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国家地理:In the Womb: Multiples 育日记多胞胎Identicals share one of the closest human relationships biologically. They are likely to grow up looking and sounding extremely similar, yet not a 100% match. A small number of genes in the mother's eggs sit outside the nucleus, known as mitochondrial DNA. These genes can mutate after the egg has split, subtly modifying the way each embryo grows. Small differences in height, build and even personality will become more and more apparent as the twins grow up and reach maturity.This is why some scientists are now wary of using the term identical, and prefer to use monozygotic or single-egg twins instead. Identical twins are almost always the same sex, but surprisingly there are a tiny number of boy-girl monozygotic twins. They resolve from an egg that contains an unusual mixture of sex chromosomes not the usual XX for a girl and XY for a boy. Occasionally an egg contains 3 sex chromosomes, 2 Xs and a Y. But if the egg divides to produce monozygotic twins, a chromosome may be lost in the process, leaving one embryo with the girl's XX combination, and her monozygotic twin as an XY boy.mitochondrial DNA: an extranuclear(核外) double-stranded(双链) DNA found exclusively in mitochondria that in most eukaryotes is a circular molecule and is maternally inherited ― abbreviation mtDNAmonozygotic(单卵的): (of twins) derived from a single ovum(a mature female reproductive cell, which can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell), and so identical200708/17062Bush: Iraq 'Is a Fight America Can and Must Win'布什称伊战值得美国正在取得胜利 President Bush marked the fifth anniversary of the start of the war in Iraq with a speech at the U.S. Defense Department. Mr. Bush took on his critics, saying the war is worth fighting and winning. 美国总统布什在五角大楼发表讲演,纪念伊拉克战争开战5周年。布什反驳了那些批评他的人,他说,伊拉克战争是值得的,并说美国正在取得胜利。Looking at an audience of men and women in military uniform, the president said the past five years have seen moments of triumph and tragedy. 面对身穿军装的男女军人,布什总统说,过去5年大家既看到胜利,也看到悲剧。"Five years into this battle, there is an understandable debate over whether the war was worth fighting, whether the fight is worth winning, and whether we can win it," Mr. Bush said. "The answers are clear to me. Removing Saddam Hussein from power was the right decision - and this is a fight America can and must win." 他说:“开战5年来,一直有人辩论是否值得打这场战争,是否值得打赢这场战争,是否能够打赢战争。这是可以理解的。对我来讲,是明确的。把萨达姆赶下台是正确的方向。美国能够、也必须打赢这场战争。”He spoke of the thousands of Americans and Iraqis who have lost their lives in the war. But he said freedom is taking hold in Iraq, and the extremists and terrorists are losing ground. 布什谈到数以千计的美国人和伊拉克人在战争中丧生。但是他说,自由正在伊拉克扎根,极端分子和恐怖分子正在被击溃。"In Iraq, we are witnessing the first large-scale Arab uprising against Osama bin Laden, his grim ideology, and his terror network," he said. "And the significance of this development cannot be overstated." 布什总统说:“在伊拉克,我们看到第一次出现反对本拉登、反对本拉登的阴暗的意识形态和他的恐怖网络的阿拉伯人大规模起义。无论怎样都不会过高强调这一发展的意义。”The president focused largely on developments during the past year, and the impact the deployment of an extra 30,000 American troops has had on the conflict. 布什主要集中讨论过去一年的发展和美国在伊拉克额外部署3万名军人对当地冲突的影响。He said before the so-called troop surge, the fight in Iraq was faltering, and extremists were succeeding in their efforts to plunge the country into chaos. 他说,在增兵之前,伊拉克的战斗停滞不前,极端分子成功地使伊拉克陷入混乱。"The surge has done more than turn the situation in Iraq around," Mr. Bush said. "It has opened the door to a major strategic victory in the broader war on terror. For the terrorists, Iraq was supposed to be a place where al-Qaida rallied Arab masses to drive America out. Instead, Iraq has become the place where Arabs joined with Americans to drive al-Qaida out." 他说:“增兵的作用不仅是扭转了伊拉克的局势。它还为更加广泛的反恐战争取得重大战略胜利打开了大门。对恐怖分子来说,伊拉克原来是基地组织集合阿拉伯群众驱赶美国人的地方。而现在,伊拉克已经成为阿拉伯人加入美国人驱赶基地组织的地方。”President Bush said the challenge is to consolidate gains, stressing this is not the time to call for retreat. He acknowledged the costs of the war have been high, both in terms of lives and treasure. But he said the cost of walking away would be much worse.  布什总统说,目前的挑战是巩固成果。他强调现在还不是撤退的时候。他承认战争的代价很高,在生命和财产损失方面都是如此。但是他说,从伊拉克撤军的代价会更大。"If we were to allow our enemies to prevail in Iraq, the violence that is now declining would accelerate and Iraq could descend into chaos," Mr. Bush said. "Al-Qaida would regain its lost sanctuaries and establish new ones - fomenting violence and terror that could sp beyond Iraq's borders, with serious consequences for the world's economy." 布什说:“如果我们允许敌人打赢伊拉克战争,那么现在正在下降的暴力会升级,伊拉克可能陷入混乱。基地组织将重新获得已经失去的庇护地,并且建立新的庇护地。他们引发的暴力和恐怖可能扩散到伊拉克的国境以外。那将对世界经济造成严重后果。”The U.S. presence in Iraq has become a big issue in the American presidential campaign, with both the top Democratic Party contenders - Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton - calling for a withdrawal of U.S. troops. 美国在伊拉克驻军问题是美国总统选举竞选的重大议题。民主党两位最主要的竞选人,奥巴马参议员和克林顿参议员都敦促美军撤出伊拉克。In his address at the Pentagon, President Bush made clear that he will not act hastily or under pressure to withdraw. 布什总统在五角大楼讲话时明确表示,他不会匆忙撤军,也不会在压力下撤军。"Any further drawdown will be based on conditions on the ground and the recommendations of our commanders and they must not jeopardize the hard-fought gains our troops and civilians have made over the past year," Mr. Bush said. 他说,任何进一步撤军都将以当地的条件和指挥官的建议为依据,撤军决不能危及美国军队和伊拉克平民经过过去一年的艰苦斗争才得来的成果。 Next month, the top U.S. commander and diplomat in Iraq will come to Washington to present their latest assessments to the president. General David Petraeus and Ambassador Ryan Crocker will also report to members of Congress.  下个月,美国驻伊拉克最高指挥官和外交官将返回华盛顿向总统提交最新的评估报告。彼得雷乌斯将军和驻伊拉克大使克罗克还将向国会报告情况。200803/31333

We are at the Georgia Home Theater in Atlanta and if you are in the market for a new high definition or HDTV, it's easy to get overwhelmed by the letters and the numbers in the sales picture, so we are gonna arm you with some knowledge to impress those sales people. And joining us now to help us with that is Brian Cooley, editor-at-large with CNET.So Brian, if people are shopping for an HD or high definition TV, resolution becomes a big issue (yeah). What does that mean, exactly?It's a whole new spec you probably never had to deal with before, because the last time you bought a TV, if it's a regular CRT television, there was no discussion of resolution, now with modern TVs, we get into it. Here's what it means. Let's say a set is called a seven-twenty-P resolution TV (OK), that means 720 lines from top to bottom of picture detail, compared that to a DVD, which is only 480, so you can see why HD looks better (well, almost twice as good),almost twice(OK).Now the, the P at the end of that, means progressive, that means every one of those lines is repainted if you will, many times a second. The other version of that is I or interlaced. You'll see that sometime at the end of a number, and that means every other line is repainted every time the picture is flashed on the screen which is how TV works. P is better than I. It tends to look smoother, you'll see fewer jaggy edges and a less blurring or smearing of fast action on a progressive signal going into a progressive set, permitting us to match. Interlaced is a little less desirable but still looks fabulous. And the bottom line is you're gonna see the most sets are called 720 P sets, but that doesn't mean they can only show that, they can also show 1080 I signals which are also fairly common (so 1080 being 1080 lines vs 720 or so) right, more lines, (ok) but the 720 set can show it, it does some math internally that makes it all fit and look great. So don't feel like there is any incompatibility. The main line of sets are 720s, and they can show all the pictures, but the ideal set for the future, if you're a connoisseur, would be a 1080 P, the most resolution and the best scan, and that's if you really wanna spend some big money, those are pretty rare.Right, the money goes up for the better resolution (a lot) and the P. Yes.All right, well, thanks for defining high definition, Brain Cooley with CNET. We appreciate itHappy to do it. 200809/50287

The ed Nations Secretary-General's special adviser for Burma says he expects to return to the country "sooner rather than later."  联合国秘书长的缅甸事务特使易卜拉欣.甘巴里说,他预计不久就会重新访问缅甸。U.N. envoy Ibrahim Gambari says he is optimistic he will be able to return to Burma, "way before April." 他说,他对能在4月份之前返回缅甸感到乐观:"You will recall the authorities there said they will receive me after the middle of April, after April 15," Gambari said. "But I think I have reason to believe they are reconsidering." “缅甸当局曾经说过,他们将在4月15号之后会见我。不过我现在有理由认为,他们正在重新考虑。”On Tuesday, Gambari completed two days of meetings with Chinese officials. He says he consulted with Chinese officials on how best to move forward in encouraging political reform in Burma.  甘巴里星期二结束了跟中国官员的会晤。他说,他和中国官员探讨了鼓励缅甸进行政治改革的最佳方式的问题:"The Chinese government has been helpful in helping on my access, including encouraging the [Burmese] authorities to receive me as often as possible," Gambari said.  “中国政府一直在为我访问缅甸提供帮助,其中包括鼓励缅甸当局尽可能多地让我进入缅甸。”Gambari last visited Burma in November, several weeks after the military government crushed mass demonstrations calling for democracy and political reform. 甘巴里最后一次访问缅甸是在去年11月,在那之前的几个星期,缅甸军政府刚刚镇压了一场要求民主与政治改革的大规模民众抗议示威。He says the Burmese government's new plans for a May referendum on a new constitution, and for general elections in 2010 are "a significant step" toward democratic reform.  甘巴里说,缅甸5月举行宪法公决,并在2010年举行大选的新计划是迈向民主改革的重要一步。But he calls on the ruling generals to make sure the referendum is credible for the Burmese people and the international community. That would include, he says, releasing political prisoners, such as opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who has spent years under house arrest. In addition, he says, the government needs to allow the public and the opposition to freely comment about the draft constitution. 甘巴里呼吁军人统治者确保宪法公决对缅甸人民和国际社会来说具有可信度。他说,那将包括释放政治犯,比如已经被软禁多年的反对派领袖昂山素季。另外,甘巴里说,缅甸政府必须允许公众和反对派人士对宪法草案自由发表意见。Many critics say the referendum and election will do little to bring reform to the country, as it appears the draft constitution allows the military to retain significant control.  很多批评人士说,全民公决以及选举看起来都不会给缅甸带来什么改革,因为宪法草案允许军人继续掌握实权。The military has ruled Burma since the early 1960s. It has become one of the poorest and most isolated countries in Asia. The ed States, the European Union and other nations have imposed economic sanctions on the government, to push the military to allow democratic reforms.  自从1960年代初以来军人一直统治缅甸。现在缅甸已经成为亚洲最贫穷、最受孤立的国家之一。美国、欧洲联盟和其他国家向军人政权实行了经济制裁,以推动军人让缅甸进行民主改革。Burma's Southeast Asian neighbors, along with China and India, however, have argued that political engagement and trade are better than sanctions in bringing reform.  不过中国和印度以及缅甸的东南亚邻国认为,推动缅甸实行改革更有效的方式是政治参与和贸易,而不是制裁。The U.N. envoy next travels to Indonesia, Singapore and Japan to discuss Burma. 联合国特使甘巴里将前往印度尼西亚、新加坡和日本讨论缅甸问题。At a regular briefing, the Chinese foreign ministry spokesman told reporters Beijing wants to see democracy, peace and stability in Burma, but opposes the use of economic sanctions to pressure the government.  中国外交部发言人在新闻发布会上对记者说,北京希望看到缅甸的民主、和平和稳定,但是反对利用经济制裁向缅甸政府施压。200802/27657

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