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2019年09月17日 01:05:52 | 作者:排名互动 | 来源:新华社
All over the world, the middle classes take temporary leave of their senses when they bear their first child and especially when junior is y to start school. We all know about China’s Tiger Mums, but as far as I can see, other countries have ferocious felines too.世界各地都一样,当中产阶层的父母养育第一个孩子时,尤其是当孩子准备开始上学时,都会一时丧失理智。我们都听说过中国的虎妈,不过据我所知,其他国家也不乏这种凶猛的“猫科动物”。Chinese mums are not the only ones loading their tiny ones up with after-school classes, to make sure they do well in college entrance exams (China’s own version of this — the ded gaokao — finishes on June 9).[NB CHINA’S COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMS RUN JUNE 7-8 IN MOST PARTS OF THE COUNTRY, HENCE THE REFERENCE TO HOW IT HAS “JUST FINISHED” ON JUNE 9]并不是只有中国妈妈会带着小孩去上补习班,确保孩子在大学入学考试中取得好成绩。就在6月9日,可怕中国的大学入学考试——高考,刚刚结束。I sent my first daughter to pre-school at 20 months, convinced that if she waited to start with all the other two-year-olds, she would never get into Harvard.我大女儿1岁8个月大时,我就送她去了幼儿园。当时我相信如果等她两岁再跟其他孩子一起入托,她肯定永远考不进哈佛大学(Harvard)。By that time, she had aly completed courses in baby music, baby swimming, baby gymnastics, baby Chinese (and doubtless some other dumb thing that I have since forgotten about). Last week she finished sitting final exams for her first year of high school. I am not prepared to disclose the results but I think I can safely say that I could have waited on the whole pre-school thing — at least until she could talk.其实在入托前她已经上完了许多课程,包括婴儿音乐、婴儿游泳、婴儿体操、婴儿汉语……我肯定还为她做了其他很蠢的安排,不过我已经想不起名字了,因为实在太蠢了。上周她刚考完了高一最后一门期末考试。我并不准备公布她的成绩,但我可以肯定地说,我其实没必要那么早送她去幼儿园——至少应该等她能说话时再送。It seems I am not the only one having a rethink on the idea of academic training for toddlers though, even in China. One of the most popular series on Chinese television recently was Tiger Mum and Cat Dad, about that perennially tortured topic: does ferocity or meekness produce the best gaokao scores? The child in the series has a nervous breakdown due to too much homework pressure: I guess that is your answer. It seems it is no longer so obvious that it is a good idea to start cramming kids for university entrance in the same week you take them out of nappies.现在看来,即便是在中国,反思幼儿学习培训的观念的人并不只有我一个人。最近中国的一部热播电视剧《虎妈猫爸》探讨了一个长期困扰着家长们的话题:到底是该严厉还是温和,才能让孩子取得最好的高考成绩?我猜人们会回答,这部电视剧里的孩子由于作业太多,压力太大而患上抑郁症。对于家长来说,让刚摘掉尿布的婴儿早早开始填鸭式高考教育,似乎不再是个好主意。“Parents born in the 1980s, unlike their predecessors, are more aware of the importance of the happiness of their child at kindergarten, instead of just the development of their academic capacities,” the official China Daily ed the general manager of Kids R Kids in China as saying.官媒《中国日报》(China Daily)援引Kids R Kids驻华总经理的话说:“80后父母与上辈人不同,他们更能意识到孩子去幼儿园更重要的是快乐,而不再仅仅关注孩子学业能力的进步。”They would say that, wouldn’t they, since Kids R Kids is a US early education company whose motto is “hug first, then teach”. You can’t sell that kind of thing to Tiger Mum — but there must be more Cat Dads out there than before. Otherwise who will Kids R Kids peddle classes in things like infant sign language and “lying on the belly with friends” to?当然了,人们肯定会说,这是因为Kids R Kids是一家美国早教公司,其座右铭是“先拥抱孩子,再教授知识”。虎妈是不会接受这套说辞的,不过现在的猫爸肯定比以前多。否则Kids R Kids向谁推销譬如婴儿手语,“与朋友们趴着玩儿”这类课程呢?The government also seems to be more on Cat Dad’s side these days: changes in official education regulations introduced in Shanghai this year halved the number of children interviewing for slots in highly competitive private kindergartens and primary schools, according to state media. Shanghai Daily said the goal was to “ease the parent frenzy about getting offspring into the best schools”. Sounds like feline fathers are getting the upper hand there, too.近来政府似乎更站在猫爸的一边:根据中国官方媒体的报道,今年上海出台教育条例改革,使竞争极为激烈的民办幼儿园和民办小学的入学面试报考人数减半。《上海日报》(Shanghai Daily)表示,改革的目标是“缓解家长对于择校的焦虑心态”。听起来,猫爸们似乎逐渐占了上风。State media gave this as an example of the kind of question primary school interviewers might ask: You have a 5m pole. If you take a deep breath and climb up 2m, but then slip down 1m each time, how many deep breaths will you have to take before reaching the top?” I’m glad they didn’t ask my high schooler that.对于参加小学入学面试的孩子们要回答的问题,官方媒体给出了一个例子:有一个5米的爬杆。如果你深吸一口气能爬高两米,但每次都会滑下1米,你需要深呼吸几次才能爬到杆顶?我很高兴我上高中的孩子过去没被问到这个问题。Yang Huiyu is a young dad with a child entering primary school next academic year, and he thinks pre-school cramming is a waste of money: he holds up a maths test from such a school — which even includes a few algebra questions — and points out that children only have a limited period to answer the questions. Not for him, he says: “It’s just a matter of time, my child will learn this in school anyway,” adding that if his son is given more than an hour and a half of homework per night, “I’ll ask him to take the unfinished work back to the teacher.”杨辉宇(音译)是一位年轻的父亲,他的孩子下学年就要上小学了。他认为学前填鸭式教育完全是浪费钱:他拿起一张这种学校提供的数学测试题,里面甚至包含几个代数问题,他指出孩子们只有有限的时间回答这些问题。他不认同这一做法,说:“这只是时间问题,我的孩子迟早会在学校里学到,”他还补充说,如果儿子每天晚上的作业量超过了一个半小时,“我会让他把没完成的作业还给老师。”Like many Chinese parents these days, he plans to administer after-school education himself — in a fun way. “I can teach him about physics by telling him the story of Archimedes while he’s in the shower,” he says. I hope my kids learnt that at school, since I surely wasn’t up to teaching them physics at bath time (and if you’re rusty on it, I can suggest a good infant cram school). Will he send his son for extra lessons after he finishes his primary school day? “Definitely not, unless he wants to,” says Mr Yang. Don’t let Tiger Mum hear you say that.和现在的很多中国家长一样,他计划自己给孩子实施课后教育——用一种寓教于乐的方式进行。他说:“他洗澡的时候,我会给他讲阿基米德的故事,教他物理知识。”我希望我的孩子能在学校里学到这些,因为我过去肯定没打算在孩子洗澡的时候教他物理(如果你的物理生疏了,我可以给你推荐一个很好的幼儿补习班)。我问他会不会在孩子放学后送他去补习班?“绝对不会,除非他自己想去,”杨说。这番话可不能让虎妈听到。 /201506/380035WE all make resolutions and promises to live healthier and better lives, to make the world a better place. Not having my annual physical is one small way I can help reduce health care costs — and save myself time, worry and a worthless exam.我们都会制定新年计划,发誓要更健康、过更好的生活、让世界变得更美好。不去做年度体检,是我能做到的减轻医疗成本的一个微小举动——不体检还能节约我的时间、省心,而且省去一番毫无价值的周章。Around 45 million Americans are likely to have a routine physical this year — just as they have for many years running. A poke here, a listen there, a few tubes of blood, maybe an X-ray, a few reassuring words about diet, exercise and not smoking from the doctor, all just to be sure everything is in good working order. Most think of it as the human equivalent of a 15,000-mile checkup and fluid change, which can uncover hidden problems and ensure longer engine life.今年大约会有4500万美国人进行例行体检,就像他们多年来所做的那样。这里戳一下,那里听一听,抽几管血,或许再做一下X光,之后再听医生说些叮咛的话:注意饮食、锻炼身体、不要抽烟,目的只是为了确信所有机能都运转良好。多数人对体检的理解都是,让人像车一样,每跑1.5万英里就检查一下,换换机油,好发现隐藏的问题,确保引擎寿命能够延长。There is only one problem: From a health perspective, the annual physical exam is basically worthless.只有一个问题:从健康的角度来看,年度体检基本上毫无价值。In 2012, the Cochrane Collaboration, an international group of medical researchers who systematically review the world’s biomedical research, analyzed 14 randomized controlled trials with over 182,000 people followed for a median of nine years that sought to evaluate the benefits of routine, general health checkups — that is, visits to the physician for general health and not prompted by any particular symptom or complaint.2012年,由一群医学专家组成的科克伦协作网(Cochrane Collaboration)对全球生物医学研究资料进行了系统性的调查,分析了14个随机对照试验,这些实验覆盖了逾18.2万人,跟踪年限中位数为9年,目的是评估一般性体检的作用。所谓一般性体检是指那些在没有任何特定症状,或者不适感的情况下,去医生那里做的体检。The unequivocal conclusion: the appointments are unlikely to be beneficial. Regardless of which screenings and tests were administered, studies of annual health exams dating from 1963 to 1999 show that the annual physicals did not reduce mortality overall or for specific causes of death from cancer or heart disease. And the checkups consume billions, although no one is sure exactly how many billions because of the challenge of measuring the additional screenings and follow-up tests.这项调查得出了明确的结论:一般性体检可能没有好处。无论采用哪些筛查和测试方式,关于年度体检的1963年至1999年期间的研究表明,它们并没有整体降低死亡率,也没有降低癌症或心脏疾病等特定病因的死亡率。体检耗费了数以十亿计的美元,但具体数字难以得出,因为无法知道,额外的筛查和后续测试又花费了多少钱。This lack of evidence is the main reason the ed States Preventive Services Task Force — an independent group of experts making evidence-based recommendations about the use of preventive services — does not have a recommendation on routine annual health checkups. The Canadian guidelines have recommended against these exams since 1979.这种缺乏据的状况,是美国预防务工作组(ed States Preventive Services Task Force)——由专家组成的独立团体,就预防措施提供有确凿据持的建议——没有推荐每年例行健康检查的主要原因。自1979年以来,加拿大就不推荐进行这些检查。How can this be? There have been stories and studies in the past few years questioning the value of the physical, but neither patients nor doctors seem to want to hear the message. Part of the reason is psychological; the exam provides an opportunity to talk and reaffirm the physician-patient relationship even if there is no specific complaint. There is also habit. It’s hard to change something that’s been recommended by physicians and medical organizations for more than 100 years. And then there is skepticism about the research. Almost everyone thinks they know someone whose annual exam detected a minor symptom that led to the early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, or some similar lifesaving story.这怎么可能?在过去的几年里,曾有报道和研究对体检的价值提出质疑,但病人和医生似乎都不想听这样的消息。一部分是心理因素;即便身体无恙,体检也给双方提供了交谈机会,重新拉近了医患关系。也有习惯方面的原因。一百多年来,医生和医疗机构推荐每年体检,这是很难改变的。再有就是大家对这些研究有所怀疑。几乎每个人,都觉得自己认识的某人,在每年体检中发现了轻微的症状,导致了癌症的早期诊断和治疗,或者听过类似的体检挽救生命的故事。One explanation for the ineffectiveness of the annual exam in reducing the death rate is that it does little to avert death or disability from acute problems. Unintentional injuries and suicides are, respectively, the fourth and 10th leading causes of death among Americans. And it does little for chronic conditions without significantly useful interventions such as Alzheimer’s, the fifth leading cause of death among older people.每年体检在降低死亡率方面没有效果的一种解释是,对于急性原因导致的死亡或残疾,它几乎没有作用。意外伤害和自杀,在美国人的死因中分别位居第四和第十。而且每年体检对慢性病的作用很不明显,比如老年人第五大致死原因阿尔茨海默氏症。Further, researchers have long noted that screening healthy people who have no complaints is a pretty ineffective way to improve people’s health. If you screen thousands of people, maybe you’ll find tens whose exams suggest they might have a disease. And then upon further tests, you’ll find it is really only a few individuals who truly have something. And of those individuals, maybe one or two actually gain a health benefit from an early diagnosis.此外,研究人员很早就注意到,对于那些没有不适感的健康人,用筛查来改善健康的效果相当差。如果你筛选数千人,发现可能患有某种疾病的只有几十人,进一步测试,会发现其实只有几个人真的患了病。而在这些人中,也许一两个真正从早期诊断中受了益。The others may have discovered a disease, but one that either would never have become clinically evident and dangerous, or one that is aly too advanced to treat effectively. For instance, early detection of most thyroid cancers leads to surgery, but in many cases those cancers would not have caused serious problems, much less death. Conversely, for individuals whose annual exams lead to the diagnosis of esophageal or pancreatic cancer, the early diagnosis might extend the time they know they have cancer but is unlikely to extend their lives.至于其他人,要么是在临床上永远不会显露症状和变得危险,要么是患上了不治之症。例如,早期发现的甲状腺癌病人中,大多数都接受了手术治疗,但在很多情况下,这种癌症不会造成严重问题,更不用说死亡了。而对于每年体检发现的食管癌或胰腺癌患者,早期诊断可以延长他们提前知道自己患癌,但不太可能延长他们的寿命。Some are actually hurt by physicals, because healthy patients who undergo an exam sometimes end up with complications and pain from further screening or confirmatory tests.实际上,体检还给一些人造成了损失,因为健康人如果在体检中疑似有问题,就需要进行进一步筛查和验性测试,这会他们带来并发症和疼痛感。My New Year’s resolution does not mean I won’t get my annual flu shot or a colonoscopy every 10 years — or eat a balanced diet and get regular exercise. These are proven to reduce morbidity and mortality. Those who preach the gospel of the routine physical have to produce the data to show why these physician visits are beneficial. If they cannot, join me and make a new resolution: My medical routine won’t include an annual exam. That will free up countless hours of doctors’ time for patients who really do have a medical problem, helping to ensure there is no doctor shortage as more Americans get health insurance.我下这样的新年决心,并不意味着我放弃每年的流感疫苗接种,或每10年一次的结肠镜检查——或保持均衡的饮食和规律的运动。数据已经明,这些做法确实可以减少发病率和死亡率。那些宣扬常规体检的人,必须拿出数据来,明它为什么有益于健康。如果拿不出来,那么就像我一样下个决心:每年体检不在我的健康习惯之内。这将为医生节省出大量时间,来照顾那些确实有健康问题的病人,随着越来越多的美国人拥有了医疗保险,这样做有助于缓解医生短缺的状况。 /201501/353568ARIES白羊Rams are fiery, impulsive and active, so to please the Aries in your life, try taking them on a date that is adventurous and fast-paced -- or short and sweet. Sports go over well, both playing and attending them. Spicy food or games of any sort will keep the Ram#39;s fires stoked. In the end, just keep in mind that people born under the Sign of Aries like physical challenges and are looking for a dating experience that will reflect that.羊儿热情冲动、积极活跃。因此要想取悦他们的话,你和他/她的约会一定要充满刺激,直截了当。一块去运动是不错的选择。另外,带他/她品尝辛辣的食物或是参与任何形式的游戏也很对羊儿的胃口哦。最后,一定要记住的是白羊座人喜欢能带来身体挑战乐趣的约会。TAURUS金牛Ready to spend some money? If you have a Taurus date, you#39;d better have a big pocket book or a rich imagination. Taureans like luxury, so do it up right -- expensive dinner, the theater, dessert and a foot massage might just earn you a permanent place on your Taurean#39;s calendar. If you don#39;t have the money, get creative- - make the experience feel rich, earthy and delicious.准备好花钱了吗?如果你想和牛儿约会,一定要有鼓鼓的钱包或是丰富的想像力喔。牛儿喜欢奢华的生活,因此,无论是价格不菲的晚餐、一部电影大片,还是餐后甜点和足底都会让她/他对你刮目相看。如果你没有经济实力的话,那就来点创意吧,一定要让对方觉得有意思才行。GEMINI双子The first step to keeping up with a Gemini date is to put on your running shoes. Ready for change, fast and furious? Gemini#39;s love variety and are the most curious Signs of the Zodiac. They want to be constantly stimulated mentally, yet they get bored quickly. So, take your Gemini out on an unusual date, or maybe a bunch of mini-dates, all in one night! Gemini#39;s enjoy literary events, intellectual events and unique experiences.和双子座约会的第一步是穿起你的跑鞋,赶紧大步追上这个善变的对象。因为双子座人是在整个黄道带里最富好奇心的星座。他们希望不断地得到精神刺激,但是很快又会厌倦。那么,和他/她的约会一定要与众不同,也许一个小型的烛光晚宴是个不错的选择。切记,双子座喜欢独特且有深度的约会。CANCER巨蟹Wait -- don#39;t take that Cancer date anywhere. Cancers are emotional, sensitive and somewhat domestic. This is your chance to get romantic and somewhat traditional, and have those efforts be truly appreciated. Don#39;t forget the rich fantasy life that the Crab in your life possesses -- put a little imagination into your efforts, whether that means more candles, incense and velvet table cloths, or perhaps a theme evening -- French food, movie and music.耐心等待吧,不要带蟹子去任何地方。巨蟹座人大都敏感多情,还有一点居家。如果你的约会兼具浪漫和传统的话,一定会让他/她很开心。不要忘了蟹子也爱做白日梦哦,那么在你的约会里加一点创意,比如多些蜡烛,熏香和天鹅绒的桌布都能给对方惊喜;邀请他/她去看电影和听音乐会也是不错的主意。LEO狮子To keep your Leo date happy, there had better be some drama in your evening. Your Leo date will love dressing up to the nines, and needs to have an engaging and social event to attend. Cultural events will be popular with the Lion in your life, as will gambling or anything exciting. The key to a successful date with a Leo is to make them feel like royalty.想让狮子开心的话,最好带他/她去看晚场的话剧。狮子座人喜欢把自己打扮地光鲜亮丽,这样可以在赴约时显得美丽动人。涉及文化或是任何令他/她感到兴奋的事都可以成为你与狮子座人约会的内容。与他/她成功约会的关键在于一定要让对方有居高临下的感觉。VIRGO处女The key to romancing a Virgo is simple elegance -- take your date out for a tasteful, stylish evening. But don#39;t be too spendy -- your Virgo will be embarrassed by splashy shows of money, and will be more impressed by value rather than amount. Also keep in mind that Virgo rules the house of health, so a date with physical activity (especially outdoors) will be a hit. Virgos also love animals, so a date that puts your Virgo in contact with them (like a trip to the zoo!) will earn you a smile.与处女约会的关键是要体现优雅-独特风格的晚宴最有可能俘获对方的芳心。但是不要太奢侈,处女座不喜欢随意挥霍钱财的人,他/她更容易被价值而不是数量所打动。还要记住的是,处女座人身处“健康宫”,因此与他/她的约会最好能涉及身体锻练(尤其是户外运动)。处女座人还很喜欢动物,带他们去动物园肯定也是不错的选择。LIBRA天秤Libra rules the House of Partnership, which means they tend to be socially inclined and more interested in other people than themselves. Your Libra will need you to have as much fun on your date as they are! Something social would be successful with a Libra date. Beauty and sensuality are important to Libras, so this is definitely the person for whom you want to bring flowers to the door.天秤座身处“友情宫”,这意味着他们很愿意结交朋友,并且往往对别人比自己的事情更有兴趣。你得想尽办法让秤子高兴。多一些社交活动肯定能让他/她满意。天秤座人天生爱扮靓,因此要是看到你手捧鲜花站在他/她家门口等待约会的话,肯定乐开了花。SCORPIO天蝎Mystery is the name of Scorpio#39;s game, so suspenseful games, movies or theater will be your ticket to a wonderful evening. In fact, holding one of those dinner mystery nights might be the perfect evening -- your Scorpio could act like someone else, figure out the mystery and spend some quality time with you -- all at once! Scorpios are also quite passionate, so don#39;t be stingy with affection when you are having a good time.蝎子喜欢神秘的事物。因此,晚上约他们去看一场充满悬疑的电影一定是件很美妙的事。实际上,与蝎子共享一个神秘的晚宴也是好的选择。天蝎座人充满热情,与他/她在一起时千万不要吝啬自己的感情哦。SITTARIUS射手How to make your Sagittarius happy? Spontaneous trips to somewhere unusual -- the beach, the desert, you name it. They also love physical activity in the outdoors, so asking them to go hiking or camping will make you get noticed and appreciated.怎样让射手座开心呢?带他/她去海滩、沙漠这样与众不同的地方旅行吧。他们也很喜欢户外运动,和你一起去郊游和野营一定让他们兴奋不已。CAPRICORN羯Capricorns can be conventional, but who said conventional couldn#39;t be fun? Your classic date will go over well with the Capricorn in your life, so relax -- flowers, dinner and a movie would make a perfect and comfortable evening. Whatever you do, the goat in your life will appreciate an experience that feels affluent but doesn#39;t cost a lot of money. Capricorns also enjoy a little one-on-one competition, so playing tennis or golf together might be just the ticket to romance after the game.羯座比较传统,但谁说传统的人就不能享受快乐呢?送鲜花、赴晚宴和看电影,这些浪漫的约会方式都很适用。无论你做什么,羯座人会为你精心的安排感到开心,但不要花太多的钱。羯座还喜欢一对一的方式,打网球或是高尔夫都是不错的选择喔。AQUARIUS水瓶Taking an Aquarius out could be the easiest or hardest dating experience of your life. Aquarians like anything different, new, technological or progressive. If you are feeling up for it, take your Aquarius on an adventure date -- windsurfing, hang-gliding or spelunking. Get creative, and don#39;t shy away from something intellectual -- your Aquarius will love you for it.与瓶子约会可能是你生命中最难也可能是最容易的事。瓶子喜欢新鲜、技术含量高的稀奇事情。如果你想讨好他/她,冒险刺激的约会是少不了的-可以尝试帆板运动、攀岩或山洞探险。只要是有创意,最好再带上点高科技的玩意肯定会让瓶子爱死你的。PISCES双鱼Pisceans are interested in everything that isn#39;t quite real. Any date that involves the arts, from painting together to attending the theater, will make your Pisces smile. Romance will be appreciated by this Sign, so try a beach picnic with wine and cheese or high-tea in a garden. Whatever you do, put a little magic into your date -- creating the right mood will romance your Pisces more than any money you spend.鱼儿对任何不太真实的东西充满了兴趣。任何涉及艺术,如画画和欣赏戏剧这样的活动都能得鱼儿嫣然一笑。这个星座的人喜欢浪漫,因此带上美酒和奶酪去海滩野餐一定会让他/她倍受感动。无论你做什么,在你的约会里加一点小小的创意也会让鱼儿开心不已。要知道在鱼儿看来,心灵的契合比物质上的宽裕更重要。 /201507/385800How rich is the Queen?王室资产大揭秘 英国女王究竟多有钱News that the Crown Estate returned record profits of £285m last year means the Queen is expected to receive a further £2m in public funding next year. But just how rich is the Queen and where does her wealth come from?有消息称英国皇家财产管理公司去年利润创历史记录,达2.85亿,也就是说,英国女王明年有望公共基金再多入200万英镑。但女王到底多富有?她的财富从何而来?According to the Sunday Times Rich List 2015, her estimated fortune is £340m, up £10m from last year.《星期日泰晤士报》一份富豪榜称,女王财富估计有3.4亿英镑,较去年多1000万英镑。What is known about the Queen#39;s wealth can be broadly divided between her private income and funding given to her, as the reigning monarch, by the government.据了解,女王的财富来自私人收入和政府拨给在位君王的款项。The Crown Estate owns Ascot race course.The main source of the Queen#39;s public income comes from the Sovereign Grant - a fixed percentage of the profits made by the Crown Estate.皇家财产管理公司拥有英国皇家赛马会。英国女王的收入来源中,占大头的是君王拨款--来自皇家财产管理公司占固定百分比的利润。The Crown Estate dates back to 1760 when George III reached an agreement with the government that surplus revenue from the crown#39;s lands would go to the Treasury.皇家财产管理公司可以追溯到1760年,当时乔治三世和政府达成协议,君王土地多余收入归财政部。Under the current funding arrangement, all profits from the estate are paid to the Treasury and 15% of this money is then given to the Queen.在现行的财政持安排之下,所有地产的利润都付给财政部,其中的15%给女王。This funding is known as the Sovereign Grant and is used to support the Queen in her official duties.Last year the Sovereign Grant was £37.9m - of which the Queen spent £35.7m. That money pays for staffing costs, property maintenance, travel, utilities and housekeeping, among other things.这一财政持即为君王拨款,用以撑女王的官方事务。去年官方拨款是3790万,女王用了3570万。这笔钱用于付人工费、房产维护、旅游、公共设施、家政等等。The privy purse is a private income for the Queen, which is primarily used to pay for expenses incurred by other members of the Royal Family.私用金是女王;私房钱;来源,主要用以付皇家其他成员的费用。Funds for the privy purse come mostly from the Duchy of Lancaster, a portfolio of land, property and assets owned by the Queen which is managed separately from the Crown Estate.私用金的资金大多来自于兰开斯特公爵领地,是集土地、房产和资产于一身的投资组合,属于女王,而实际由皇家财产管理公司单独经营的。The extent of the Queen#39;s private income is less well known.According to the Sunday Times, she has an investment portfolio consisting largely of shares in blue-chip British companies, which it valued at £110m.英国女王到底有多少私人收入就不那么为人所知了。据《星期日泰晤士报》称,女王的投资组合大部分来自于英国公司的蓝筹股,值1.1亿英镑。The Queen also owns personal property including Sandringham House in Norfolk, Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire and other smaller houses.女王私人所有的地产包括诺福克桑德林厄姆庄园和阿伯丁郡的巴尔莫勒尔堡还有其他一些小型的房产。Other personal goods include the royal stamp collection, art, jewels, cars, horses and the Queen Mother#39;s legacy, which all add to her personal fortune.It is kept between a number of locations, such as Hampton Court Palace and Windsor Castle.其他私人物品包括皇家邮票收藏、艺术品、珠宝、豪车、马匹和伊丽莎白一世的遗产,都算入女王的个人财富。女王的私有财物分散在多处,如汉普顿宫和温莎城堡。 /201506/383981

#39;Some antibiotic resistance was first detected in India. One of the reasons for this is that many antibiotics are used in India, and often these have been bought by patients and not used under prescription. This means that antibiotics are used very widely, not always to treat bacterial infections and not always at the correct dose.#39;某些抗生素抗药性在印度是首次发现,原因之一是印度滥用抗生素的现象十分普遍,许多病人未经医嘱随意购买抗生素。这意味着抗生素既没有按照正确的计量使用,也并不总用来治疗细菌感染。#39;This provides a #39;breeding ground#39; for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.#39;这为抗生素抗药菌提供了发展的‘土壤#39;。 Laura Piddock, who leads Britain#39;s Antibiotic Action, tells Vaihayasi Pande Daniel/Rediff.com how India can defend itself on a war footing against the scourge of superbugs, or bacteria that have become resistant to antiobiotics.劳拉﹒皮多克是英国抗生素运动的领导人,她告诉瓦哈亚西﹒潘迪﹒丹尼尔/Rediff.com印度应如何准备与(对大多数抗菌素产生抗药性的)超级细菌做斗争.A sick child in a hospital in Patna. Hygiene is very crucial to the prevention of the sp of superbugs, says Professor Laura J V Piddock, who heads Antibiotic Action. Photograph: Adnan Abidi/Reuters.上图为巴特那一家医院中的一位病孩。抗生素运动的发起人劳拉﹒JV﹒皮多克教授表示,卫生对于预防超级细菌的传播至关重要。 What exactly are superbugs?超级细菌到底是什么?Do all of us need to be worried about these multidrug-resistant bacteria?我们应该担心这些抗生素抗药菌吗? Is India also bleakly facing the approach of a time when antibiotics will be toothless?印度是否正消极面对抗生素失效的那一天?How can we protect ourselves from superbugs?我们应该如何抵御超级细菌? Laura J V Piddock, professor of microbiology at the University of Birmingham, the ed Kingdom, also heads up Antibiotic Action, an independent UK-led global initiative working to push home the gravity of this problem facing people the world over.劳拉﹒JV﹒皮多克是伯明翰大学的微生物学教授,也是抗生素运动的发起人。抗生素运动是一项英国主导的独立运动,致力于向全球传播抗生素抗药菌问题的严重性。;It is vital to the health of all nations that antibiotics remain the mainstay of modern medicine and are available to all on an equitable basis,; she tells Vaihayasi Pande Daniel/Rediff.com in an e-mail interview.皮多克教授在一封电子邮件中,向Rediff.com网站的哈亚西﹒潘迪﹒丹尼尔:“抗生素仍是现代医学中最重要的发现之一,向所有人一视同仁的提供抗生素对于人类健康至关重要。” About Antibiotic Action, Piddock says, contributes to ;national and international activities and acts as a conduit through which all stakeholders -- from the general public to healthcare professionals to politicians -- are educated on the importance of new ways to treat bacterial infections;.皮多克教授表示,抗生素运动为“普罗大众、医疗从业者和政治家 – 所有利益攸关者了解治疗细菌感染的新途径”做出贡献。How did the phenomenon of superbugs becoming drug-resistant come about? What were the factors that led to the misuse and overuse of antibiotics?超级细菌是如何变得具有耐药性的?是什么因素导致乱用和滥用抗生素? Bacteria evolve to survive in hostile environments.细菌通过进化适应恶劣的环境。Antibiotics can be viewed as making a hostile environment and so put evolutionary pressure on bacteria so this drives the evolution of strains resistant to antibiotics. Whilst many bacterial strains remain susceptible within a population, mutations occur very rarely to give resistance.我们可以把抗生素看作为细菌创建了一个不利的环境,从而促使细菌菌株进化出抗药性。然而在一定数量内,许多细菌菌株对抗生素仍十分敏感,发展出抗性的突变是非常罕见的。However, because antibiotics kill all of the susceptible bacteria in that population, the resistant bacteria remain and are able to grow up.因为抗生素杀死了那些对抗生素敏感的细菌,而具有抗性的细菌活了下来,继续成长。Bacteria grow very quickly and their generation time, such as for E.Coli, is 20 to 30 minutes. This means that many rare mutant bacteria that are antibiotic resistant can grow up and become millions and millions of cells within 24 hours.细菌生长的速度非常快,更新换代的速度,如大肠杆菌,是20至30分钟。这意味着许多发展出抗药性的罕见变异细菌能在24小时内繁殖出数以百万计的细胞。Even for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, which grow extremely slowly, resistant bacteria can emerge and proliferate within several weeks.即使是导致肺结核的细菌,其生长速度非常缓慢,但抗药菌仍可在数周内出现并扩散。Bacteria are also able to share genes, some of these confer the ability for bacteria to infect their host and other confer antibiotic resistance.细菌能够分享基因,其中一些传播传染宿主的能力,另一些则传播抗生素抗药性。Again, acquiring resistance gives an evolutionary advantage to those bacteria with the resistance genes over the antibiotic susceptible population. Again, these bacteria survive and grow up very quickly. Any use of antibiotics will select antibiotic resistant bacteria and the more that antibiotics are used (and if there is insufficient dosing to kill any bacteria), then the environment is made to drive and select antibiotic resistant bacteria.再一次,获得抗药性使这些具有抗性基因的细菌保有进化优势。那些对抗生素敏感的细菌被杀死,而这些细菌活了下来,成长的非常快。每一次抗生素的使用是对抗生素抗药菌的筛选,抗生素使用的越多(且如果剂量不足以杀死任何细菌),那么抗生素创造的环境将筛选和保留抗生素抗药菌。In which areas of the world is the risk highest? Why are certain areas at higher risk?世界上哪些地区风险最大?为什么? Selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria can occur anywhere at any time an antibiotic is used, whether it be in people, animals or the environment. Therefore, areas with the highest use of antibiotics, and where dosing is not carefully adhered to, or where antibiotics are freely available, without prescription, means that the risk of selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria is greatest.当使用抗生素时,无论什么时间、什么地点、使用对象是人类、动物还是环境都有可能导致产生抗生素抗药菌。因此,那些频繁使用抗生素,没有掌握正确的使用剂量,或抗生素随处可得,没有按处方使用的地区最有可能产生抗生素抗药菌。Why is this phenomenon so frightening? As this tragedy sps, without being alarmist, what is the worst case scenario we could be looking at globally?为什么这种现象这么可怕?如果抗生素抗药菌四处蔓延,这不是危言耸听,我们所面临的最糟糕情况是怎样的?The phenomenon is frightening because these bacteria cause infections that are so difficult to treat. With so few drugs active against resistant bacteria, patients will now suffer from untreatable infections.这种现象的可怕之处在于抗生素抗药菌造成的感染很难医治。有效治疗抗药菌的药物非常稀少,病人将会饱受无法治愈的感染折磨。This will occur more and more often until we have new ways to prevent and treat bacterial infections.这种现象将变得愈加频繁,直至我们找到预防和治疗细菌感染的新方法。The worst case scenario is that many common place treatments no longer work and people start to die from infections that until recently were fully treatable.最坏的情况是许多常见的治疗方式不起作用,某些直至最近才能彻底治疗的细菌感染将致人死地。What are the key issues that need to be addressed to solve this calamity?解决这个灾难的关键是?The key issues are that we must minimise and prevent the opportunities for bacteria to infect people (and animals) and minimise the use of antibiotics so that they are only used when needed to treat a bacterial infection.解决问题的关键在于我们应该尽可能减少和预防细菌感染人类(和动物)的机会;尽量减少使用抗生素,仅在治疗细菌感染时使用。We need new ways to diagnose bacterial infections quickly so the correct treatment is used, and we need new treatments, including new antibiotics that are active against antibiotic resistant bacteria.我们必须找到快速确诊细菌感染的新方法,对症下药;我们需要新的治疗方式,包括新的抗生素,能有效对抗抗生素抗药菌。To do all of this, new research is required, not least to find the best doses and strategies to minimise the selection of resistant bacteria.为了达到这一目的,我们必须展开新的研究,而不仅仅是找寻最合适的剂量和方案以减少抗生素抗药菌的产生。Why is it that these superbugs evade even the hardest-hitting or last resort antibiotics, like carbapenems (antibiotics which are resistant to most bacteria)? Why are these bugs so super strong?为什么这些超级细菌能够侵入最强力,最顽强的抗生素?比如碳青霉烯(对大部分细菌都有效的抗生素)?为什么这些细菌这么厉害? These bacteria are not super strong. They have just been exposed to many different antibiotics over decades, allowing them to add antibiotic resistances in the same way as trains add carriages.这些细菌并不厉害。他们只是在数十年间历经多种不同的抗生素,使他们能够像火车加车厢一样具备抗生素抗药性。Where does India connect in all this? How much of a problem is this in India? Are there any diseases in particular that India needs to be worried about?印度和这些有什么关系?这些问题在印度常见吗?哪些疾病是印度需要特别关注的?Some antibiotic resistances were first detected in India.一些抗生素抗药性在印度是首次发现。One of the reasons for this is that many antibiotics are used in India, and often these have been bought by patients and not used under prescription. This means that antibiotics are used very widely, not always to treat bacterial infections and not always at the correct dose. 原因之一是印度滥用抗生素的现象十分普遍,许多病人未经医嘱随意购买抗生素。这意味着抗生素既没有按照正确的计量使用,也并不总用来治疗细菌感染。This therefore provides a #39;breeding ground#39; for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.这为抗生素抗药菌提供了发展的‘土壤#39;。In what manner does India need to join the fight?印度该如何对抗抗生素抗药菌?India, via the Chennai Declaration (external link,) is aly starting to address the issues of over-prescription of antibiotics by hospital doctors. In addition, with increased awareness it is hoped that use of antibiotics in all sectors will be reduced.金奈宣言(印度医疗界解决抗生素抗药性问题的宣言)说明印度已经开始解决医院医生滥开抗生素的问题,除此之外,随着认识的提高,使用抗生素治疗所有疾病的现象将有所缓和。 What is the most basic advice and precautions you can offer the Indian public, including those who may be illiterate? And what is the most important advice you can offer Indian doctors?皮多克教授,您能向印度大众,特别是那些不识字的人给予一些基本的建议和提醒吗?至于印度医生,您觉得最重要的意见是?The best advice is to have as good hygiene as possible and so prevent infection.最好的建议是尽可能保持卫生,预防感染。Secondly, if an individual gets an infection, to do their best not to pass on the infection to other members of their household, school or workplace.第二,如果有人被感染,尽可能不要传染给家人、学校师生或同事。To also help this, people should not share washcloths, towels or clothes until they have been washed and any bacteria removed. The same goes for preventing transmission of viral infections.还有一点可能有所帮助的是,除非经过清洗和消毒,人们不应该共用面巾、毛巾或衣物。这一点对于预防病毒传播也非常有效。For Indian doctors, they should only use antibiotics to treat infections that are likely to be caused by bacteria. They should be aware of local antibiotic resistance patterns so that they can make the best choice of effective antibiotics.至于印度医生,他们应该对疑似细菌引起的感染使用抗生素。印度医生应该了解当地抗生素的抗药模式,这样他们能选择最有效果的抗生素用于治疗。They need to make sure that they use the correct dose and for the appropriate duration and encourage their patients to take the antibiotics properly.印度医生应该确保使用正确的剂量,适当的用药时限并鼓励病人按需使用抗生素。What does the Indian government need to do on a war footing?在与抗生素抗药性作斗争时,印度政府需要做哪些工作?The Indian government should sign up to the WHO Global Action Plan and do their best to implement it to meet the needs of India and address the current resistance concerns specific to India.印度政府应该签署世界卫生组织全球行动计划,尽全力实施这项计划以满足印度的需要。解决印度特有的抗生素抗药性问题。Is it a race to find better antibiotics? Or a matter of looking at other creative options too and what could they be?我们应该就寻找更好的抗生素展开竞赛吗?还是应该寻找其他更有创造力的解决方案?What are the key issues hampering the bringing of new antibiotics to the global markets quickly and in more variety?是什么在阻碍新抗生素以各种形式快速出现在全球市场上?There are numerous key issues hampering bringing new antibiotics to market, not least regulatory hurdles and that the business model for antibiotics needs to be different to that for drugs for other therapeutic areas.阻碍新抗生素上市的原因太多了,不仅仅是监督障碍,还有抗生素的商业模式必须与其他领域的药物有所区别。All options, including new antibiotics, should be explored.我们应探索所有的解决方案,包括发明新抗生素。How are superbugs different from regular bugs apart from their ability to resist bacteria?除了抗药能力之外,超级细菌与普通细菌还有什么区别吗? Superbugs only differ from #39;regular#39; bugs in that they are antibiotic resistant. Very few antibiotic resistance mechanisms make bacteria fitter.超级细菌和‘普通#39;细菌的区别只是抗生素抗药性。很少有抗生素抗药机制能把细菌变得更强。When AIDS came on the scene people quickly got to know about the disease and its causes although prevention took longer. Why has awareness about superbugs, which is as scary, taken longer?当AIDS出现时,人们很快就了解了这种疾病及其病因,虽然理解AIDS预防措施的时间长了些。为什么超级细菌这么可怕,人们却并不很了解它?People become very frightened of AIDS because it was a terminal disease for which there is no cure.人们非常害怕AIDS,因为这是一种不治之症。For antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we still have some cures although these are diminishing in number day by day.尽管治疗抗生素抗药菌的方法日渐稀少,但仍是可以治愈的。 AIDS also affected particular demographic groups, who were extremely vocal in bringing this to public awareness. Unfortunately, people are used to getting infections and used to being able to treat them with antibiotics.AIDS还对特定人群产生影响,这对唤醒大众的认知非常有说力。不幸的是,印度人已经习惯了被感染和依赖抗生素进行治疗. /201501/354095

Baking Er Kuai烧饵块One morning, a young farmer named Cu Kangbao carried a basket of local goods to Kunming for sale. When entering the East Gate, he saw crowds of angry people standing there and cursing. And little babies were crying with an open mouth in their mothers’ arms. Cu stood by until he understood what was going on. Last night, the government’s second interrogation room was on fire and the cause was yet to be identified. The officer was angry to death and assumed that it must be a mob messing around. He ordered that announcements be put on the six gates of Kunming and that all people should not cook at home using fire for three months.Anyone who violates it would be severely punished.一天清晨,粗糠宝挑着一担山货到昆明去卖。刚刚走进大东门,就看见城门口站着不少老百姓,一个个怒气冲天,叫骂之声不绝于耳。有的娃娃躺在妈妈的怀里张着小嘴哇哇直哭,粗糠宝站在旁边听了一会儿,才明白了事情的原委。原来,昨天晚上知府衙门二堂不知什么原因突然起火,知府气得暴跳如雷,认定是大胆刁民故意捣乱。他马上下令,在昆明六道城门张贴布告,从今天开始,所有百姓一律不准在家生火做饭。此项禁令有效期三个月,违者严加惩处,绝不宽容。Cu waved to the crowd, and patiently explained to them how to deal with the matter. After hearing his words, people all put on happy smiles. When they arrived home, people carried out their stoves one after another and started baking Baba, a snack made of rice, over the stoves. All enjoyed a good meal.粗糠宝向乡亲们招招手,如此这般地嘱咐了一通,大伙儿顿时乐得眉开眼笑。回去以后,大伙儿纷纷从家里搬出炉子,在上面烤起粑粑来,一个个吃得香极了。Knowing this, the officer hurried to inspect. He caught an old man, questioning him with threat. Cu went up and made faces to the officer saying “Sir, the announcement said “no cooking at home using fire”, but it did not ban the people from baking Baba out of home using fire. We all cook and bake our Baba out of our homes. The officer regretted deeply. He had not expected the situation would become so unmanageable.知府老爷知道了,急忙出来查看。他揪住一个老倌吹胡子瞪眼睛。粗糠宝走上前去,冲着知府扮了个鬼脸,“知府大人,布告上禁止在家里生火煮饭,可没有禁止在家门口烤粑粑吃呀!”知府懊恼不已,事先怎么就没想到粗糠宝会来这一手呢!Sa Mei people, a branch of Yi ethnic group, call Baba Er Kuai. This is the story how baked Er Kuai was passed on.撒梅人把粑粑叫饵块,烧饵块就这样流传了下来。注:中央民族大学外国语学院北京市大学生创新项目“云南美食故事的收集与传播”项目组供稿。 /201504/370881

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