食物，而这一点直到现在才被人们发现（尽管我们仍知之甚少还有待大量研究）没有肠道细菌，这些功能都无法正常发挥作用，我们甚至会很快丧失生命The more we learn about beneficial strains of gut bacteria, the more we can incorporate that knowledge into healthy living. After it was determined that certain gut bacteria can play a role in obesity, probiotics became all the rage. Probiotics are the bacteria that reside in fermented foods and are now sold as supplements. Bacteria like some species of bifidobacteria, found in most yogurts, can create a highly acidic environment in which less-beneficial microorganisms cannot survive. Fatty foods and stress can also play a role in the health of our stomach flora, killing beneficial bacteria while favoring the more harmful kind that cause gas, bloating, and ;leaky gut syndrome.;In a huge breakthrough in the study of our gut bacteria and what they do, a team of Chinese and Danish researchers have recently developed a new way to identify these microorganisms using DNA sequence data. They identified over 500 species of benign bacteria and 800 new species of viruses that could live off them, providing hope new ways to treat diseases associated with them, such as diabetes, obesity, and asthma.我们关于肠道细菌中益菌菌株了解的越多，就能最大限度地用于健康生活在确定了某些肠道细菌能有效针对肥胖之后，益生菌就风靡起来益生菌是寄生于发酵食品中的一种细菌，人们将其当做补充食物销售大多数酸奶中含有双歧杆菌，像这样的细菌菌种能创造一个酸性极高的环境，无益的微生物就不能存活高脂肪食物和压力有害我们的肠道菌群，因为它们能够杀死益菌，那些有害的细菌便侵入身体，导致胀气，肿胀和;肠漏症候群;研究肠道细菌以及它们的用处已经取得巨大进展，中国和丹麦组成了一研究队伍，研究人员们发现了一种使用DNA序列数据的新方法来认这些微生物有500多种良性细菌已经被确定，还确定了800种人类赖以生存的新类病毒，这些发现给与其相关的疾病的治疗带来福音，比如糖尿病，肥胖症和哮喘的治疗.Skin Bacteria Serve As Our First Line Of Immune System Defense.皮肤细菌作为我们的免疫系统的第一道防线The moment you emerged from your mother womb, you were set upon. They ambushed you in mere moments and colonized every inch of your skin, and they have been with you ever since. They are prokaryotes and other bacteria, and without the evolutionary partnership humans ged with them millions of years ago, you would have been dead soon after being born.当我们的生命从母体受那一刻开始，就会遭受皮肤细菌的攻击它们片刻之间便伏击了你，把你身体的每一寸肌肤变成它们的殖民地, 此后始终陪伴在你的左右它们是原核生物和其他细菌，如果没有数百万年来，人类与它们之间产生的进化关系，你一出生便会夭折One of the most common skin bacteria is Staphlococcus epidermis, a bug that we now know plays a role in fighting off Leishmania major, the cause of a nasty disease called leishmaniasis that results in skin boils and open sores that dont heal. The good bug triggers an immune response called IL-1 that the body cant produce on its own, making Staphlococcus a necessary part of the human body, as vital to our existence as any organ.Prokaryotes, which also colonize the digestive tract, cover every exterior surface on the skin. Along with the rest of our beneficial skin microbiota, they became a part of us when they started competing against less-benevolent microorganisms real estate. Along with the immune cells in our skin, they protect us against both pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic fungi that try to invade. This allows our bodies to spend less energy defending our exteriors and focus more on things like fighting viruses and precancerous cells.最常见的一种皮肤细菌是表皮葡萄球菌, 它是一种现在众所周知的在对抗利什曼原虫上扮演了很重要角色的小虫,这种讨厌的疾病叫做利什曼病,它会导致皮肤疖和开放性溃疡这种益虫会引发一种叫做IL-1的人类自身不能产生的免疫应答物质, 使得葡萄球菌成为如同对于人类生存同等重要的器官一般的人体至关重要的组成部分原核生物在消化道开拓殖民地,覆盖每一寸皮肤外表面连同剩下的一部份有益的皮肤菌群, 当它们开始与那些;不太友善;的微生物竞争领地时,它们成为了我们的一部分连同我们皮肤的免疫细胞,它们保护我们免受病原菌和机遇性致病真菌的入侵这使得我们的身体花费更少的精力保护我们的外部，把更多精力放在诸如如何对抗病毒和癌前细胞等上1.Life As We Know It Wouldnt Be Here Without Cyanobacteria1.众所周知没有蓝藻细菌也就没有生命Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are possibly the oldest still-living species on Earth, with fossils dating back 3.5 billion years. They are unicellular bacteria that grow in colonies, and if it werent them, you wouldnt be here, and neither would nearly every other m of life.蓝藻细菌、蓝藻很有可能是地球上仅存的最古老的物种,通过化石可以追溯到35亿年前它们是聚居的单细胞细菌,要不是它们,你就不会在这里,几乎所有生命的形态也不复存在Cyanobacteria were the world first photosynthesizers. They used energy from the sun along with chemicals in primordial oceans and inert nitrogen in the atmosphere to make their food. As a waste product, they generated oxygen, a poison to virtually every other m of life at that time and the cause of early mass extinction events. Over a period of roughly 300 million years, all this oxygen generation helped m the atmosphere as we know it, during the Archaean and Proterozoic eras.That wasnt the only way this bacteria kick-started life as we know it. Sometime during the Proterozoic or early Cambrian era, they med a symbiotic relationship with certain eukaryote cells, making food the cell in return a stable environment to call home. These were the first plants, as well as the origin of eukaryotic mitochondria, which is essential animal life. This truly titanic event is now known as endosymbiosis.While several ms of cyanobacteria are toxic, a species named Spirulina was an important food source the Aztecs and eaten regularly by many Asian nations. Today, it is often sold in powder or tablet m as a health food supplement.蓝藻是世界上第一个光合作用系统，它们利用来自太阳的能源和原始的海洋的化学物质和大气中的惰性氮合成它们的食物至于废料,它们将其生成氧气——对于当时几乎每一个其它的物种生命来说相当于毒药,也是最早期大规模物种灭绝事件的成因大约3亿年前的一段时间内, 在太古代和元古代时期所有这些氧气制造有助于形成我们所知道的大气层这不是我们所知道的这种细菌开启生活的唯一途径在元古代和早寒武纪时期的某个时候,它们与某些真核生物细胞形成了一种共生关系,它们为细胞提供食物以换取一个称之为家的稳定环境这些真核线粒体的鼻祖是最初的植物,这对于动物生命是至关重要的然而有一些形式的蓝藻是有毒的,一个命名为阿兹特克螺旋藻的物种是阿兹特克人重要的食物来源，被许多亚洲国家的人经常食用如今,它经常以粉末还有片剂的形式作为健康的食品保健品翻译:murphy 前十网 1。
Candidates at an Indian army recruitment day in Bihar were made to take a written exam in their underwear to prevent them from cheating, according to reports, after a spate of exam cheating scandals in the eastern state.据报道，因印度东部省份比哈尔此前爆出了大规模考试舞弊丑闻，所以当地近日在举办军队招募考试时，为防止作弊，要求考生只能着内裤参加笔试Images in the Indian Express showed dozens of men sitting cross-legged in a field wearing only underpants, with many resting their test papers on their thighs, while a unimed supervisor stood guard.《印度快报发布的照片显示，几十名男性考生只着内裤盘腿坐在一片空地上，他们腿上放置着考卷，一名穿着制的考官警惕地站在他们前面The paper ed an army source as saying they took the radical step to ;save time on frisking so many people; after more than 1,000 candidates turned up.媒体引用军方消息人士的话称，他们之所以采取这么极端的做法是为了;节约搜身时间，因为考生太多;当天有00多名考生参加考试;We had no option but to comply with the instructions even though it felt odd,; one candidate told the paper.一名考生告诉《印度快报：;虽然这项规定很奇怪，但我们没得选择;An army spokesman in New Delhi refused to comment on the report.新德里一名军方发言人拒绝对该报道置评A year ago police in Bihar said they had arrested about 1,000 aspiring officers paying people to sit their exams them.比哈尔警方称，一年前他们逮捕了约00名雇人替考的军官考生The high court in the Bihar capital Patna asked the defence ministry on Tuesday an explanation of the unusual move, after a lawyer filed a petition against the army.对于此次;穿内裤考试;事件，有一名律师提交了针对军方的请愿书3月1日，比哈尔首都巴特那高等法院要求国防部对这次不寻常的举动进行解释There is huge pressure in India to secure good school grades and highly sought-after government jobs. Methods of cheating uncovered range from old-fashioned crib sheets to hi-tech spy cameras.在印度，人们往往为了在校得高分或者谋得吃香的政府岗位而承受巨大压力，因而作弊的方式层出不穷，从传统的打小抄到如今的高科技偷窥相机Last year in another scandal in Bihar, relatives scaled the walls of a school exam centre to pass notes to candidates.去年发生在比哈尔的作弊丑闻中，家长爬到学校的围墙上给考生递小抄In another attempt to stamp out cheating, on Sunday authorities in the western state of Gujarat blocked mobile phone internet services in cities and towns where entrance exams were taking place public service jobs.月日，西部省份古吉拉特邦有关部门为杜绝舞弊现象进行了另一项尝试：举办公务员考试的城市、乡镇，需要屏蔽当地的手机上网务 9518