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2019年12月08日 05:08:50|来源:国际在线|编辑:咨询新闻
Hi, everyone. I#39;m Jade. What we#39;re talking about today is writing paragraphs,大家好,我叫 Jade,今天我们要讨论的是写作,and I#39;m going to give you a structure you can use in the IELTS writing paper, in the discursive essay section.我会给你们一个可以用在雅思考试写作部分的作文结构,尤其适用于议论文部分。And you can also use what I#39;m teaching you today in the CAE exam, but also more generally in discursive essays你们也可以把我今天教的内容用在CAE考试中,还有其他的议论性文章中,because people who don#39;t have much experience of writing essays, or plus writing essays in English,因为那些写作经验不是很丰富的人,或者不是很擅长用英语写作的人,can often lose control of the essay, because they#39;re not really writing with a structure in mind.在写作文的时候经常跑题,这主要是因为他们下笔的时候脑子里没有一个作文的整体结构。And when that happens, you just start talking about something else that#39;s not even related to the question.当这种情况发生的时候,你们会开始写一些甚至跟题目一点关系都没有的内容。So you don#39;t actually get very good marks when you write an essay that#39;s not about the question, did you know that? Well, anyway, it happens sometimes.如果你们写出来的作文不切题的话,基本上是得不到很高的分数的。你们知道这一点吧?反正,这种情况时有发生。So this structure is very fixed, and it#39;s repetitive. So you would follow the structure in your first paragraph.这个结构非常固定,可以反复使用。你们要做的就是用这个结构写出第一段。And then, you#39;d do three or four similar ones. It#39;s fixed for a reason, to keep your essay under control, to keep you answering the question.然后再写出相似的三四段。这个结构之所以是固定的,就是为了保持你们的作文在控制范围内,避免跑题。So let#39;s have a look at a typical IELTS kind of question.那么,我们就来看一个典型的雅思考试中的作文题目吧。;These days, many students decide to attend university in a foreign country. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of attending university in a foreign country.;“近来,许多学生都选择去国外读大学。请讨论一下在外国读大学的好处与坏处。”So first, what we need to do is we need to make a little plan.我们要做的第一件事就是要列出一个简单的大纲。And...I know the advantages and disadvantages based on my personal experience because I was lucky enough to study in a foreign country when I was a student.然后......根据我的个人经验,我很清楚这些利弊,因为我读书的时候很幸运地去了国外学习。So...yeah. I spent a year in Amsterdam.我在阿姆斯特丹留学了一年。So what were the pros? Make friends from other countries. ;Make friends, other countries.;那么好处都有哪些呢?可以交到来自其他国家的朋友。“交友,别国”。I#39;m not going to...actually, I#39;m just going to write a shortened version because it doesn#39;t fit here.我不会......说实话,我就直接写个简单的形式好了,因为这里写不下。Make friends from other countries. Learn a language. What else? Challenge yourself. What else? Travel.交到来自其他国家的朋友,学习一门外语,还有......挑战自我,还有吗?旅行。Also, sometimes, expense might be a factor.还有,有时候费用也许也是个要素。Now, university is really, really expensive in the UK, so it may be an advantage to go study in a different country where it#39;s a bit cheaper. So potentially, it could be cost.在英国读大学的学费非常非常贵,所以在一个学费稍微便宜一点的国家学习的话就有好处了。所以,费用可能也是个好处。What are the disadvantages, then?那么,有什么坏处呢?You might get homesick. You might miss your parents, or you might miss your dog or something. You get homesick.你们也许会想家,会想念你们的父母,或者什么的。坏处是会想家。You know, it might actually be more expensive for you. If you go to -- if you move to a country where university is really expensive. So it could be expensive.还有,如果你们去的那个国家,大学学费非常贵的话,你们实际上可能会花更多钱。所以坏处是可能会很贵。Um...maybe learning a language is a disadvantage for some people because your grades might not be as good.也许学习一门外语对一些人来说也是个坏处,因为这样你们的成绩可能就没那么好了。So...we could put in the language barrier, there.我们可以把语言障碍写在这里。So this is a really quick plan for when you#39;re writing a discursive essay like this.Really helps, especially if it#39;s about advantages and disadvantages.当你们写像这样的议论文的时候,这就是很快地列了一个大纲。这个真的很有用的,尤其是写讨论利弊的文章的时候。You#39;ve got them all down here. So when you#39;re writing the essay, you can just take any one of those.我们已经把要点都写下来了,所以写作文的时候只要从这里面挑几个出来就行了。It#39;s not important to have, like, highly original ideas. You don#39;t have to think of something really amazing, it#39;s just an IELTS essay or similar.写不出来特别新颖的观点也没关系,你们不需要想出特别惊人的观点,这只是个雅思考试或者其他考试的作文。So here#39;s the basic plan, and here is the simple structure to follow.这个是基本的大纲,而这是个可以使用的简单结构。We#39;re going to use a set phrase. Then, we#39;re going to elaborate on that. That means say it a little bit more.我们会先用一个固定词组,然后在此基础上详细叙述,也就是多写一点东西的意思。Then, we#39;re going to do a sentence with ;however; where we show a complicating factor or something that, maybe,接着再用; however;(但是)来起一个句子,以阐述一个相反的因素,或者......shows that what we#39;re talking about we#39;re not so clear about.表明我们对所讨论的事情并不是特别清楚。And then, as an optional sentence, you can share your experience. And this can be altogether one paragraph.然后再选择性地写一个句子来描述我们的经历。以上这些就可以一起凑成一段了。You finish that. Then, you do the same thing, but you pick a different point, either an advantage or a disadvantage.这一段结束之后,我们还是要按照同样的步骤写下去,不过要选择一个新的观点,要么写一个好处,要么写一个坏处。So let#39;s have a look at the set phrases. You can just learn these set phrases to use in your essays.那么我们来看一些固定词组吧。你们可以把这些词组背下来,用到自己的作文里去。;One of the reasons;... well, obviously, it won#39;t be about studying abroad. You just change it to fit your question.;One of the reasons;(......的原因之一),当然啦,考试不会是关于出国留学的题目,所以你们要根据题目来把内容换掉。;One of the reasons to study abroad...; ;The main advantage of studying abroad...; ;A good reason to study in a foreign country is...;;One of the reasons to study abroad...;(出国留学的原因之一......),;The main advantage of studying abroad...;(出国留学的主要好处......),;A good reason to study in a foreign country is...; (去国外读书的一个重要原因是......)。So we just take one of the pros because these are all positive statements.因为这些都是肯定的表达,所以我们每个词组拿一个好处来举例。;One of the reasons to study abroad is so you can make friends with people from other countries.;“出国留学的原因之一是,这样就可以和来自其他国家的人交朋友了。”;The main advantage of studying abroad is to challenge yourself.;“出国留学的主要好处是可以挑战自我。”;A good reason to study in a foreign country is to learn a foreign language.;“去国外读书的一个重要原因是可以学到一门外语。”Okay? Then, you#39;ve got the first part of your introduction written.看懂了吗?这样我们就把引论的第一部分写好了。Then, you go on to elaborate, say a little bit more about it. This bit is more general.然后,我们就要开始详述,把这一段的内容展开讨论一下。这一点更笼统。So let#39;s imagine we#39;re writing this point about making friends.假设我们正在写交朋友这个观点。;When one studies in a foreign country, it is possible to make friends from different countries, which can be interesting.;“一个人在外国学习的时候,可能会交到来自不同国家的朋友,这非常有趣。”Okay. Let#39;s talk about this a little bit, because again, it#39;s not the world#39;s most highly original sentence, but for the IELTS, it#39;s good.我们来仔细讲一讲这句话,再说一次,这不是世界上最新颖的句子,但用在雅思考试中足够了。You#39;re making a -- you#39;re still talking generally, and you#39;re elaborating on your point.这里我们还是在笼统地叙述,详细描述我们的观点。When you write like this, you keep your sentences quite short and controlled, and that means you don#39;t lose control of them.按照这种方法写作的话,我们就能控制好句子,并保持它的简洁,也就是说可以避免跑题。Why am I saying ;one; here? In just normal speech, I would say ;when you study in a foreign country;.我在这个句子中为什么要用“一个人”做主语呢?在一般的对话中,我可能会说“你在外国学习的时候”。But essays are more formal, so that#39;s why I#39;ve written ;one; there for the general ;you;.但是,写作用词要更加正式,所以我就用“一个人”来泛指“你”了。;When one studies in a foreign country, it is possible to make friends from different countries.; Okay. We still haven#39;t said that much.“一个人在外国学习的时候,可能会交到来自不同国家的朋友。”到这里为止,我们给出的信息还是不多。But now, we can do a relative clause using ;which;. You can always use ;which; after a comma.不过接下来我们可以用“ which” 来写一个关系从句,你们可以经常在逗号后面用“ which”引导从句。And, you know, I#39;m not saying anything amazing here. ;Which can be interesting.; I#39;m just using a relative clause in a grammatically correct way.另外,我不会写个很了不得的从句。我只是在确保语法正确的情况下,随便用了一个关系从句——“这非常有趣。”I mean, you could be more original. ;When one studies in a foreign country, it is possible to make friends from different countries,当然了,你们也可以写个更新颖的句子,比如“一个人在国外学习的时候,可能会交到来自不同国家的朋友,which can be highly fulfilling on a personal and deep, inspiring level.;这在他内心深处可能是件非常高兴、令人振奋的事情。”But you don#39;t need to write that. Moving on.这只是我随便举的例子,你们不用记下来。我们继续。Now, you can show the opposite side of the coin, the complicating factor. You can say ;however;.现在,我们要写相反的观点,这个时候就可以用上; however;(但是)这个词了。So what are the disadvantages here? So you can take one of the -- see what you write the plan for? You can just take one of these.那么都有什么坏处呢?我们可以从写的大纲里挑一些出来,直接从里面选一个。;However, it may be difficult to make friends due to the language barrier.;“但是,由于语言障碍,想要交到朋友也许会很困难。”When you#39;re writing this kind of essay, you can just say things. You don#39;t have to believe that it#39;s true.你们在写这类作文的时候,可以直接阐述事情,并不需要相信它是对的。It#39;s okay to write something that#39;s not necessarily your opinion. Some people find that really hard to do.写的观点不是你自己的也没关系。有些人觉得做到这一点特别难。It#39;s like, ;I don#39;t really think that.; Just...it#39;s okay in this kind of essay.他们会说:“我真的不是这么认为的。”但是......在这类作文中,你是不是这么认为的真的不要紧。And then, the optional part, you maybe want to make your paragraph slightly longer.接下来在选择性的部分,我们也许需要把这一段写得稍微长一点。Or maybe you#39;ve aly written two or three short paragraphs, so this one, you can vary the length and make it a little bit different by sharing your experience.或者,也许我们之前已经写了两到三段比较简短的段落了,所以在这一段,我们可以把长度变化一下,通过分享我们的个人经历来把它写得与众不同一点。And that#39;s a good thing to do in an IELTS exam anyway.在雅思考试中加入一些个人经历是个很好的方法。So you can use one of these set phrases. ;In my opinion;, ;in my experience;, ;in my view;.我们可以用这其中的一个固定词组,比如 ;In my opinion;(我认为)、;in my experience;(从我的经历来说)和;in my view;(我觉得)。I...For me, it would be quite easy to say ;in my experience;, okay? Related to what we#39;ve aly talked about.鉴于我之前说过的事情,我用;in my experience;(从我的经历来说)会更简单。;In my experience, it is not difficult to make friends when attending university in a foreign country because everybody is very open to meeting new people.;“从我的经历来说,在国外上大学的时候要交到朋友并不困难,因为大家都很愿意认识新朋友。”And there, that brings it to a close. Put that all together, and you#39;ve got a paragraph.这一句可以作为结尾,然后把以上的句子凑在一起就又写出一段了。Now, what do you need to do? You need to do the same thing three more times, and then you should have enough. And then, you get to the conclusion.我们还需要做什么呢?我们还需要按照同样的方法再写三段,这应该足够了,然后我们就可以写结论了。So if you follow this pattern, you#39;ll be okay when you do your IELTS exam or CAE or similar discursive essay.如果你们按照这个模板写作文的话,在参加雅思考试、CAE考试或者写类似的议论文的时候,就没什么问题了。So what I#39;d like you to do now is go to do the quiz on the website.现在我想让你们去网站上做个小测验。Do the quiz. Take this lesson a little bit further. Plus, I would like you to subscribe here on my EngVid channel.把测验做完,巩固一下这节课的内容。另外,我还希望你们能够订阅我的EngVid频道。I would also like you to subscribe on my personal channel as well, where there#39;s more stuff for you to improve your English and your communication.你们也可以订阅我的个人频道,那里有更多能够帮助你们提高英语和沟通能力的资料。And...yes, that#39;s everything, isn#39;t it?还有......嗯,这就是全部内容了。 Article/201706/515761But Currie felt he had an answer to this. These tyrannosaurs were rare dinosaurs.不过Currie觉得他能解释这个问题。这些暴龙是比较稀少的恐龙They would have made up only five per cent of the animal life in this area.它们只占到了这片地区动物数量的5%The chances that 12 unrelated tyrannosaurs died separately and were washed together to this spot were minute.12只暴龙分别死去,然后又被洪水冲到一起的几率微乎其微To find 12 tyrannosaurs by chance, at this level, in this bone bed.12只暴龙碰巧一起被埋在这个地层、这个化石场中The chances of that happening are about one in 64 million.这种事件的发生几率只有1/64000000It really isn#39;t very likely that it#39;s going to happen by chance.所以这种事几乎不可能碰巧发生But there could be an even more dramatic reason why the bones of Currie#39;s tyrannosaurs were all in one place.不过还有一种更戏剧性的解释能说明Currie发现的暴龙骨骼为何会被埋在同一个地方They could all have been caught in a predator trap. This is a predator trap.它们可能一起落入了掠食动物陷阱。这就是掠食动物陷阱In this strange swamp-like place, molten tar has bubbled up from deep within the Earth for tens of thousands of years.在这片沼泽般的诡异地带,熔化的焦油数万年来不断从地底深处喷涌而出The sticky tar is lethal to any animal that wanders into it.粘稠的焦油对于任何失足的动物来说都是致命的Within seconds, the creature will become stuck, and then its fate is sealed.几秒钟内,动物可能就被吞没,它的命运也随之封存Predator traps have been found all around the world. This one is in downtown Los Angeles.掠食动物陷阱遍布全世界各地。这个位于洛杉矶市区内 Article/201612/483472栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201607/452908

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栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201607/451740

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