原标题: 泉州口碑最好的妇产医院知道大全
Asian consumers have kept their countries#39; economies humming while exports to Europe and the U.S., long key sources of growth, have been a drag. Now there are signs consumer spending also is ticking down, which is bad news for one of the global economy#39;s few bright spots. 在对欧洲和美国的出口成为拖累经济增长的不利因素的情况下,亚洲消费者成了保持该地区各个国家经济活力的重要力量。而如今却有迹象表明,亚洲消费者出数量也在下降。对于全球经济少数亮点之一的亚洲地区来说,这是一个坏消息。长期以来,对欧美的出口是亚洲国家经济增长的重要因素。 Koreans are buying fewer cars. Chinese consumers are cutting back on new clothes. There aren#39;t as many shoppers lining up outside Louis Vuitton boutiques in Hong Kong. Bets at the baccarat tables in casinos in Macau and Singapore - a proxy for Chinese tourism and consumer spending - have grown more slowly than in the previous three years. 韩国人购置新车的数量减少,中国消费者削减了添置新衣的出。香港路易威登(Louis Vuitton)门店外排队的购物者数量没有以往那么多了。和新加坡赌桌上赌注──这是观察中国旅游业和消费出的一个窗口──的增长速度和前三年相比慢了不少。 Some economists say that in recent months, the high-performing consumer sector across much of Asia has lost its edge. Many shopkeepers and business owners say they are feeling the effects of the cautious consumer. 一些经济学家说,最近几个月,亚洲大部分地区曾经表现突出的消费业已经失去了优势。许多店主和企业主说,他们已经感到消费者谨慎消费带来的影响。 #39;The spending power is less than before,#39; said Shawkat Imran, chef and part-owner of several Italian restaurants in Hong Kong. #39;Sometimes customers come, they share food. Some who used to drink a glass of wine now order a glass of water.#39; 大厨伊姆兰(Shawkat Imran)说,顾客的消费能力不及以往了,有时顾客到店里会几个人分享一道美食,原来会点一杯葡萄酒的顾客现在只会点一杯水了。伊姆兰在香港多家意大利餐厅拥有股份。 The number of customers hasn#39;t dropped, Mr. Imran said, but they are sharing dishes and spending 20% less per bill. 伊姆兰说,顾客数量没有下降,但顾客现在经常会几个人分享一道美食,每餐消费金额降低了20%。 The shift in sentiment is subtle, and there isn#39;t yet evidence that spending has plunged as it did in Spain and Greece. But in many economies, spending growth has ebbed from high levels. Should Europe and the U.S. continue to slide and Asia#39;s trade picture get worse, Asian consumers will eventually be forced to cut back in more meaningful ways. 市场情绪的转变并不明显,目前还没有据表明亚洲地区的消费出像西班牙和希腊那样大幅下降。但亚洲很多经济体的消费出增速已经从高位下滑。如果欧洲和美国继续衰退,且亚洲的贸易前景进一步恶化,那么亚洲消费者最终将被迫大幅削减消费开。 The loss of the robust consumer - while not considered a given by most economists - would #39;represent the next leg down for Asia#39;s economies,#39; said Nigel Chalk, a former economist at the International Monetary Fund who now heads emerging-markets research at Barclays Capital in Singapore. 巴克莱资本(Barclays Capital)驻新加坡新兴市场研究负责人乔克(Nigel Chalk)说,失去强大的消费者──大多数经济学家并不认为强劲的消费是一个默认的前提条件──将成为亚洲经济体所遭受的下一个冲击。乔克曾在国际货币基金组织(IMF)任经济学家。 The Asian Development Bank figures the region, outside Japan, will slow to an annual rate of 6.6% growth this year, compared with 7.2% in 2011, its slowest pace since the 2009 financial crisis. Much of that decline is due to slowing exports. 亚洲开发(Asian Development Bank)估计今年亚洲地区(不含日本)的经济增速将降至6.6%,低于去年的7.2%,是自2009年金融危机以来的最低水平。造成经济增速放缓的主要原因是出口放缓。 Consumers in Asia have benefited from a healthy job market and rising wages. Employers are reluctant to cut positions, fearing that the current lull is just that, and not the beginning of broader recession. Despite the export slowdown, unemployment rates in trade-dependent economies such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea are near record lows. 亚洲消费者主要受益于健康的就业市场和工资水平的上升。雇主不愿意裁员,认为目前市场的暂时停滞并非更大规模经济衰退的开始。尽管出口增长放缓,但新加坡、香港、台湾和韩国等贸易依赖型经济体的失业率却接近记录低点。 #39;We aren#39;t seeing any major fallout from the broader world, but I wouldn#39;t describe it as booming either,#39; said Terry O#39;Connor, chief executive of Courts Asia, an electronics and home-furnishings retailer in Singapore and Malaysia. #39;There isn#39;t a jobs crisis here.#39; 在新加坡和马来西亚均有业务的电子产品和家装产品零售商Courts Asia的首席执行长奥康纳(Terry O#39;Connor)说,我们没有看到亚洲经济受到全球经济的重大影响,但我也不认为亚洲经济在蓬勃发展;亚洲不存在就业危机。 Nevertheless, the region#39;s employment outlook has cooled. A survey of 450 companies by Singapore recruiters Achieve Group found that two-thirds have frozen hiring for the rest of the year. Six months ago, only half the companies expected to do so. South Korea#39;s low rate of unemployment is deceptive, some economists say. Many older residents, unable to find jobs, have struck out on their own, opening food stands and markets that make little money. 尽管如此,该地区的就业前景已经变得冷清。新加坡人力资源公司Achieve Group对450家企业进行的调查发现,三分之二的企业在今年余下的时间里将不再招聘新员工。而六个月之前,只有50%的企业预计会这么做。一些经济学家说,韩国的低失业率数据具有欺骗性。许多年龄较大且找不到工作的韩国人已经开始自谋生路,比如依靠摆食品摊获得一些微薄的收入。 In China, the region#39;s largest economy, retail sales grew 13% in July compared with the year earlier. That is still strong, but slower than the 20% growth rates of the past few years. To compensate, the government has unveiled tax incentives to goose purchases of home appliances and restarted a type of #39;cash for clunkers#39; program. 该地区最大的经济体中国7月份零售额同比增长了13%。这个增长势头仍然算是强劲,但却低于过去几年里20%的增幅。为应对这一状况,中国政府在税收方面推出了刺激政策,以促进家电的销售,中国政府还重新启动了“以旧换新”项目。 #39;Relative to a couple of years ago, things are crawling#39; said Stanley Szeto, chief executive of Lever Style Inc., a Hong Kong-based maker of high-end clothes for brands such as Hugo Boss and Calvin Klein. Lever Style has 7,000 employees and factories in China and Vietnam. 雨果斯(Hugo Boss)和Calvin Klein等高端品牌的高端成衣制造商利华成衣集团(Lever Style Inc.)首席执行长司徒志仁(Stanley Szeto)说,与前几年前相比,现在的生意可以说是在爬行。 Before, the clothing manufacturer had relied almost completely on demand from Europe and the U.S., Mr. Szeto said. However, in the past few years, Greater China, including Hong Kong and Taiwan, made up for weakness from the developed world, he said. Nowadays, Chinese retailers are #39;building fewer stores or their sales growth is a little slower and they are over-inventoried,#39; Mr. Szeto said. 司徒志仁说,利华成衣最初几乎完全依靠来自欧美的需求。然而过去几年,包括香港和台湾在内的大中华区弥补了发达国家需求不足的状况。他说,如今,中国的零售商放慢了开设新店的速度,或者是销售增长略有放缓,同时还存在库存过多的问题。 In South Korea, where the economy hinges on trade, consumers are downright moribund. Department-store sales and auto sales are shrinking. Home prices are starting to fall. The government has reacted with a raft of measures to support consumers, including easier terms on home loans. There also is talk of a major stimulus package. 在经济严重依赖贸易的韩国,消费完全停滞不前。百货公司的销售和汽车销量都在缩水。房地产价格已经开始下降。政府采取了大量措施刺激消费,包括放宽对购房贷款的限制。推出一项大规模一揽子刺激方案的讨论也浮出水面。 While Korea#39;s car makers are managing to turn a profit selling Hyundais and Kias in the U.S, at home, sales are contracting. 就在韩国的汽车制造商在美国销售现代(Hyundai)汽车和起亚(Kia)汽车刚开始盈利的当口,国内销量却正在下降。 #39;Vacation season and holidays are times when we used to make good sales, but not now,#39; says Park Jong-moon, manager at a Hyundai dealership in eastern Seoul. #39;The economy is not doing well. Customers with money can buy cars and other things but, since many have bank loans and debts, they don#39;t have money to spend.#39; 位于首尔东部的一家现代汽车经销商的经理Park Jong-moon说,以往节假日期间通常是销售旺季,但现在不是了;经济不景气,有钱的消费者确实买得起汽车和其他东西,但是,由于许多人都承担着贷款和其他债务,他们没钱消费。 In 2012, his showroom has seen sales decline in five of the past seven months. In June, sales were down 7% from May. Nationwide, car sales in the first half of the year were 6% lower than in 2011, according to the Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association. 在2012年已经过去的七个月里,Park Jong-moon的店面的销量有五个月都呈下降趋势。其6月的销量环比下降了7%。韩国汽车工业协会(Korea Automobile Manufacturers Association)说,今年上半年,全国范围汽车销量同比下降了6%。 Korea#39;s central role in the global supply chain of electronics and cars makes it something of a bellwether on exports. The rest of Asia is hoping Korean consumers aren#39;t bellwethers, too. 鉴于韩国在全球电子产品和汽车供应链中的核心地位,韩国是全球出口贸易的风向标,亚洲其他国家则希望本国的消费者不会步韩国消费者之后尘。 /201208/196191

avalier Parliament is disbands1679 – King Charles II of England disbands the Cavalier Parliament.Cavalier Parliament历史上的今天-解散议会C1679年的今天,英格兰国王查尔斯二世解散议会。Holy Roman Emperor1742 – Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor.历史上的今天-神圣罗马帝国皇帝1742年的今天,查尔斯七世埃尔伯特成为神圣罗马帝国皇帝。California Gold Rush历史上的今天-加利福尼亚淘金潮1848 – California Gold Rush: James W. Marshall finds gold at Sutter's Mill near Sacramento.1848年的今天,加利福尼亚淘金潮:詹姆斯#8226;W#8226;马歇尔在萨克拉曼多的萨特磨坊附近发现金块ed States Department of Homeland Security2003 – The ed States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation.历史上的今天-美国国土安全局2003年的今天,美国国土安全局正式运作。 /201101/124238

1、悉尼大学 University of Sydney  特点:政府科研经费最多;  优势科目:法律,医学,商科  分析:亚太地区大学联盟成员之一。在校学生4.2万人,其中留学生6100人,研究性质的研究生和士3600人,占研究生总数的46%。政府研究经费连续4年全澳第一,招生最严格,其法学院,医学院是全澳洲最好的,被誉为"南半球的牛津"。 /200912/92133Drivers ogling pedestrians cause nearly one million crashes in Britain every year, new figures have shown.最新数据显示,英国每年因司机偷瞄行人而酿成的撞车事故达近百万起。Figures show distracted motorists cause an average of 2,525 crashes every day - the equivalent of 921,840 per year.该数据显示,因行人分神的司机平均每天都会造成2525起撞车事故,相当于一年会发生921840起事故。Researchers found drivers crash their cars into lampposts or shunt other vehicles more in the summer when men and women are wearing less clothing.调查者发现,司机们通常都会撞到街灯柱或在紧急避开其他车辆时撞上,在夏天人们穿着较少时,此类事故更加频发。 A study of 2,142 drivers found 60 percent of men admitted being distracted by attractive women while 12 percent of women said they took their eyes off the road to leer at good looking men.一项针对2142名司机的研究发现,60%的男性司机承认会被漂亮女性吸引目光,而12%的女性司机则表示她们的眼睛会离开路面向帅哥抛媚眼。 And 21 percent of drivers also admitted that advertising billboards featuring pictures of perfect models were also a major distraction on the road.还有21%的司机承认,有完美模特照片的广告牌也是路上的主要干扰之一。Insurance company Direct Line discovered 17 percent of male drivers admitted knowing their actions were dangerous but said they ;could not help but look;.直线保险公司发现,17%的男性司机承认他们知道自己的行为很危险,但称“会不自觉地看过去。” Spokesman Matt Owen said: ;Stealing a quick look at an attractive pedestrian or billboard model may well be a bit of fun but, on a serious note, drivers shouldn#39;t underestimate that this type of distraction is a major contributing factor in road accidents.发言人马特·欧文说:“偷瞄漂亮的行人或广告牌模特照可能的确挺有趣,但需要严重说明的是,司机不应该低估此类干扰,它是造成交通事故的主要原因之一。”;The number of crashes caused in this way have not changed year on year so drivers obviously are not learning to keep their eyes on the road.;“因为这个原因造成的撞车事故每年都是这么多,这说明司机们显然没有学会要时刻注意看路。” Between 2008 and 2009, 921,840 drivers across Britain admitted crashing because they were distracted by a member of the opposite sex.在2008年和2009年间,英国各地有921840名司机承认他们因为看异性分神而发生撞车。 Driver Martyn Beard, 32, from Tipton, West Mids., wrote off his Ford Fiesta last July when he ogled a girl outside a pub.来自西米德兰郡蒂普顿镇的司机马丁?比尔德现年32岁,去年七月的时候他因为偷瞄一个站在酒吧外的女孩,结果报销了他的福特嘉年华。He said: ;I was on my way into Birmingham when I saw this lovely looking blonde girl standing on the side of the road. She was outside a pub wearing pretty much next to nothing. I couldn#39;t take my eyes off her, she had the classic long legs and lovely figure.他说:“我在去伯明翰的路上瞧见了那个可爱的金发女孩,她就站在酒吧外的路边,穿得很少很暴露。我没法不看她,她的双腿美丽修长,身材很漂亮。”;My concentration drifted and suddenly I realised I was about to crash into the car in front. I slammed on my brakes and this bloke went into the back of me. It wasn#39;t too bad though and when I told him what had happened he actually saw the funny side of it.“我的注意力转移了,突然我意识到我就要撞上前面的车了。我猛地踩下刹车,然后后面的家伙就撞上了我的车屁股。情况还不是太坏,当我告诉他是怎么回事时,他看到了这件事有趣的一面,所以也没发火。;But I was gutted the girl didn#39;t come and check if I was OK, she just walked off and I was stuck swapping insurance details with this big hairy bloke instead.“但让我很郁闷的是那个女孩并没有过来看看我是不是还好,她直接走掉了,而我只能留下来和这个浑身是毛的大个子交换保险资料。” /201208/195379

It may have taken him two decades, and the income saved from tons of recycled trash, but Wu Zheng finally fulfilled his wish to buy his wife a piano.尽管老人吴政花了近20年时间,倾尽靠回收垃圾攒下的积蓄,但他终于圆了妻子的钢琴梦。;It was not just an instrument, but a witness of the love from my husband,; said his wife, Xie Guizhi, who has made the piano the centerpiece of her narrow and crowded guestroom.“这不仅仅是一件乐器,也见了老伴对我的爱。”他的妻子谢桂枝说。钢琴已成为了拥挤狭小的客厅中最重要的物件。;I clean the piano every day and don`t allow other people to touch it,; said Xie, 58, a retired worker in Luoyang, Henan province.“我每天都会把钢琴擦得干干净净的,不许别人碰它。”58岁的谢桂枝说,她是河南洛阳的一名退休工人。Wu, 68, said he made up of his mind to buy his wife a piano long ago, even though their life was poor.68岁的吴政说,尽管家境并不富裕,但他很久以前就下定决心要为老伴买架钢琴。;My wife enjoys music and loves piano very much,; Wu said. ;I dreamed of buying her a piano as early as 38 years ago when we fell in love with each other.;“我老伴特别热爱音乐,喜欢钢琴。”吴政说。“早在38年前我们谈恋爱的时候,我就梦想着给她买一架钢琴。”Yet the cost of the piano - at 22,550 yuan (,500) - was a big sum for the family. His wife suffered from backbone problems for years and Wu`s salary at the rural credit cooperative could only cover the basic expenses of food and medicine for the whole family.然而一架22550元的钢琴对这个家庭来讲是笔不小的出。吴政的妻子常年饱受脊椎病的折磨,而吴政在城关信用社的收入仅仅能够撑整个家庭食品和药品的基本出。To make more money to support the family, Wu decided to pick up recyclable waste after work in the early 1990s.;It was a hard decision because there were lots of prejudices toward waste recyclers at that time,; he said. ;Most people thought that collecting recyclable stuff from the dustbins was shameful.;为了多挣些钱养家,吴政从上世纪90年代初就决定利用业余时间捡破烂。“这是个艰难的决定,因为当时人们对拾荒者持有偏见。”他说,“大多数人觉得从垃圾桶里捡破烂是件丢脸的事。”To avoid being identified by his acquaintances, Wu wore a mask and a pair of dark glasses at first. ;It felt like I was committing some wrongdoings when I started to search for recyclable waste in the street,; he said. ;The most worrying thing for me was being identified by my colleagues.;为了避免被熟人认出来,起初吴政会带上口罩和墨镜。“刚开始在街上收废品时,我觉得自己就像做坏事一样。”他说,“最怕被同事认出来。”By collecting all kinds of wastes including rubber shoes, plastic bottles, glasses and newspapers, Wu could earn about 4,000 yuan per year and save about 1,000 of that.通过回收胶鞋、塑料瓶、玻璃和报纸等各种废品,吴政每年能有4000元的收入,从中能存下1000元。The realization of his dream was accompanied by lots of sad memories - he described as feeling ;like a beggar; when he would wait for customers at a roadside barbecue to drop their empty beer bottles.在实现梦想的过程中,也有许多伤心的经历——他说自己在路边烧烤摊边等待人们丢下空啤酒瓶时,感觉自己像个乞丐。;Sometimes I had to wait for more than half an hour until they finished their drinking and left the bottles for me,; he said.“有时为了等他们喝完酒留给我空瓶子,我要等半个多小时。”他说。;Some young men would rather break the glass bottles in front of me on purpose, and it felt like breaking my heart,; he said.“有的年轻人甚至故意当着我的面把玻璃瓶摔破,当时我特别痛心。”他说。He was also moved sometimes when the others gave him some plastic bottles ;in a respectful manner;.而有时人们会“礼貌地”把塑料瓶递给他,他也备受感动。He had to travel around the city twice every day for more than 10 kilometers to find as much stuff as possible.为了尽可能多地回收废品,他每天要在城里走上两圈,能走10多公里的路。Since Wu has fulfilled the dream of buying his wife a piano, he does not go out to pick up waste any more, though he still keeps the habit of saving his family`s recyclable waste.如今吴政已经实现了给老伴买钢琴的梦想,不用再出门拾荒了。但他仍旧保留着收集家中废品的习惯。;There are no differences between so-called noble or humble jobs,; said Wu Yuanhong, the couple`s 36-year-old daughter, adding that she felt proud of her parents.“工作没有所谓的高贵、低贱之分。”两位老人36岁的女儿吴艳红(音译)说,她为自己的父母感到自豪。;People deserve to be respected if they are dedicated to their dreams and don`t rely on others.; For Xie, the piano was a surprising gift - she had never played the piano before and she is trying hard to study how to play.“不依赖别人,为自己的梦想而奋斗的人,理应得到尊重。”对谢桂枝来说,这架钢琴是一份令人惊喜的礼物。之前从未弹过钢琴的她目前正在努力学习。;People could hardly connect the piano - a symbol of elegance and nobility - with waste recyclers, who are always thought of as dirty and messy,; she said.“人们很难将象征高贵优雅的钢琴与拾荒者联系起来。人们总是认为拾荒者脏兮兮的。”她说。;I really appreciate that my husband has done so much for me.; The biggest joy for Wu is to sing songs to the accompaniment of the piano, and his favorite song is The Most Romantic Thing.“我真的很感谢老伴为我做了这么多事。”吴政生活中最大的乐趣就是在钢琴的伴奏下唱歌,而他最喜欢的歌就是《最浪漫的事》。;The most romantic thing I can imagine is to get older slowly with you,; Wu sang to the melody of the piano.吴政老人随着钢琴的美妙旋律唱道:“我能想到最浪漫的事,就是和你一起慢慢变老。” /201206/185517Parents and would-be parents might be relieved to hear that last week#39;s widely reported government figure estimating the cost of raising a child - around 0,000 over the first 17 years for middle-income, two-parent families - is, according to several economists, wide of the mark. 上月中旬,美国农业部(U.S. Department of Agriculture)公布了抚养一个孩子的估计成本──中等收入双亲家庭抚养子女到18岁的成本约为300,000美元,然而据多位经济学家称,这一广泛报道的政府数据错得离谱,父母们和即将成为父母的人听到这里或许会感到松了一口气。 The bad news is it may be a severe underestimate. The U.S. Department of Agriculture#39;s report leaves two things out of account. For a start, it doesn#39;t reflect unpaid time spent on parenting, including income forgone by parents who cut back on work hours to care for their children. 坏消息是,这个数字其实是可能严重低估了。美国农业部的报道没有计入两个项目。首先,它没有反映出抚养孩子所花的无报酬时间,包括减少工作时间以照顾子女的父母放弃的收入。 Plus, the hit to parents#39; wallets doesn#39;t end when the child turns 18, as the parents often still provide housing and food as well as pay for college. These could add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars in additional costs. 而且,当子女到18岁以后,父母的荷包还要继续出血,因为父母经常仍要为他们提供食宿和付大学学费。这些费用会增加数十万美元的成本。 ;The real costs of raising a child for a moderate-income family; - including forgone income, college for those who attend, and the so-called opportunity cost of not investing the money - ;would be closer to 0,000 to age 22 than the reported 0,000 expenditures to age 18,; says John Ward, an economist and the president of John Ward Economics, based in Prairie Village, Kan., which consults on legal disputes for plaintiffs and defendants. 堪萨斯州普莱瑞村(Prairie Village)的John Ward Economics公司的总裁、经济学家约翰#8226;沃德(John Ward)说,;中等收入家庭抚养一个子女的实际成本;──包括放弃的收入、大学学费、以及没有将这些钱进行投资而导致的所谓的机会成本──;到子女22岁时将接近900,000美元,而不是媒体报道的抚养到子女18岁时的300,000美元。;John Ward Economics为原告和被告的法律纠纷提供咨询务。 (The 0,000 estimate takes into account expected inflation. In 2011 dollars, the price tag for a middle income family is 4,900.) (300,000美元的估计考虑了预期通货膨胀。按照2011年的货币购买力,中等收入家庭养育一个子女的估计成本为234,900美元。) USDA economist Mark Lino, chief author of the annual study, acknowledges the report excludes college and forgone income. These expenses and others after a child turns 18, he says, typically aren#39;t included in calculating state guidelines for child-support and foster-care payments - a principal use of the report. 美国农业部的经济学家、该项年度研究的主要作者马克#8226;利诺(Mark Lino)承认,该报告没有考虑大学学费和父母放弃的收入。该报告的主要用途是为美国州政府处理子女抚养费用相关问题时提供指引,利诺说,这些费用和子女18岁以后的其他费用在州政府制定相关指导方针时通常不包括在内。 ;We have traditionally only looked at direct, out-of-pocket expenditures,; he says. 他说,;我们传统上只考察直接的、现付的出。; The USDA numbers represent how much parents spend on their children, and not necessarily how much they should spend, which Dr. Lino says would be ;very subjective.; His staff derives its spending data from the federal Consumer Expenditure Survey, produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, assigning child expenses in various categories to households including children. 美国农业部的数字表示父母对子女的出金额,而不一定是他们应该出的金额,利诺士称后者是;非常主观的。;他手下的研究人员根据美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)编写的联邦《消费者出调查》(Consumer Expenditure Survey)得出这一出数据,计算出有子女家庭的各类子女抚养费用。 Since the first USDA report, in 1960, the data and approach have evolved. As the nation#39;s farming population has declined, the report no longer breaks out spending on farms, though it includes separate estimates for rural areas and urban areas in different parts of the country. 自从1960年美国农业部第一份此类报告出台以来,相关数据和统计方法一直在演变。当美国的农业人口下降时,该报告不再单列农场家庭的出,但它仍包括对全国不同区域的农村地区和城市地区的分别估计。 In 2008, Dr. Lino#39;s staff made two broader shifts that pulled the estimate in different directions. Pushing the figure higher, the USDA began including in its estimate of child-care and education costs only households that bore such costs. Previously, it averaged in households without direct expenses for child care and education as zeros. The change led to an increase in the cost estimate of 33% for the category. 2008年,利诺士手下的研究人员作出两项主要变化,推动估计数字向不同方向变动。令数字升高的是,美国农业部开始在子女照顾与教育成本的估计数据中只计入承担此类成本的家庭。之前在计算平均值时,将没有子女照顾与教育直接费用的家庭计为零。这一变化导致此类家庭的估计成本提高了33%。 A change in calculating housing expenses had the opposite effect. Before 2008, each child was assigned the same share of housing costs as any other member of the household. Since then, the cost per child has been set at the marginal cost of an additional bedroom, lowering the housing cost by between 22% and 45%, depending on the region. 住房费用计算方法的变化影响则与之相反。2008年以前,对每个子女和任何其他家庭成员赋予的住房成本份额相同。从那以后,每个子女的住房成本被定为增加一间卧室的边际成本,根据地区的不同,房屋成本的降低幅度在22%至45%之间。 The education cost would be far higher if college were included, even accounting for children who don#39;t attend college, pay for it themselves or attend low-priced institutions. Several economists, including Jane Venohr, a research associate at the Denver-based Center for Policy Research think tank who studies child support, say the USDA#39;s approach, by cutting off at age 18, is consistent with most states#39; child-support guidelines. She adds, however, that guideline details vary widely across the country, and that most states don#39;t base their guidelines entirely on the USDA estimate. 如果加上大学学费,教育成本将高得多,即使算上没有上大学的子女,以及自己付学费或上低学费大学的子女。多位经济学家──包括位于丹佛(Denver)的政策研究中心(Center for Policy Research)智库的研究助理、研究子女抚养问题的简#8226;费诺尔(Jane Venohr)──都称,美国农业部以18岁为界的方法与多数州的子女抚养指导方针一致。然而,她还说,不同地区的指导方针详情差异很大,多数州的指导方针并非完全基于美国农业部的估算。 Lonnie Berger, associate professor of social work at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, says post-18 expenditures matter in adding up all costs to parents. Given the prolonged dependency of many adult children in the current economy, ;ideally, such an accounting would extend at least through the early to mid 30s,; Prof. Berger says. 威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin, Madison)的社会工作学副教授朗尼#8226;伯杰(Lonnie Berger)说,加总父母全部出时,18岁以上子女的出很重要。伯杰教授说,鉴于目前经济中许多成年子女的依赖期延长,;理论上,这种计算至少应延长至子女30岁出头时。; Nancy Folbre, an economist at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, argued in her 2008 book ;Valuing Children#39; that forgone wages should be included in the cost of raising children. She found that parents#39; time cost is larger, on average, than direct spending, at least until children reach age 12. The best explanation of why time cost hasn#39;t been included, she says, is that #39;we still don#39;t have the data we need to provide really accurate estimates.; 马萨诸塞大学阿姆赫斯特分校(University of Massachusetts, Amherst)的经济学家南希#8226;福尔布雷(Nancy Folbre)在她2008年出版的著作《孩子的价值》(Valuing Children)中称,父母放弃的工资应包括在抚养子女的成本中。她发现,平均而言,父母的时间成本高于直接出,至少直到子女12岁以前是如此。她说,对没有计入时间成本的最好解释是,;我们仍缺少提供真正准确的估计所需的数据。; Even the federal American Time Use Survey, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, doesn#39;t directly measure how much time all adults in a household are spending caring for their children. 即使是劳工统计局的《美国人时间使用调查》(American Time Use Survey)也没有直接衡量出家庭中所有成人照顾子女所花的时间。 Lest this all sound like a dismal accounting of child-rearing by the dismal science, Prof. Berger says the cost approach excludes the many benefits of having children, not all of them quantifiable, such as happiness and personal satisfaction. Cost estimates such as the USDA#39;s exclude ;any intrinsic benefit that parents realize from child rearing, which would be extremely difficult to monetize,; Prof. Berger says. 为了避免这听上去像;悲观科学;对抚养子女作出的悲观计算,伯杰教授说,成本方法并没有包括拥有子女的许多收益,并非所有收益都是可以量化的,例如快乐与个人满足感。伯杰教授说,诸如美国农业部报告这样的成本估计都没有包括;父母从抚养子女中获得的内在收益,这可能极难货币化。; It should be remembered that parents may also get tangible returns from their adult children in time, such as financial resources and caregiving, Prof. Berger adds. 伯杰教授说,应该记住,父母最终还能从成年子女那里获得了有形回报,例如金钱资源和看护。 /201207/189916

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