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2019年10月14日 17:36:27 | 作者:百姓常识 | 来源:新华社
Soil samples collected by Greenpeace East Asia researchers near Asia’s largest zinc and lead mine and smelting plant, in Yunnan Province, show severe heavy metal contamination, the organization says. The findings, it has reported, highlight the environmental and health hazards as industries react to tighter pollution constraints in eastern China by expanding operations in less developed areas in the west.绿色和平东亚分部(Greenpeace East Asia)研究人员前往云南省境内的亚洲最大铅锌矿和冶炼厂附近进行了土壤样本采集,据样本显示,土壤的重金属污染十分严重。据该组织的报告显示,面对中国东部地区日益严格的污染限制,工业企业在向西部欠发达地区扩张,造成了当地环境和健康危害。In April, the researchers took samples of soil, household dust and river water in the town of Jinding, near the border with Myanmar, and sent them to an independent laboratory for testing. The results, released this week, show cadmium concentrations of up to 142 times the national health standard, and lead at eight times the standard, suggesting that the soil is not safe for growing food.4月,研究者在靠近中缅边境的金顶镇对土壤、家居降尘和河水进行采样,并将样本送往独立实验室进行检验。本周发布的检验结果显示,镉含量是国家健康标准的142倍,而铅的含量则是国家健康标准的8倍,这表明土壤对于粮食种植来说并不安全。“Soil pollution is less visible than water and air pollution, so the public is often unaware of the problem,” Ada Kong, a senior campaigner for Greenpeace East Asia, said in an interview. “With little public attention, the government lacks incentives to share information on the soil situation in China.”“土壤污染没有水污染和空气污染那么明显,所以大众通常都意识不到土壤污染这个问题,”绿色和平东亚分部的资深活动人士江卓珊(Ada Kong)在采访中表示。“公众关注度低,政府在国内土壤情况信息共享方面缺乏激励机制。”In April 2014, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Land Resources released a report based on a national soil survey, which found that 16.1 percent of China’s soil, and 19.4 percent of its farmland, was polluted, mostly as a result of industrial and agricultural activities. The most common pollutants were cadmium, nickel and arsenic.2014年4月,中国环境保护部和国土资源部在一份国家土壤调查的基础上发布了一份报告,其中显示中国16.1%的土壤和19.4%的农田受到了污染,工业和农业活动则是主要的污染源。其中,镉,镍和砷是最常见的污染物。But Ms. Kong said that report lacked specific geographic information. “No names of the provinces or locations where they took samples were disclosed,” she said. “Some other organizations have requested more information about the study but have been turned down.”但是江卓珊说,该报告缺乏具体的地理信息。“报告没有公布土壤采样来自哪些省份或地区,”她说。“有的组织希望获取该研究的更多信息,被拒绝了。”The Greenpeace team also looked at household dust, which has received less scrutiny than soil. “China does not even have a national health standard or health regulations for pollutants in household dust,” Ms. Kong said.绿色和平研究团队还关注了家居降尘,针对这项指标的观测比土壤更少。“中国甚至没有制定家居降尘的国家健康标准,或关于粉尘污染物的法规,”江卓珊说。“The lowest level of lead concentration we found was 1,576 micrograms per square meter” of floor space, she said. This is more than six times the level cited in a study published in Public Health Reports, a journal of the ed States Public Health Service, at which children were eight times more likely than their peers to have a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per deciliter. The ed States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used to refer to that as a “level of concern,” but it now says there is no safe blood level in children.Levels of heavy metal in samples correlated with proximity to the smelting plant. “Lead, zinc and cadmium concentrations increased by 5 percent for every kilometer closer to the plant,” Ms. Kong said.她说按住宅占地面计算,“我们发现的铅浓度水平最低的是每平方米1576微克,”她说。这是美国公共卫生局(Public Health Service)刊物《公共卫生报告》(Public Health Reports)的一篇研究中提到的浓度水平的六倍以上,而在那项研究中的浓度水平下生活的儿童,血铅含量达到每100毫升10微克的可能性是其他儿童的八倍。美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)曾经称那是“令人担忧的水平”,但现在他们认为并不存在儿童安全血浓度指标。样本中的重金属水平和冶炼厂的距离是相关的。“距工厂距离每拉近一公里,铅、锌、镉浓度会增加5%,”江卓珊说。Household dust is a major vehicle for lead being absorbed by the human body, said Chen Nengchang, a scientist at the Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences.广东省生态环境与土壤研究所的科学家陈能场说,家居降尘是人体吸收铅的重要途径。“In children, it can impair learning ability and lead to behavior problems,” Mr. Chen said in an interview. “Lead in blood can be dispersed rather quickly, but some of the lead can accumulate in brain tissues and bones, where it can remain for a very long time.”“它会给儿童的认知能力造成损害,导致行为异常,”陈能场在采访中说。“铅在血液中可以很快分解,但有些铅会在大脑组织和骨骼中沉积,那样就会留存相当长一段时间。”The lead and zinc mine and smelting plant, which began operations in 2003, are owned by Yunnan Jinding Zinc. The Greenpeace report is not the first time that the company has been accused of polluting surrounding areas.云南金鼎锌业公司所有的这些铅锌矿和冶炼厂是2003年投产的。绿色和平的此次调研已经不是该公司第一次面临污染周边环境的指责。Records compiled by the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, a nonprofit organization based in Beijing that monitors corporate environmental performance, show that the Nujiang Prefecture Environmental Department and the Yunnan Environmental Protection Bureau cited the company as in violation of environmental regulations in 2009, 2011 and 2014.监督企业环保状况的北京非盈利机构公共环境研究中心整理的资料显示,怒江州环境保护局和云南省环境保护厅分别在2009、2011和2014年指出该公司存在环保违规。One document shows that in 2009, the company was fined 600,000 renminbi, nearly 0,000 at the current exchange rate, for disposing of wastewater containing cadmium levels 887 times the national health standard into the nearby Bijiang River.其中一份文件显示,2009年该公司因向附近的沘江排放镉浓度超标887倍的废水,被罚款60万元人民币。Local residents appear well aware of the health risks.当地居民似乎很清楚自己面临的健康风险。“You can see layers of black dust on your furniture all the time,” said Li Zhouping, 24, who lives with his family in Maigandian, a village about 100 meters, or around 330 feet, from the smelting plant.“家具上什么时候都是一层黑灰,”24岁的李周平(音)说,他家所在的麦秆甸村距离冶炼厂大约100米。Greenpeace says that in 2010, the Lanping County health bureau conducted blood tests of children in Maigandian and found that 59 of 61 children had high levels of lead.绿色和平称,2010年兰坪县卫生局对麦秆甸村儿童进行血液化验,结果61名儿童中有59人血铅浓度偏高。Mr. Li said that to protect his 3-month-old child’s health, he has been urging Yunnan Jinding Zinc to help the family move to a safer area.李周平说为了3个月大的孩子的健康,他曾要求金鼎锌业帮助他把一家人搬到安全的地方。“They promised us a relocation in 2006, but no action has been taken,” he said in an interview.“他们在2006年答应搬迁,但没有实际行动,”他在接受采访时说。Last year, he said, he and other villagers went to the company’s offices to press their case.他说去年他和其他村民一起去公司办公室施加压力。“We went there around six or seven times,” he said. “They just told us they would hurry up, but nothing has been done.”“我们去了六七次,”他说。“他们就只知道说我们会抓紧,但什么也没做。”At a news conference in Beijing on Tuesday, at which the Greenpeace report was released, Ms. Kong said: “In 2013, the Lanping County government announced again a relocation plan and told villagers they would be relocated by the end of 2016. The villagers say, however, that they have yet to receive any more information on this.”绿色和平于周二在北京举行新闻发布会公布了研究报告,江卓珊在发布会上说:“兰坪县政府在2013年再次宣布了搬迁计划,并对村民说在2016年底之前可以完成搬迁。然而村民们说除此之外他们再也没收到关于此事的其他消息。”An official in the public information department of the Yunnan Environmental Protection Bureau reached by telephone declined to comment on the report’s findings or on allegations of environmental violations by Yunnan Jinding Zinc. A woman who answered the phone at the company said none of its executives were available to comment.记者通过电话联系到的一位云南环保厅信息公开部门官员,他拒绝就该报告的发现以及金鼎锌业的环保违规行为置评。金鼎锌业公司一位接听电话的女性表示,公司领导层没有人能就此事置评。 /201506/380881Ebola sps through contact with the blood and fluids of infected people. But experts say the outbreak is also being fueled by poverty and poor governance.埃拉病毒通过血液和体液接触进行传播。然而专家说,贫穷与管理不善也加剧了疫情的蔓延。In West Africa, they are literally building the facilities to handle Ebola from scratch. Improvised tents house quarantined Ebola patients.在西非,人们从无到有、兴建新设施,以应对埃拉病毒。搭起的临时帐篷隔离了一部分埃拉病患者。Many hospitals in the region lack basic equipment, says Tulane University virus expert Dr. Daniel Bausch. He spoke to VOA by Skype.杜兰大学的病毒专家丹尼尔·鲍许说,该地区的许多医院缺乏最基本的医疗设备。他向记者阐述了自己的看法。“You go to a hospital in Sierra Leone or Liberia, and it’s not unusual for a healthcare worker to say, ‘We don’t have gloves.’ Or, ‘We don’t have clean needles, #39;;said Bausch.鲍许说:“在一所塞拉利昂或者是利比里亚的医院里,听到以下言论并不稀奇。一位医护人员会说“我们没有手套”,或者是“我们没有干净的针头”。”Poor health systems plague the continent’s other Ebola hotspots, too. Bausch says there#39;s a common factor.落后的医疗系统也存在于非洲大陆上的其他疫情点。鲍许认为,制约因素是相同的。“All of the large outbreaks of Ebola or its sister virus, Marburg, happen in places where social and political unrest over the years have decimated the public health system, ; he said.鲍许说:“所有大规模的疫情暴发,如埃拉和马尔堡病毒,都是发生于社会政治局势动荡多年、公共安全系统薄弱的国家。”The war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo has seen six Ebola outbreaks. Civil wars wrecked health systems in Sierra Leone and Liberia in the 90s and 2000s.兵连祸结的刚果民主共和国已经六次暴发埃拉疫情。同样,国内的战争分别于九十年代和二十世纪初摧残了塞拉利昂和利比里亚的医疗系统。Meanwhile, working in neighboring Guinea, Bausch watched paved roads erode to dirt paths and towns slide deeper into poverty under the weight of dictatorship and corruption.与此同时,在临近的几内亚工作的鲍许目睹了该国在独裁统治与腐败的影响下,道路年久失修,城镇也逐渐滑向赤贫的深渊。“That period of not-responsible government degraded the systems, public health and otherwise in Guinea, and I think did have a role in leaving the country open to this sort of epidemic, ; he said.鲍许说: “政府的失职使得包括公共医疗在内的社会系统每况愈下,致使整个国家暴露于这一疫情的危险之中。”Like the health systems, many people in Ebola-stricken regions lack the resources to get by. And that puts them at risk.与卫生系统所类似,许多人在埃拉肆虐的地区缺乏必要的资源以存活下来。这也让他们身处险地。As they cut down forests for charcoal and to grow food, Bausch says they are driving the bats thought to carry the virus out into the open.鲍许说,他们砍伐树林,以获取木炭、种植作物,招致了携带病毒的蝙蝠的到来。“With deforestation, bats that ordinarily would be foraging for fruit within fairly remote areas inside the forest now are forced to come out and look for fruit, for example, mango trees that may be in the proximity of humans and bring them closer to humans and have more of a chance of introduction of the virus, ; said Bausch.鲍许说:“随着森林砍伐的加剧,一向在远离人类居住区的森林觅食的蝙蝠,被迫逃离丛林。比如,距离人类较近的芒果树,使得人类与蝙蝠的接触几率提高,同时也提高了病毒的传播几率。”And poverty is also driving people deeper into the forest in search of food, including so-called ;bushmeat, ; which is known to carry the virus.同时,贫穷也使人类在森林深处寻找食物,包括所谓的“丛林肉”,而后者正是传播疾病的元凶。It doesn’t have to be this way, says Dr. William Karesh with the EcoHealth Alliance, also speaking via Skype.来自生态健康联盟的威廉·卡瑞许说,其实事态原本不至于这样。“You have outbreaks in Uganda and they have invested in their health systems and they have invested in their education systems. So, of course, they still have these outbreaks but they’re controlled very rapidly, ; said Karesh.卡瑞许说:“在乌干达也有疫情。但他们在医疗和教育上做了投入。理所当然地,尽管有疫情,但是很快就得到了控制。”Once this outbreak ends, Karesh says, health officials need to start preparing for the next one with better labs and hospitals, and more public information on how to prevent infection.卡瑞许说,一旦这次疫情得到了控制,卫生官员需要着手提升实验室、医院和疾病预防知识宣传的水平,以备下一次疫情的到来。“We can’t stop earthquakes, but we can prevent a lot of the damage of earthquakes. And it’s the same with these emerging diseases and Ebola, ; he said.卡瑞许说: “我们不能阻止地震,但我们可以杜绝许多地震带来的危害。这同样适用于埃拉和其他新型疾病。”If governments invest in better education and healthcare systems, he says, the next outbreak could be less deadly.他说,如果政府能够加大对教育和医疗的投入力度,下一次疫情就不会如此致命。 /201408/321597

China will launch a long-awaited deposit insurance system next month, the central bank said on Tuesday, a crucial step towards deregulating domestic interest rates and promoting market-based capital allocation.中国央行(PBoC)周二表示,中国将在下月推出期待已久的存款保险制度。这是旨在取消国内利率管制和推动以市场为基础的资本配置的关键举措。Zhou Xiaochuan, the central bank governor, told reporters last month that China could remove the cap on bank deposit rates — the last remaining domestic interest rate subject to administrative regulation — by the end of this year.中国央行行长周小川上月对记者表示,中国可能在今年底之前取消存款利率上限,存款利率是中国最后一种受到行政监管的利率。Deposit insurance lays the foundation for freeing up rates by ensuring that savers are protected even if competition for deposits leads to excessive risk-taking and bank failure. The People’s Bank of China said deposits up to Rmb500,000 (,600) would be insured.存款保险将确保即便揽储竞争导致过度冒险和倒闭,储户也会得到保护,从而为利率自由化奠定基础。中国央行表示,最高偿付限额为50万元人民币(约合8.06万美元)。“Deposit insurance is a precondition for interest-rate liberalisation. The implementation of the system means rate liberalisation is speeding up,” said Tao Wang, greater China economist at UBS in Hong Kong.“存款保险是利率市场化的前提。该制度的执行意味着利率市场化开始加速,”瑞银(UBS)驻香港的大中华区经济学家汪涛表示。Economists say lifting the cap on bank deposit rates will lead to higher interest rates as banks compete for funds. That should improve capital allocation as lenders seek out more productive borrowers able to afford higher rates, including small, privately owned businesses that have long struggled to obtain bank loans.经济学家们表示,放开存款利率上限将导致利率升高,因为各将为获得资金展开竞争。这应会改善资本配置状况,因为会寻找能够承受更高利率的更具成效的借款人,包括那些长期以来很难获取贷款的小型民企。The PBoC was widely expected to launch deposit insurance last year but bankers say behind the scenes wrangling led to delays. Larger banks resisted a structure that would have forced them to pay a disproportionate share of insurance premiums, in effect subsidising smaller lenders that are most likely to fail.外界曾普遍预期中国央行会在去年推出存款保险制度,但家们表示,幕后角力导致了延迟。对于一种将迫使它们付份额超出比例的保费、实际上对最可能倒闭的中小进行补贴的保险安排,大进行了抵制。The details of the system largely match those of a draft plan released in late November last year. Analysts said at the time that the Rmb500,000 limit would fully cover about 98 per cent of Chinese depositors, though the large share of deposit funds held by wealthy savers means that would still leave a significant chunk of the banking system’s Rmb126tn in deposits uninsured.存款保险制度的细节基本上与去年11月下旬公布的草案相吻合。分析师们当时表示,偿付上限定为50万元人民币,将为约98%的中国储户提供全额保护,不过,富裕储户持有的高比例存款意味着,体系126万亿元人民币存款中仍将有相当大一部分得不到保护。Citing the experience of other countries, the International Monetary Fund has previously said that the rollout of deposit insurance could lead to deposit outflows from smaller banks, as it highlights bank failure as a realistic possibility and explicitly defines some deposits as unprotected.国际货币基金组织(IMF)此前曾援引其他国家的经验表示,存款保险制度的推出可能导致存款流出中小,因为它凸显了倒闭的现实可能性,并明确地将部分存款界定为不受保护。Almost all Chinese banks are state-owned, and domestic savers have traditionally viewed all bank deposits as carrying an implicit government guarantee.中国几乎所有都是国有,因而国内储户传统上认为所有存款都得到政府的隐性担保。In reality, even with deposit insurance in place, analysts remain sceptical that China’s government — with its focus on financial and social stability — would allow a bank failure. A series of technical defaults on risky high-yield debt has been permitted in recent years, but in each case the government ended up bailing out retail investors.在现实中,即便在存款保险制度实施后,分析师们仍怀疑专注于维护金融与社会稳定的中国政府是否会允许倒闭。近年来,中国政府已允许一连串高风险、高收益债券发生技术性违约,但每一次,政府最终都安排散户投资者得到了全额偿付。The PBoC added that it could adjust the insurance limit if economic conditions change. The central bank will manage the deposit insurance fund, which can invest in government bonds, central bank bills, and other high-rated bonds.中国央行补充称,如果经济条件发生变化,可能对最高偿付限额进行调整。中国央行将管理存款保险基金,该基金可以投资政府债券、央行票据和其他高评级债券。Additional reporting by Ma Nan in ShanghaiMa Nan上海补充报道 /201504/368050

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