荥阳市激光去痘坑多少钱知道时讯

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 荥阳市激光去痘坑多少钱健康新闻
阅读提示:对照英文在下。5. 谷歌母公司Alphabet联合创始人兼总裁谢尔盖·布林(Sergey Brin)谷歌创始人谢尔盖·布林(Sergey Brin)出任谷歌母公司Alphabet总裁一职,身价380亿美元。Brin was the president of Alphabet, a Google subsidiary ofa new holding company. Today Brin have personal fortunes of billion. /201512/413284

I first met Eva Chow — encountered would actually be a better term — in 2013 in the courtyard of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. It was the museum’s third Art amp; Film Gala, and Mrs. Chow, a host with Leonardo DiCaprio, was working the room like a piranha in a goldfish bowl. Air kisses with Fran-Henri Pinault. Chitchat with Jane Fonda. An excited wave to Ed Ruscha.我第一次见到艾娃·周(Eva Chow)――“邂逅”可能是更好的词儿――是在2013年洛杉矶郡艺术馆的院子里。那是物馆的第三次艺术与电影盛典(Art amp; Film Gala)。周女士在屋子里走来走去,就像食人鱼在金鱼缸里游泳。她和莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥(Leonardo DiCaprio)一起担任活动的主持。她向弗朗索瓦-昂利·皮诺(Fran-Henri Pinault)抛去飞吻,与简·方达(Jane Fonda)闲聊,兴奋地向埃德·拉斯查(Ed Ruscha)挥手。After elbowing to her jet-embroidered side (she was wearing a black column gown, custom made by Gucci), I reached out to shake her hand and introduce myself. Instead of grasping it, the cultural queen handed me a Champagne flute. “Could you hold this for a minute?” she said, before I got a word out. Photographers descended.她穿着古驰定制的黑色直身长裙,我碰了碰她刺绣着墨玉的衣襟,向她伸出手,做了自我介绍。这位文化女王并没握住我的手,只是递给我一只香槟杯。“你能帮我拿一下吗?”不等我开口,她就说。这时摄影师们涌上来了。Flash! Pop! And then she was gone.闪光灯!快门!然后她就走了。For the last 23 years, Mrs. Chow — first name pronounced Aay-vah, obviously — has been largely defined by her marriage to Michael Chow, the celebrity restaurateur. She gave up a successful fashion line, Eva Chun, in 1994 to be a mother. Yes, she has played a crucial role in keeping the Mr. Chow chain humming. But mostly her husband has basked in the spotlight while she has played the supporting part.在过去的23年里,周女士一直都因为同餐饮大亨周英华(Michael Chow)的婚姻而为人所知,1994年,她为了生育,放弃了自己成功的时装品牌Eva Chun。是的,周英华的连锁餐厅能够兴旺发达,她也功不可没。但当她的丈夫沐浴在聚光灯下之时,她还是更多扮演他身边的配角。That seems to be changing. With the bespectacled Mr. Chow approaching 77 and concentrating on making art, Mrs. Chow, who is in her late 50s, has increased her focus on their business, particularly when it comes to growth. A sixth location opened in Malibu, Calif., in 2012. Las Vegas and Mexico City are next. Last month, she oversaw the introduction of an exclusive Mr. Chow-branded wine.这种局面现在似乎有了变化。戴眼镜的周先生已经年届77岁,目前专注于艺术,周女士还不到60岁,开始更加专注于操持他们有增无减的生意。2012年,他们在加利福尼亚州马里布海滩开了第六家店。接下来是和墨西哥城的分店。上个月,她监督指导了一款周先生独家品牌红酒的推广。“I have to do more,” Mrs. Chow said over tea at her mansion here two weeks ago. “Michael paints day and night, and I mean day and night obsessively.”“我得做更多事情,”两星期前,周女士在自家宅邸中边喝茶边说。“迈克尔(周英华)没日没夜的画画,真的是没日没夜着迷的画。”Mrs. Chow has also become perhaps the most high-profile member of the board of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, no small feat considering that the 53-member board includes the likes of Elaine Wynn, Casey Wasserman and Lynda Resnick. Starting in 2011, Mrs. Chow began a new effort to raise money for film-related programming. Her resulting Art amp; Film Gala, sponsored by Gucci and held next on Nov. 7, has since been deemed a West Coast version of Anna Wintour’s Met Gala.周女士或许是洛杉矶郡艺术馆的董事会中最有名的成员。这是不小的壮举,这个53人组成的委员会包括了伊莲·韦恩(Elaine Wynn)、凯西·瓦瑟曼(Casey Wasserman)和琳达·莱斯尼克(Lynda Resnick)等人。2011年起,周女士为了给和电影有关的项目筹款,开始了一场新运动,其成果就是电影与艺术盛典,由古驰赞助,下一次活动将在11月7日举行,它被视为安娜·温图尔(Anna Wintour)大都艺术物馆慈善舞会的西海岸翻版。While some prominent Angelenos grit their teeth over Mrs. Chow’s subtly unsubtle style (one cited an article that called her “a formidable perfumed steamroller of a woman”), even the unconverted concede that she probably reigns as the city’s top hostess. Last year, she regaled President Obama and Kanye West — at the same time — in the family’s Macassar-ebony-lined library. “She throws the most glamorous parties in all of L.A.,” Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin, the fashion photographers, wrote in an email.有些著名的洛杉矶人抨击周女士这种巧妙露骨的风格(一篇文章说她是“喷着咄咄逼人的香水,犹如蒸汽轧路机的女人”),但是,就连不喜欢她的人也同意,她或许是这个城市最顶尖的女主人。去年,她在家中装点着孟加锡黑檀的图书室里招待了奥巴马总统和坎耶·韦斯特(Kanye West)——而且是同时。“她主办全洛杉矶最豪华的派对,”时尚摄影师伊内·范·兰姆斯维尔德(Inez van Lamsweerde)和维诺德·马塔丁(Vinoodh Matadin)在电子邮件中写道。With her stature rising and the next Art amp; Film Gala on the horizon, I wanted to know more about this apparent goddess. So the Los Angeles County Museum of Art helped arrange an afternoon interview for mid-October. (“You’ll love her,” Michael Govan, the museum’s director, told me. “Just don’t go too early. She likes to sleep late.”) The venue would be her 11,600-square-foot Holmby Hills estate, the one modeled after the Reina Sofía museum in Madrid.随着她的形象日益醒目,而下一届电影与艺术盛典又近在眼前,我就更想了解这位女神的更多事情。于是洛杉矶郡艺术馆就帮我在10月中旬的一个下午安排了采访。“你会爱上她的,”馆长迈克尔·戈文(Michael Govan)对我说,“别去得太早,她晚睡晚起。”地点是在她位于荷尔贝山占地11600平方英尺的家中,它是按照马德里的索菲亚王后物馆为模板修建的。When I arrived, the white gates swung open and an attendant in a business suit directed my oh-so-chic Chevy Malibu into the curved driveway. Before I was barely out of the car, Mrs. Chow — whom Mr. Ruscha described in an email as “a lovely, forward-motion machine” — flung open her front door and greeted me with a big smile and an offer of Champagne. It was 2:30 p.m.我到达的时候,白色的大门开着,一个身穿商务西装的助理指挥我,把我时髦的雪佛兰马里布车子开进曲里拐弯的车道。还没等我下车,周女士——拉斯查先生在电子邮件中说她是“可爱的,一直向前冲的机器”——就猛地打开了宅邸的前门,脸上带着大大的微笑迎接我,还请我喝香槟。此时是下午两点半。“I love to have a glass or two of Champagne in the afternoon,” she said.“我喜欢下午来一两杯香槟,”她说。With her spunky Pomeranian, Baby Chow, capering about her feet, Mrs. Chow walked us through the entry hall, where paintings by Julian Schnabel and Damien Hirst are hung. We passed that fancy library. (“This is where we entertained the president,” she said, with a casual wave.) And we emerged in what she called “gold room” — gold-paneled walls, a gold folding screen, gold Jean Dunand baubles.她的美犬名叫“周宝宝”,精神十足,围绕在她身边。她带我们走过前厅,这里挂着朱利安·施纳贝尔(Julian Schnabel)和达米安·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)的油画。接下来我们穿过那个漂亮的图书室。“我们就是在这儿接待总统的,”她随意挥着手说。然后我们又走进她所谓的“金屋”,墙壁上镶着金质面板,有一扇金屏风,还有让·杜南(Jean Dunand)的金质饰物。“I really think that Los Angeles is having a moment,” she said as we sat down. (To her seeming disappointment, I declined the Champagne; green tea was summoned from a servant instead.) “There has always been a cool energy here, but right now we’re in a period of exciting artistic growth. More and more, all spectrum of creative people are coming together.”“我觉得洛杉矶正在经历好时光,”我们坐下来的时候,她说(令她失望的是,我不喝香槟;于是一位侍者端上了绿茶)。“这里总是有一种很酷的能量,但现在我们正经历艺术蓬勃发展的阶段,非常令人兴奋。各种层次的创意人才愈来愈集中。”As she spoke in a calm, even tone, looking me squarely in the eye and her teacup held just so, she seemed nothing like the larger-than-life creature at the gala. She was wearing a simple twin set with a full black skirt and flats. She had on very little makeup and no nail polish. Her husky laugh — huh, huh, huh — was infectious.她的口气温和镇定,手拿茶杯,凝视着我的双眼,看上去和慈善舞会上哪个传奇人物一点都不一样。她穿着简单的两件套羊毛衫,黑色长裙和平底鞋,只化淡妆,没有涂指甲油。她的笑声略带嘶哑——哈,哈,哈——却很有感染力。I asked a question that seemed to startle her: After living an opulent life for more than two decades, with friends like Al Pacino and Alber Elbaz, the Lanvin creative director, and the art dealer Larry Gagosian on speed dial, did anything truly impress her anymore?我问的问题对她来说似乎有点突兀:20多年来,过着奢华的日子,身边密友都是影星艾尔·帕西诺(Al Pacino)、浪凡(Lanvin)创意总监阿尔伯·艾尔巴茨(Alber Elbaz),以及艺术交易商拉里·高古轩(Larry Gagosian)这样的人,那么还有什么东西能够真正打动她吗?“It’s not like I get impressed once, and I’m over it, and I need something new,” she said. “I love this teacup. It impresses me. When I love something, whether things or people, I love them very deeply.”“不是说我被打动过一次以后就再也不喜欢它了,然后就去找点什么新的东西,”她说。“我喜欢这个茶杯,它就能打动我。每当我喜欢上什么东西,不管是人还是东西,我都爱的很深。”She is the third Mrs. Chow. (Or maybe even the fourth; some magazine profiles over the years have indicated that Mr. Chow was briefly married in the 1960s. Asked to clarify, he responded: “I’m not a family lawyer, nor an accountant. I don’t think it’s relevant.”) She was preceded by the model Tina Chow, who died in 1992; and, before that, Grace Coddington, who is now the creative director at Vogue.她是周英华的第三任妻子(甚至有可能是第四任,多年来,有些杂志声称周英华在20世纪60年代曾经有过一段短暂的婚姻。被要求澄清时,他答道:“我不是家庭律师,也不是会计,我觉得这无关紧要。”)她的前任包括1992年去世的名模周天娜(Tina Chow),以及目前担任《Vogue》创意总监的格蕾丝·柯丁顿(Grace Coddington)。Eva Chun, who moved to Los Angeles from Korea in 1974, after the death of her father, a banker, met her husband at a party for Gianni Versace. “I had seen him before and was very much a fan of the restaurant,” Mrs. Chow recalled. “But it was then that he asked for my phone number.”周女士原名Eva Chun,1974年从韩国移居洛杉矶,家父亲去世后,她在詹尼·范思哲(Gianni Versace)的派对上遇到了周英华。“我以前见过他,也非常喜欢他的餐厅,”周女士回忆,“但那次派对上,他要了我的电话号码。”By that time, roughly 1991 (Michael and Tina divorced in 1990), Eva was an emerging fashion star. After arriving in California unable to speak English, she took language classes at Los Angeles City College and, on a whim, auditioned for a Dino De Laurentiis movie. She didn’t get the part, but began working for De Laurentiis as an assistant, dropping out of school. By 1981, the future Mrs. Chow had become friendly with Bo Derek, who hired her as a production manager on “Tarzan, the Ape Man.”当时差不多是1991年(周英华和周天娜是1990年离婚的),艾娃那时候已经是时装界崛起的新星。刚到加利福尼亚时,她几乎不会说英语,在洛杉矶市立学院学英语,一时兴起去报名参演迪诺·德·劳伦蒂斯(Dino De Laurentiis)的电影。她没有得到那个角色,但却退学成了德·劳伦蒂斯的助手。1981年,未来的周太太与宝黛丽(Bo Derek)交上了朋友,她邀请周女士在《人猿泰山》(Tarzan,the Ape Man)中担任制片助理。“When you are thrown in the water, you learn to swim,” Mrs. Chow said.“一旦被扔下水,你就得学游泳了,”周女士说。Deciding that she was more interested in fashion than film, Mrs. Chow enrolled in Otis College of Art and Design and, while still a student and working from her apartment, sent a little collection of clothes to a buyer for Neiman Marcus. Her Eva Chun line, mostly women’s evening wear heavy on silk crepe and chiffon, was soon generating annual retail sales of .5 million. (.2 million in today’s currency.)后来周女士觉得自己对时装比对电影更感兴趣,于是来到奥蒂斯艺术与设计学院学习,当她还是学生,还在自家公寓办公的时候,就开始给尼曼(Neiman Marcus)的买手寄自己的小批时装系列了。她的品牌Eva Chun主要是丝绸绉纱和雪纺的女装晚礼,很快年零售额就达到了250万美元(约合如今的420万美元)。What has made her such a lasting match for Mr. Chow?她和周先生的婚姻何以如此持久呢?“Who the hell knows,” said Mr. Schnabel, who has known the couple since the beginning and has painted Mrs. Chow’s portrait. “They’re both very intense. Maybe it’s because they maintain their own identities but share a sensibility.”“谁知道啊,”施纳贝尔先生说,他从两人刚开始交往时就认识他们了,还给周英华画过一幅肖像。“他们都很有,或许是因为他们都保持着自己的个性,同时又能分享同一种情感。”Mr. Chow agreed. But he also pointed to what he called his wife’s “artistic foundation,” noting that she was an apprentice painter to two major Korean artists as a young girl. “Artists do magical things, and she is an artist,” he said, adding that their Asian heritage is also important. “We were both uprooted from our countries and culture, and that meant that we immediately had a lot in common.”周先生对此表示同意,但他也提到了妻子的“艺术底蕴”,他说她小时候曾经跟着两位著名韩国艺术家学画画。“艺术家做有魔力的事,她是个艺术家,”他说。他还说共同的亚洲背景也非常重要。“我们都是从我们的国家与文化当中被连根拔起的,所以一下子就有了很多共同之处。”Givenchy’s creative director, Riccardo Tisci, who said he has known Mrs. Chow for seven years, described her style as “very chic, very strong, sexy without being vulgar.” He added: “Not many women of that level have her flexibility. She can have serious conversations about fashion. And then you can do crazy stuff with her. When I’m in L.A., we go furniture shopping and drive around in the car with very loud music.”纪梵希的创意总监里卡多·提西(Riccardo Tisci)认识周女士已经七年了,他形容她的风格是“非常时髦,非常强烈,性感而不粗俗。”他补充说:“在她这种身份的女人里面,很少有人像她这样的灵活。她可以和你认真地讨论时尚,然后你还能和她一起做很疯狂的事情。我在洛杉矶的时候,和她一起去买家具,车里放着吵闹的音乐到处逛。”Mr. Schnabel, speaking by phone from Paris, said that Mrs. Chow stands out among collectors for her “succinct, big, committed opinions: why she likes something and why she doesn’t.” He added, “Her relationship with art is not a docile one. She’s very emotional about it and talks about it like an artist.”施纳贝尔先生在巴黎接受了电话采访,他说周女士在诸多收藏家中显得卓尔不群,她总能表达“简洁、宏大、坚定的意见:她为什么喜欢这个,不喜欢那个。”他说,“她和艺术的关系并不平淡。她对艺术充满感情,谈起艺术来,就像真正的艺术家。”I found that to be true. In our interview, she spoke about fashion, noting that she loves Mr. Tisci’s designs for Givenchy (“cool and feminine but slightly edgy”), for instance, and citing Azzedine Ala愀 as an all-time favorite. Her music tastes include Beethoven and Brahms as well as Pink Floyd and Amy Winehouse, she said. Favorite films include “Reservoir Dogs” and Luchino Visconti’s “Rocco and His Brothers.”我发现这是真的。在访谈中,我们谈起时尚,她喜欢提西为纪梵希设计的时装(“很酷,很女性化,但又稍微有点前卫”),她还说阿瑟丁·阿莱亚(Azzedine Ala愀 )始终是她的最爱。音乐方面,她喜欢贝多芬(Beethoven)和勃拉姆斯(Brahms),也喜欢“平克·弗洛伊德”(Pink Floyd)和艾米·怀恩豪斯(Amy Winehouse)。她最喜欢的电影包括《落水》(Reservoir Dogs)和卢奇诺·维斯康蒂(Luchino Visconti)的《洛可兄弟》(Rocco and His Brothers)。But she seemed especially happy to talk about art, even when the conversation turned to works — say, — that she does not collect.但聊起艺术的时候她显得特别开心,就算谈起她并不收藏的作品类型时也是如此——比如视频艺术。“While I understand and appreciate it very much, I’m an old-fashioned kind of person in that way,” she said. “We like furnitures, we like sculptures, we like paintings. I collect china and jewelry. But as far as fine art is concerned we are very specific.”“我非常理解,也欣赏这种艺术,不过我在这方面还是个老派人士,”她说。“我们喜欢家具、雕塑和绘画。我收藏瓷器和珠宝。但是在美术方面我们都非常具体明确。”She continued: “Art is almost like friends. You have such great friends and you don’t have enough time to spend with them. Do you really want to go and look for more friends? In some ways it’s maybe a little bit lazy of us. In some ways we are loyal and really appreciate and love the friends we have.”她继续说道:“艺术就像是朋友。你有很多好朋友,却没有足够的时间和他们相处。那么你还想去寻找更多朋友吗?在某种程度上,我们可能有点懒。在某种程度上,我们又非常忠实,而且真的热爱我们已经拥有的朋友们。”Her iPhone started to ring.这时她的iPhone手机响了起来。“That’s probably my daughter who doesn’t have time for her mother because she’s sooo busy with school,” she said, with what looked like a roll of her eyes. She swiftly sent whomever it was to voice mail. Asia Chow, 21, is a senior at Columbia University. Mrs. Chow, who has four siblings (she’s in the middle), complained that she had managed to see Asia only once during a recent three-day trip to New York.“可能是我女儿,她上学太忙,根本没时间和妈妈相处,”她说着,眼珠好像转了转,迅速把电话转到了语音信箱。她的女儿,21岁的Asia Chow是哥伦比亚大学的大四学生。周女士有四个兄弟姊(她是居中的一个),她抱怨说,最近她在纽约呆了三天,只见了Asia一面。The entire Chow family, including China and Maximillian, Mr. Chow’s children from his marriage to Tina Chow, typically turns up for the Art amp; Film Gala, the next installment of which will honor James Turrell and the “Birdman” director Alejandro G. Iárritu. Mr. DiCaprio, who did not respond to an interview request, will again be a host. Tables sell for up to 0,000; full-event individual tickets are ,000.周家还包括周英华与周天娜生的子女,周佳纳(China Chow)和马克西米兰(Maximillian),他们全家都将出席艺术与电影盛典,下一次活动的主题是詹姆士·特勒尔(James Turrell )与《鸟人》(Birdman)的导演亚历桑德罗·G·伊纳里多(Alejandro G.Iárritu)。迪卡普里奥没有接受采访,此次他还将担任主持。晚宴一桌的价钱是10万美元,整晚个人门票是一万美元。Some officials at rival Los Angeles museums blanch at what they suspect Mrs. Chow spends to put on the event — the budget is not public, but money seems to flow freely around her. (It certainly does at Mr. Chow, where steamed sea bass costs at the Beverly Hills location.) Over the last four years, the event has raised more than million, a meaningful total for the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, which has primarily used the funds to rebuild its film program.有些和洛杉矶郡艺术馆竞争的物馆机构光是猜想周女士在这项活动上的花费,就已经吓呆了——预算并未公开,但她似乎花钱如流水(在Mr.Chow餐厅确实要花钱如流水,在贝弗利山庄店,一份清蒸鲈鱼都要45美元)。过去四年里,活动筹到了1500万美元,这对于洛杉矶郡艺术馆来说意义重大,它正使用这笔款项来重建自己的电影计划。Mr. Govan, the museum’s director, said the gala’s success is largely attributable to its cross section of attendees, especially given the surprisingly fragmented way in which the Los Angeles creative class tends to socialize.物馆馆长戈文先生说,盛典的成功主要归功于参加者来自不同领域,特别是洛杉矶创意人士的社交方式的碎片化程度令人吃惊。“Eva was the one person on the board who seemed to walk easily between the film world and the art world and the fashion world and the music world,” Mr. Govan said. “I didn’t know anyone else who could do that. If we were going to have a successful film initiative, to fully recognize film as art, we had to bring the entire creative community together. And she’s done it.”“在董事会中,艾娃是那种可以轻松横跨电影界、艺术界、时尚界与音乐界的人,”戈文说。“除了她,我不知道其他人谁能做到这点。如果我们要搞一个成功的电影项目,充分把电影视为艺术,就要让整个创意群体都参与进来。她做到了。” /201511/407150

It#39;s a well-known fact that yawning is contagious and can sp around a room in a matter of seconds, but it turns out the phenomenon is more common among women.众所周知,打哈欠是会传染的,一个房间里的人陆续打哈欠,也就是几秒的事儿。更有结果明,这种传染在女性之间更为普遍。During tests, researchers found that while men and women yawn spontaneously at equal rates, women are more likely to yawn in #39;reply#39; to another person#39;s yawn.在测试过程中,研究人员发现,相同频率下,男人和女人自发地打哈欠时,女性更可能会受他人影响打哈欠。Yawning in response to someone else is a recognised sign of empathy, which suggests that women are more empathetic and attuned to others than men.回应别人的哈欠是个公认的移情标志。因此上面的结果表明,与男人相比,女性更加善解人意。The research was carried out at Pisa University in Italy.这项研究是在意大利的比萨大学进行的。Empathy is the ability to understand and share the internal emotional states of others, and previous research has aly shown that women are better at it than men.移情是理解和分享他人内心情绪状态的能力,以前的研究已经表明,女性的移情能力要比男性更强。For example, research has revealed women more often mimic the facial expressions of others, showing they are picking up on the other person#39;s state of mind.例如研究发现,女性更经常模仿别人的面部表情,这表明她们正在揣别人的心理状态。A team led by Elisabetta Palagi, set out to examine whether women are more likely to unconsciously mimic another person#39;s yawning.伊丽莎白·帕拉吉带领的团队,对女性是否“更可能无意识地模仿另一个人打哈欠”进行了研究。To test their theory, the experts secretly observed people in hundreds of work and social situations over a period of five years.为了检验他们的理论,专家们在五年时间里,秘密观察了数百名不同工作背景和社会环境的人。They particularly noted if subjects #39;returned#39; another person#39;s yawn within three minutes.他们特别注意受试者是否会在三分钟内对他人的哈欠做出回应,The authors, writing in the journal Royal Society Open Science, defined yawning scientifically as #39;an involuntary sequence of mouth opening, deep inspiration, brief apnoea stopping breathing and slow expiration#39;.研究结果发布在《皇家社会开放科学》杂志上。作者把哈欠科学地定义为“先张口,深吸气,简短的无呼吸状态呼吸暂停,然后慢慢的呼气”这样一个不由自主的过程。While they said men and women yawned spontaneously at equal rates, they discovered that once someone had yawned, female participants were more likely to yawn as well.虽然研究人员称男人和女人打哈欠的自发率相同,但他们也发现,一旦有人打了个哈欠,女性更容易跟着打哈欠。Explaining why they think women are more likely to unconsciously mimic somebody else#39;s sleepiness, the researchers said that having a close emotional bond with the #39;trigger#39; yawner – if they are friends or relations - makes a person more likely to pick up on their mood than that of a stranger.在解释为什么认为女性更可能会无意识地模仿别人的哈欠时,研究人员表示,如果你与最先打哈欠的人有亲密的情感关系——比如打哈欠的人是你的朋友或亲戚,你就会比一个陌生人更容易理解他们的心情。The rates of contagion were significantly lower between acquaintances than between friends and family members, and significantly higher in women than in men.熟人之间的接触传染率明显低于朋友与家庭成员之间的接触传染率,而女性之间的接触传染率又明显高于男性。The phenomenon has been seen in other social animals, such as chimps, dogs and wolves.在其他群居动物(如黑猩猩、和狼)身上,研究人员也看到了这种现象。 /201602/427099

5.He Mediated a Hostage Negotiation5.他曾在人质谈判中担当调解人Einstein was willing to put his pacifism and commitment to peace into action, even at the risk of his own hide. In 1914, he and three colleagues in Germany singled themselves out by daring to sign a statement protesting the then-empire#39;s militarism and involvement in World War I. The four issued the declaration in reply to the ;Manifesto to the Civilized World,; a government-sponsored document that defended Germany#39;s invasion of neutral Belgium and which nearly 100 eminent German intellectuals signed. While many of his colleagues offered the fruits of their genius to the war effort, Einstein refused.爱因斯坦是一个和平主义者,为了和平他甚至以身犯险。1914年,他和三位同事在德国大胆签署反战声明,反对军国主义,反对德国参与第一次世界大战。他们四人签署反战声明是为了表明立场,反对由德国政府发起的“文明世界的宣言”——该声明是德国为了侵略中立国比利时而进行的自我辩护,将近100位杰出的德国知识分子在上面签了字。虽然他的很多同事都将自己的科学研究成果贡献给了战争,但是爱因斯坦拒绝参与其中。The war left Germany devastated, deeply in debt and facing social upheaval. During the turmoil that followed, radical students at the University of Berlin took the rector and several professors hostage, and no one wanted to take their chances finding out how the police would resolve the standoff. Both students and professors respected Einstein, so he and Max Born, a German-born pioneer of quantum mechanics, found themselves in a position to defuse the situation, which they did. In later years, Einstein would recall with amused wonder how na#239;ve they had been for never considering that the students might have turned on them.战争让德国变得满目疮痍,负债累累,社会动荡不安。在后来的一次动乱中,几个思想激进的柏林大学学生把校长和几位教授挟持为人质,警察却用一个出乎意料的办法打破了僵局。由于爱因斯坦受到双方尊敬,因此他与量子力学奠基人,德国物理学家马克斯·玻恩一同出面平息了这次事件。多年之后,爱因斯坦仍然饶有兴趣地回忆这件事,他们从没想到会受到学生的攻击,实在太天真了。4.He Didn#39;t Win the Nobel Prize for Relativity4.相对论没有让他获得诺贝尔奖As with most scientific revolutions, Einstein#39;s breakthrough insights on special relativity in 1905 did not arise out of a vacuum. His genius lay in how he transformed previous work by scientists like Henri Poincaré and Hendrik Lorentz into a new, unified theory, one that removed the friction between Newtonian physics and James Clerk Maxwell#39;s theory of light.正如大多数科技革命一样,爱因斯坦在1905年创立狭义相对论,尽管在物理学研究上取得突破性进展,却并没有停滞不前。他把亨利·庞加莱和亨得里克·洛伦兹等前辈的研究成果发展成新的、统一的理论,这正是他的天才之处。他解决了牛顿力学与詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦提出的光学理论相冲突的问题。Published in 1916, Einstein#39;s theory of general relativity completed special relativity by bringing gravity and acceleration into the picture through the concept of warped space-time. Unfortunately, it took years to prove one of its key predictions, the lensing effect of gravity. When astronomers finally confirmed the bending of starlight during observations of a 1919 solar eclipse, it launched Einstein into overnight celebrity, but three more years would pass before the Nobel committee retroactively awarded him the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics in 1922. Einstein received the prize for ;the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.; The photoelectric effect refers to the release of electrically charged particles (ions or electrons) from (or within) a material that absorbs electromagnetic radiation (such as light). Einstein#39;s crucial work in this area resolved perplexing questions regarding the particle-wave duality of light. Nevertheless, Einstein#39;s acceptance speech focused on his work in general relativity, a problem that had occupied him for nearly a decade, and whose importance would not be fully appreciated for decades to come.1916年,爱因斯坦把重力和加速度带入弯曲时空中,创立并发表了广义相对论。遗憾的是,重力透镜效应,这一关键性假设在多年后才得以实。1919年,天文学家通过一次日食观察,终于实星光会受重力影响而弯曲,该发现让爱因斯坦一夜成名。然而,又过了三年多,在1922年,诺贝尔奖委员会才授予爱因斯坦1921年诺贝尔物理学奖。爱因斯坦因发现光电效应而获得诺贝尔奖。光电效应是指在电磁波(例如光)照射下,某物质(或内部)会发射出带电粒子(离子或电子)的物理效应。爱因斯坦在该领域的重大发现,解决了与光的波粒二象性有关的复杂问题。然而,爱因斯坦在发表获奖感言时,始终在讲有关广义相对论的研究工作,他用了将近十年才解开这项难题,可是在今后的几十年里,人们可能都无法充分认识到它的重要性。3.He Co-invented a Refrigerator3.他与别人合作发明了一种冰箱Between gas in the pipes and arsenic in the paint and wallpaper, households in the 1920s packed more than their share of deadly substances. Thus it seems appropriate that the transition from the traditional icebox (literally, an insulated wooden box with ice in it) to electrical refrigerators added to the peril by occasionally leaking volatile chemical coolants like methyl chloride, ammonia or sulfur dioxide to poison hapless homeowners.20世纪20年代,家家户户都存在很多安全隐患,比如各种管道里的气体、油漆和壁纸中所含的有毒物质——砷。由于电冰箱代替了传统冰箱(从字面可以看出,传统冰箱是一个里面放有冰块的,能够隔热的箱子),因此发生危险的可能性也随之增加。偶尔有制冷剂(氯甲烷、氨气或二氧化硫)泄露这样的意外发生,导致有人不幸中毒。One such incident in 1926 inspired Einstein to enlist the help of Hungarian physicist Léo Szilàrd in designing a new kind of appliance called an absorption refrigerator that required only ammonia, butane and water, plus a heat source for the pump. Patented in 1930, their device relied on the principle that liquids boil at lower temperatures when exposed to lower atmospheric pressures. As pressure in the pipe above the butane reservoir dropped, the butane would boil off, drawing in heat from its surroundings and lowering temperatures in the fridge. Because it had no moving parts, the appliance would last as long as its casing. Einstein and Szilàrd#39;s refrigerator lost out to more efficient competitors and to the introduction of chlorofluorocarbons, which replaced more hazardous coolants and rendered the compressor fridge safer for people, if not the ozone layer. But new technologies and growing environmental concerns have today sparked renewed interest in their approach, particularly as a means of providing refrigeration in remote and rugged areas.1926年发生了一起制冷剂中毒事件,这件事促使爱因斯坦产生研制新型冰箱的想法。在匈牙利物理学家莱奥·西拉德的帮助下,爱因斯坦发明了一种吸收式冰箱,这种冰箱只需要氨、丁烷和水,外加一个热源作为动力就可以运行。他们在1930年申请了专利,它的工作原理是:液体在低气压环境下可以低温沸腾。随着管中压力增加,丁烷容器中压力迅速降低,丁烷在低压环境下发生汽化,从而吸收周围的热量降低冰箱内温度。由于该装置没有运动部件,因此它的使用寿命和外壳一样长久。爱因斯坦和西拉德发明的冰箱很快被市场淘汰,一种新型冰箱——压缩机冰箱问世,这种冰箱用氯氟烃代替旧的制冷剂,提高了冰箱的安全性,但是存在一个致命的缺点——氯氟烃会破坏臭氧层。然而随着新技术不断涌现,加上人们越来越重视环保,爱因斯坦发明的冰箱再次受到关注,这种冰箱特别适合偏远地区。2.He Was Offered the Presidency of Israel2.他差点成为以色列总统Although Einstein made his mark primarily as a physicist, his political views have grown nearly as famous as his scientific achievements. But they were also more complex than many realize.尽管爱因斯坦是一位著名的物理学家,但是他的政治观点和他取得的科学成就一样出名,甚至比我们想象中的更为复杂。Einstein was a lifelong pacifist, except when it came to taking up defensive arms against the Nazis, who singled him out for persecution. Moreover, when he realized that scientists in Nazi Germany might be working on nuclear chain reactions with bomb potential, he wrote a letter to President Roosevelt urging that the U.S. government coordinate its own research in the area. The letter may have contributed to the formation of the Manhattan Project, to which Einstein -- much to his relief -- was not invited; the government considered him a security risk due to his many associations with peace causes and memberships in social advocacy groups like the NAACP. Nevertheless, his E mc2 equation was essential to their successful efforts in making the first atomic bombs. Einstein also helped fund the war effort by auctioning his manuscripts, and worked after the war to oppose the development of the hydrogen bomb and to control nuclear proliferation. In 1952, Israeli premier David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the presidency of the newly established state of Israel. Einstein politely turned him down, citing advancing age and stating that his lifelong focus on objective matters had left him unsuited to politics.爱因斯坦一生坚持和平主义的立场,只有在遭到纳粹迫害时,才拿起武器捍卫自己的权力。爱因斯坦发现纳粹德国的科学家可能在研制核武器,他立即给美国总统罗斯福写信,说美国政府进行相关领域的研究。这封信成为曼哈顿计划形成的助推剂,不过,因为政府考虑到他与“全国有色人种协进会”这种主张和平的社会团体有着密切联系,所以爱因斯坦并没有受到该计划邀请,这一点让他十分欣慰。尽管爱因斯坦没有参加,但是在第一颗原子弹研制成功的过程中,他推导出来的方程式:Emc#178;起到了关键作用。爱因斯坦还通过拍卖手稿来资助抗战,等战争结束后,他依然坚持和平主义立场,反对研发氢弹,持控制核扩散。1952年,以色列总理戴维·本-古里安正式提请爱因斯坦为以色列共和国总统候选人。爱因斯坦婉拒了他的请求,称自己年事已高,一生从事科学研究早已无心从政。1.His Brain and Eyes Were Stolen1.有人偷走了他的大脑和眼睛Einstein intended that his body be cremated and his ashes scattered secretly, so as to avoid the possibility of admirers making a shrine of his grave. But when pathologist Dr. Thomas Harvey walked into the Princeton morgue on April 18, 1955, all of that went out the window. Presented with the opportunity to study the brain of one of the great geniuses of the age, and without permission, authority or experience as a neuroscientist, he absconded with 2.7 pounds (1.2 kilograms) of Einstein#39;s gray matter. He also removed the deceased physicist#39;s eyeballs and gave them to Einstein#39;s eye doctor, Henry Adams. They remain in a New York City safe deposit box to this day.爱因斯坦打算死后火化,并将骨灰洒在秘密的地方,以避免仰慕者到他的墓地朝拜。但是,1955年4月18日,病理学家托马斯·哈维走进普林斯顿大学医院的停尸间,爱因斯坦的这一愿望便落空了。为了研究这位伟大天才的大脑,他擅自偷走了爱因斯坦重达2.7磅(1.2公斤)的脑灰质。他还拿走了爱因斯坦的眼球,把它们交给爱因斯坦的眼科医生——亨利·亚当斯。直到今天,这双眼球仍然保存在纽约市一家的保险箱里。A tragicomic series of road trips ensued, with Harvey storing slices and chunks of the brain in jars, first in his basement, then in a cider box squirreled away beneath a beer cooler as he relocated after losing his medical license, then in the backseat of a reporter#39;s car. He apparently intended to study the brain and determine what made it so smart, but in 43 years he never got around to it, perhaps because he moved around so much or because lacked the expertise and funding. Ultimately, he returned most of the brain to Princeton, bringing the physicist#39;s postmortem peregrination full circle.接下来发生了一连串的事,真是让人哭笑不得。最初,哈维把大脑切开,装进广口瓶中,放在他的地下室;被吊销行医执照后,他又把大脑装进苹果酒盒里,放在啤酒冷藏器的下面;再后来又藏在汽车后座。很显然,他想找出爱因斯坦聪明过人的原因,可是在43年里,他一直没能实现这个愿望。也许因为他居无定所,也许因为他缺乏专业知识和资金。最终,他带着爱因斯坦的大脑进行了一次横贯美国之旅。然后,他把大脑还给了普林斯顿大学医院。翻译:刘安琪 审阅:烟囱 来源:前十网 /201602/427649

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