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2019年11月15日 19:36:48    日报  参与评论()人

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嘉兴曙光整形美容医院打botox怎么样A lot of “weird stuff” happens while driving, says Stanford University professor Chris Gerdes. His assertion goes to the heart of one of the problems associated with driverless cars. How can we expect a robot to deal with all the eventualities humans encounter on the road — whether unpredictable pedestrians, rogue traffic cones, or even dead plants blowing in the wind?斯坦福大学(Standford University)教授克里斯格迪斯(Chris Gerdes)表示,开车的时候会发生许多“奇奇怪怪的事”。他的说法触及了与无人驾驶汽车有关的一个问题的核心。我们怎么能够期望机器人处理人类在路上会遭遇的所有突发事件——无论是无法预测的行人、胡乱摆放的交通锥,还是随风乱舞的枯死树枝?And what about so-called “algorithms of death”: can robots be trusted to choose the least bad outcome in the event of an unavoidable crash?还有就是所谓的“死亡算法”:面临不可避免的碰撞,我们能信任机器人选择最不坏的结果么?Autonomous cars are not only pushing a century-old industry to the forefront of innovation. They are also forcing us to face crucial questions about how much control we are willing to hand over to machines.自动汽车不仅把一个百年历史的产业推上了创新的前沿。它们还迫使我们面对至关重要的问题:我们愿意把多大的控制权交给机器?Cars that drive themselves may fundamentally reshape the way we view devices — from things that work or fail to a more nuanced picture of machines that can reason but also make mistakes.能够自动驾驶的汽车,也许会从根本上改变我们对设备的看法——从要么工作要么坏掉的东西,变成一种更细腻的情景:能推理也会犯错的机器。“I don’t think we’ve seen a technology quite like this that mirrors what humans do in such an open-ended task,” says Prof Gerdes, director of Stanford’s automotive research laboratory. “It really is a place where we have a robot doing something which, up to this point, has been exclusively human.”When it comes to automated transport, the ethical questions are high stakes and fiendishly complicated.格迪斯教授是斯坦福大学汽车研究实验室的主任,他说:“我认为我们还没有见过类似这样的技术,重现人类在这种开放式任务中的所作所为。真的是让机器人做某种目前完全由人类做的事。”就自动化交通运输而言,伦理问题既事关重大,也极为复杂。Established manufacturers including Daimler and BMW, as well as tech upstarts such as Tesla and Google, are known to have engaged experts such as Prof Gerdes to discuss ethical questions. Others, such as Fiat Chrysler, say they have engineers “exploring” the implications of autonomous driving.戴姆勒(Daimler)和宝马(BMW)等老牌制造商,以及特斯拉(Tesla)和谷歌(Google)等高科技新贵,据悉都已请了格迪斯教授这样的专家探讨伦理问题。而菲亚特-克莱斯勒(Fiat Chrysler)等其他厂商表示,他们的工程技术人员在“探索”自动驾驶的潜在影响。General Motors says “an autonomous system for production is not close enough today to have answers to these questions, or even to know all the questions”. But Nissan, the Japanese group that with partner Renault is the world’s fourth-largest carmaker, has gone further, appointing a researcher at its Silicon Valley office dedicated to looking at these ethical issues. Melissa Cefkin, an anthropologist, is researching the interaction between autonomously driven vehicles and pedestrians and cyclists.通用汽车(General Motors)表示:“当今生产的自动系统远远不足以掌握这些问题的,甚至还不了解所有问题。”不过,日产(Nissan)——与它的合作伙伴雷诺(Renault)合起来是全球第四大汽车制造商——走得比较远,这家日资企业在其硅谷分公司任命了一名专职研究这些伦理问题的研究人员。人类学家梅利莎嬠夫金(Melissa Cefkin)正在研究自动驾驶汽车与行人和骑自行车的人之间的互动。One layer of ethical questions for driverless cars involves scenarios and thought experiments. Daniel Hirsch, an automotive expert at PA Consulting, poses one: “A child runs on the street and the car has only two options — killing the child or killing the old, cancer-suffering driver.” The “correct” response to this situation in one country or culture might be different in another. It might even be illegal — both German and Swiss law say human lives cannot be weighed against one another.无人驾驶汽车伦理问题的一个层面涉及不同情景和思想实验。安咨询(PA Consulting)汽车专家丹尼尔欠希(Daniel Hirsch)提出了一个情景:“一个孩子在街上跑动,汽车只有两个选项:撞死这名儿童,或者使车上的老年癌症患者丧生。”对这个情景,某一国家或文化的“正确”回答在另一个国家或文化也许会不同。这个问题本身可能是非法的——德国和瑞士的法律都规定,不能比较人命孰轻孰重。And what about the position of big business, such as insurers? “There’s a significant number of these cases in which the insurance company would decide differently — for instance, to them a handicapped child is more expensive than a handicapped elderly person due to remaining lifespan,” says Mr Hirsch.那么,保险公司等大企业的立场又如何?赫希表示:“在许多此类案例中,保险公司会做出不同决定——比如,由于剩余的生命期不同,对它们来说残障儿童比残障的老年人更昂贵。”While fully driverless cars remain some years away, highly automated cars with sophisticated crash-prevention technology are on the road today.Toyota wants to build cars that cannot be responsible for a crash, but most modern vehicles have some sort of active safety features. Such considerations are making carmakers take ethical questions seriously.尽管完全无人驾驶的汽车仍是多年以后的事,但是具备先进防撞技术的高度自动化汽车如今已上路行驶。丰田(Toyota)希望打造不可能为车祸负责的汽车,然而多数现代汽车都有某种主动安全功能。这方面的考虑令汽车制造商认真考虑伦理问题。“There is an increasing awareness across all automakers that they have to deal with the psychological issues of these vehicles,” says Hans-Werner Kaas, senior partner at McKinsey, a consultancy. “They’re beefing up their skillset.”咨询公司麦肯锡(McKinsey)高级合伙人汉斯-维尔纳愠斯(Hans-Werner Kaas)表示:“在所有汽车制造商中,越来越多的制造商认识到,它们必须处理与这些汽车有关的心理问题。它们正在充实各自的技能。”These moves underline that the industry is hypersensitive to safety following a series of high-profile recalls of millions of vehicles, meaning the race to adopt new technologies must be approached with caution.这些举措凸显出,在涉及数百万辆汽车的一系列备受关注的召回后——这些事件意味着必须谨慎处理对新技术的竞相采用——汽车业对安全问题极为敏感。Volvo, which has built its brand around safety, typifies that approach. Erik Coelingh, a senior technical leader for safety at the Swedish carmaker, says: “In practice, we have to make sure a car never gets into a situation where it has to make an impossible choice.”围绕安全性打造其品牌的沃尔沃(Volvo)是这一方式的典型。埃里克克林(Erik Coelingh)是这家瑞典汽车制造商主管安全的资深技术主管,他说:“在实践中,我们必须确保汽车永远不会陷入必须做出不可能选择的境地。”That means driving conservatively and observing traffic rules. To underscore the point, Volvo said in October it would accept full civil liability for accidents caused by its self-driving technology. But that is not the same as saying drivers can enter what one BMW executive calls “brain off” mode.这就意味着要保守地驾驶汽车并遵守交通规则。为强调这一点,去年10月沃尔沃表示,将为其自动驾驶技术导致的事故承担全部民事赔偿责任。不过,这与说驾驶员可以进入宝马一名高管所称的“大脑关闭”状态并不是一回事。Facing the full ethical dilemma of autonomous cars is still some years away. California — one of the most forward-looking transport regulators — last month adopted draft rules that would require humans to stay in control of a vehicle at all times, as is written in the Vienna Convention observed by many European countries.人类要到好几年后才会面对自动汽车的全部道德困境。上月,最具前瞻性的交通监管机构之一加利福尼亚州通过了要求人类全程控制汽车的规则草案——就像许多欧洲国家遵守的《维也纳公约》(Vienna Convention)那样。This means fully driverless cars would be “initially excluded from deployment” in California.这意味着完全无人驾驶的汽车最初将不会在加州上路。“We as a society have to decide whether we’re y for a machine, with no driver intervention, to decide what should happen in a critical situation,” says Ian Robertson, BMW’s board member for sales and marketing. “And I’m not sure that we are yet y for that.”宝马主管销售和市场营销的董事会成员伊恩圠伯逊(Ian Robertson)表示:“作为一个社会,我们必须决定我们是否准备让机器在没有驾驶员干预的情况下,在危急关头决定该怎么做。我不肯定我们已做好准备。” /201602/424117平湖市红十字会医院修眉多少钱 嘉兴蓝光去痘效果

嘉兴隆鼻哪种好Another week, another wave of cyber alarm in America. On Wednesday both the New York Stock Exchange and ed Airlines suspended activity for several hours due to mysterious computing problems, while the Wall Street Journal’s website briefly went down. All three insisted that the outages reflected technical hitches, not malicious attack. But many are anxious after past assaults on mighty American companies and agencies.上周,美国拉响了又一波网络警报。上周三,纽约交所(NYSE)和美国联合航空(ed Airlines)都因为神秘的计算机故障暂停运转数小时,《华尔街日报》(WSJ)网站也短暂出现无法打开的问题。以上三家机构都坚称,务中断是因为技术故障,而非恶意攻击。但此前一些强大的美国企业和机构遭受的攻击让许多人对此感到焦虑。In February Anthem, an insurance company, revealed that cyber hackers had stolen information on 80m customers. The Washington-based Office of Personnel Management said cyber hackers had taken data on millions of federal employees. Companies ranging from retailers to banks have been attacked, too.今年2月,保险公司Anthem披露,网络黑客窃取了其8000万名客户的信息。位于华盛顿的美国人事(Office of Personnel Management)表示,网络黑客窃取了数百万联邦雇员的资料。从零售商到等各类企业也遭到了网络攻击。On Wednesday — just as the NYSE was frozen — Cambridge university and Lloyds insurance group released a report suggesting that if a cyber assault breached America’s electrical grid, this could create tn dollars of damage. A few minutes later, James Comey, the FBI director, told Congress that it is struggling to crack encryption tools used by jihadis. In May, Mr Comey said Islamic terrorists were “waking up” to the idea of using malware to attack critical infrastructure. It is scary stuff.上周三,就在纽交所因故障暂停交易的时候,剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)和保险集团劳合社(Lloyd#39;s)发布了一篇报告,称如果有一次网络攻击突破了美国的电网,将给美国带来1万亿美元的损失。几分钟后,美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯#8226;科米(James Comey)告诉国会,FBI很难破解圣战分子使用的加密工具。科米在5月份表示,伊斯兰恐怖分子使用恶意软件攻击关键基础设施的意识“正在觉醒”。真是可怕的事情。The key issue that investors, politicians and voters need to ponder is not simply who might be the next target, but whether Washington has the right system in place to handle these attacks. The answer is almost certainly No.关键问题是,投资者、政界人士和选民不仅需要考虑谁可能会是下一个目标,还需要考虑华盛顿是否已部署好能够应对这些攻击的合适机制。几乎毫无疑问是否定的。On paper, there is no shortage of resources; earlier this year, for example, President Barack Obama earmarked bn for the cyber fight. But the key problem now is not so much a lack of cash — but co-ordination: as fear sps, a bewildering alphabet soup of different agencies and task forces is leaping into cyber battle, often with little collaboration. The institution that is supposed to be in charge of security threats is the Department of Homeland Security. But its skills are viewed with scepticism by military officials. The Pentagon has its own cyber warriors, as do America’s intelligence agencies.名义上,资源并不短缺;比如,今年早些时候,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)指定了140亿美元作为为网络战专项资金。但现在的关键问题,与其说是缺乏资金,不如说是缺乏协作;随着恐惧扩散开来,让人眼花缭乱的众多不同机构和特别行动组纷纷投身网络战,而它们往往很少相互协作。理论上负责应对安全威胁的应是美国国土安全部(Department of Homeland Security)。但军方官员对国土安全部的技能持怀疑看法。五角大楼(Pentagon)有自己的网络战士,美国的情报机构也是如此。The White House has tried to force these bodies to work together. Separately, civilian agencies such as Nuclear Regulatory Commission started holding discreet meetings with each other last autumn on cyber issues too. But collaboration across sectors is patchy. “The level of iness in different agencies varies enormously,” admits a senior Washington figure at the centre of these efforts. Add in private sector bodies and the picture is even worse: not only is the Pentagon wary of sharing data with, say, the Chamber of Commerce, but companies are often terrified of revealing attacks to each other.白宫试图迫使这些机构合作。去年秋天,美国核管理委员会(NRC)等非军事机构之间已经开始低调地就网络攻击问题举行会议。但跨部门之间的协作情况参差不齐。“不同机构的意愿相差极大,”一名主持加强协作努力的华盛顿高级官员承认。如果再算上私营部门实体,情况就显得更糟了:不仅五角大楼对于与美国商会(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)分享数据保持警惕,企业之间通常也害怕互相透露受到网络攻击的情况。Is there a solution? One sensible response might be to create a new agency to provide a central focus for the cyber fight. There is precedent for that; most Washington regulators emerged in response to a new threat. The Securities and Exchange Commission, for example, was created after the 1929 stock market crash; the Food and Drug Administration appeared after scandals over dangerous medicines. A second option might be to relaunch the DHS to focus on the cyber fight. It could, for example, be named the Department of Cyber and Homeland Security.有解决方法吗?一种合理回应可能是成立一个重点应对网络战的新机构。这是有先例的:大多数华盛顿监管机构最初都是为了应对一种新威胁而成立的。 比如,美国交会(SEC)是在1929年股市崩盘后成立的;美国食品药品监督(FDA)是在曝出危险药品丑闻后成立的。第二个选项可能是将国土安全部改头换面,专注于网络战。比如,国土安全部可以被重新命名为网络和国土安全部。Either way, Washington needs to answer the question that Henry Kissinger once posed in relation to Europe: in a crisis: “Who do I call?” Some countries have found ways: Australia has impressive levels of co-ordination between the public and private sector over cyber defences. But as the sense of tribalism builds in Washington, the sad truth is that it may take something — like a really big crisis — before anyone can bang bureaucratic heads together in an effective way. Better just hope that this “something” will not be too devastating; such as a real attack on the transport sector and markets.无论采取哪种方式,华盛顿都需要回答亨利#8226;基辛格(Henry Kissinger)曾经对欧洲提出的那个问题:危急时刻,“我该打给谁”?一些国家已经找到了方法:澳大利亚的公共和私营部门在网络防御方面的协作程度令人印象深刻。但由于华盛顿内部的部落主义思想,令人悲哀的真相是,美国或许需要经历一些事情——比如一场真正严重的危机——才会有人将官僚体系的头头脑脑有效地联合起来。我们最好还是希望这件“事情”不会太具毁灭性;比如一次针对交通部门和市场的真正攻击。 /201507/385714 浙江省荣军医院激光去痣多少钱海宁市光子脱毛多少钱

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