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语言能力的高低和老年性痴呆症的发生有什么关系呢?我们来看看下面这则新闻。Researchers followed a small group of Catholic nuns, testing them for any signs of memory problems. After their death, their brains were examined for the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. However, some with signs of Alzheimer’s in their brains had not shown any signs of memory difficulties. The researchers next analyzed essays that many of the participants had written when they were around 20 years old. They found that the language was far more complex in the group of women without memory problems. The researchers conclude that superior language skills early in life may predict the brain’s ability to cope with early stages of Alzheimer’s disease decades later, due to differences in mental reserves.07/77231The Shaolin monks of China are famous for fighting skills and acrobatics, but above all, for their ability to somehow manage their senses. Does this really not hurt or do they just not mind the pain? To prepare themselves for their grueling acts, the monks use one of the oldest forms of pain control—meditation. “We have to focus 100 percent. We need willpower to channel our Qi, our spiritual energy. When we meditate, we channel this spiritual energy throughout our body.” Meditation starts by changing how the body works: The heart slows, pumping less blood; the muscles relax. Relaxed muscles means[1] less tension, which means less pain. But the strangest effect occurs in the brain. Astonishingly, although the brain is still alert, meditation lessens the emotional reaction to pain. It’s like turning down the volume. So when pain sensations hit, they have little effect. That’s how the monks can tolerate what for anyone else would be extraordinary pain. Vocabulary Mix:grueling: Physically or mentally demanding to the point of exhaustion.折磨的,使精疲力尽的:对生理或心理上的要求达到极限的。参考中文翻译:中国少林寺的和尚以格斗技能和杂技著称,但是最重要的是,他们控制自己感觉的能力。是真的不痛还是他们不在意这种疼痛呢?为了准备好迎接那些类似折磨的行为,那些和尚们应用最古老的方法来控制疼痛——冥想。“我们必须百分之百的集中注意力。我们需要自己的意志力来运气,我们的精神能量。当我们陷入冥想状态时,我们可以使我们的精神能量在体内贯穿。”冥想从改变人体的工作开始:心跳减慢,泵出更少的血液;肌肉放松。肌肉放松意味着紧张度减少,疼痛减少。但是最神奇的作用发生在大脑。令人惊讶的是,虽然大脑仍然是警觉的,冥想状态减轻了对疼痛的反应,就好象降低了音量。所以当疼痛来袭,基本上也起不到什么作用。这就是常人难以忍受的疼痛少林寺和尚却可以忍受的原因。单词注解:meditation 名词 沉思,默想;冥想 【宗】默念,默想 沉思录 200811/57260平时,贪吃的朋友们总是觉得多吃一点没有关系,满足自己的嘴馋最要紧。然而,你们知道吗?贪吃、吃得过多有可能会导致死亡。所以,大家还是要合理饮食。Yael: Hey Don, do you know why over-eating can be lethal for a squid? Don: Obese squid are prone to heart disease, Yael? Y: No. In fact, it would only take a single oversized meal to kill or cause brain injury to a squid. D: Brain injury? I'm stumped. Y: Squid are part of a diverse group of highly evolved invertebrates called cephalopod mollusks. Cephalopods, which also include octopus and cuttlefish, have the largest and most complex brains of all the invertebrates. Like all invertebrates, squid don't have a bony skeleton. And squid even lack a hard outer shell like many other mollusks have. But squids' brains are protected by a capsule of flexible cartilage. D: Yael, what does this have to do with over-eating? Y: Oh right. Well, the squid's digestive system passes right through its brain! D: Whaaaaat? Y: Yep. Although the cartilage surrounding the brain is flexible, it doesn't stretch. However, the esophagus running through the middle of the brain does stretch. If a squid tried to swallow too large a piece of food, the esophagus would expand, squashing its brain into the sides of its head. But squid are well adapted to avoid this problem. They have hard chitinous beaks, sort of like parrots' beaks, that break up even hard-shelled food into manageable pieces. The food is further broken down by strong enzymes in their saliva, and a hard, raspy tongue-like structure called a radula. The radula is covered with rows of small sharp teeth specially adapted to grinding and shredding. So the squid's dinners are reduced to tiny particles before swallowing. D: An esophagus through the brain! Who knew squid were so fascinating!?05/70710Democrats Expected to Gain Seats in US Congress美国国会选举民主党预料增加席位 Americans go to the polls Tuesday to vote for members of the U.S. Congress as well as the president. All 435 members of the U.S. House of Representatives will be up for election, along with will more than one-third of the 100-member Senate. Democrats are hoping to pick up enough Senate seats so they can deprive the Republican minority of their ability to block legislation. 美国人星期二投票选举国会成员以及总统。国会众议院435议席全部重选,100个席位的参议院3分之1以上的议席也将重选。民主党希望增加足够的参议院议席,以便使少数党共和党无法利用议事规则阻碍立法。Most of the attention on the congressional races is focused on the Senate, where Democrats, who now hold a narrow majority, hope to win an additional nine seats to give them an influential 60-vote majority.  人们对国会选举的关注目光大都集中在参议院的选举上。现在民主党人在参议院拥有微弱多数。民主党人希望把自己的席位再增加9个,这样他们就能获得具有影响力的60票多数。That would be an important victory for Democrats, according to Alan Lichtman, political science professor at American University. 美利坚大学的政治科学教授利希特曼说,假如能够达到这一目标,民主党人算是获得了重大胜利。"A 60-seat majority is of enormous significance because that is a filibuster-proof majority. Republicans could not block legislation by in effect talking it to death, delaying it," he said. “60个议席的多数具有非常大的意义,因为有了这样的多数席位,少数党共和党人就不能用不停地发言的手法来阻止立法或拖延立法。”Lichtman believes Democrats will increase their ranks, but fall a few seats short of the critical 60-vote majority. He argues that Democrats could win over enough moderate Republicans on individual issues to overcome any efforts to block their legislation. 利希特曼认为,民主党人将会增加参议院议席,但是会比至关重要的60个席位少几个。他说,民主党人在某些具体的问题上可以赢得足够的温和派共和党人的持,足以克共和党人的立法阻碍。Democrats are also expected to expand their 36-seat majority in the House of Representatives.  民主党人预计也会进一步增加现有在众议院拥有的36席的多数。Analysts predict Democrats could win between 20 and 35 additional seats.  分析家们预计,民主党人可能会再增加20个到35个之间的众议院议席。Congressional Republicans acknowledge they face a tough election battle. Among incumbents facing close reelection bids in the Senate are Minority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska, who was found guilty of corruption charges last month. 国会共和党人承认他们面临艰难的选举战。在参议院,少数党领袖麦康奈尔以及来自阿拉斯加州的史蒂文斯参议员是否能重新当选还难以判断。史蒂文斯上个月被判受贿罪罪名成立。A number of Republican House members also are waging tough reelection campaigns, including Congressman Chris Shays of Connecticut - a political moderate who has often been at odds with President Bush, and Congresswoman Michele Bachmann of Minnesota, who made a controversial call for investigations of U.S. lawmakers whom she had suggested hold "anti-American views". If Democrat Barack Obama becomes president, larger Democratic majorities in the House and Senate could be key to swiftly implementing his legislative agenda, including withdrawing U.S. combat troops from Iraq and implementing health care reform. 假如民主党人奥巴马成为总统,国会众议院参议院民主党席位增加,对他迅速实现他的立法目标至关重要。奥巴马的目标包括从伊拉克撤出美军,以及推行医疗保健改革。"Democrats have been out of power for some time. They have not controlled the presidency and the Congress since the early 1990s under Bill Clinton. Democrats are going to be hungry for real accomplishment," added Professor Lichtman. 他说:“民主党人在野已经有一段时间了。他们自1990年代初克林顿担任总统以来就一直没有同时掌控总统职位和国会。民主党人十分希望有真正的成就。”But Steven Hess of the Brookings Institution says a Democratic Congress will not necessarily be in lock step with a Democratic president. 但是,布鲁金斯学会的海斯认为,民主党人控制的国会不一定会跟民主党人总统步调完全一致。"Neither party is monolithic. Both parties in a sense have regional interests that differ as well as conservative and liberal wings of the party," said Hess. “民主党和共和党都不是铁板一块。两党从某种意义上说都有自己的地方利益,这些利益各不相同,而且,两党内部也有保守派和自由派。”If Republican John McCain is elected president, Alan Lichtman says the veteran senator's record of bipartisanship could help in moving legislation through congress, although he says the partisan nature of his presidential campaign would make relations with Democrats more difficult. 利希特曼说,假如共和党人麦凯恩当选总统,这位老资格的参议员先前能够沟通两党意见的能力将有助于他推动国会通过立法,尽管总统选举竞选期间的强烈党派表现会给他跟民主党人的关系带来困难。"He has run a very relentless-negative campaign, and a campaign decried by even some Republicans. He would have a lot of mending to do in order to bring around Democrats who are very bitter about the negative campaign that he has run," said Lichtman. 他说:“麦凯恩一直在进行攻击对手的竞选,以至于连一些共和党人也对他的攻击性竞选表示了意见。他要是当选总统,需要作出很多努力来修补跟民主党人的关系,因为民主党人对他的攻击性竞选言论很耿耿于怀。”The presidential candidate who loses the election will return to Capitol Hill as a U.S. senator, but likely with a higher profile than before his White House campaign. 假如麦凯恩没有赢得总统选举,他将作为一个参议员返回国会山。不过,他由此可能会比他竞选总统之前更加引人注目。200811/55140UN:Should Britain scrap Royals?The ed Nations has said that the UK must consider whether they should keep the Royal Family. The UN has said the UK must consider asking the public whether they would like to keep the Royal Family. The Human Rights Council say the government should certainly think about holding a referendum on the issue to see if people would prefer to live in a republican state with a written constitution. The monarchy costs each adult in Britain around 62 pence a year. But even groups representing tax payers said there was no case for getting rid of it. The council has 29 members including Saudi Arabia, Cuba and Sri Lanka. It was a Sri Lankan envoy who raised concerns over the British monarchy. But a royal spokesman has said today that the public haven't displayed any appetite at all for a referendum on the issue. The UN report was also critical of the UK's treatments of immigrants from Sudan. Syria accused the UK of discriminating against Muslims and Iran complained about the UK's record on tackling sexual discrimination200811/55959

我们上一次的收获是16亿年前的叶子化石,那么发现了它意味着什么呢?低温度下的叶子与温暖环境中的叶子相比,它们的叶缘上面会有什么样的变化呢?这是值得探讨的。接着听哦! Leaves with teeth do better in colder climates because teeth are actually really advantageous in jump-starting growth at the beginning of the growing seasons. In this case, you can see this beautiful fossil leaf here with teeth, and each of the teeth are a little hotbeds of photosynthesis(光合作用), so when that leaf first comes out of the bud, it gets a jump-start on leaves that don't have teeth. Miller uses this information to find out about the height of the young Rocky Mountains. In a simple but powerful technique, he compares the number of leaves with teeth to those without. You go to a particular area, and you pick up all the species of leaves that are there from the trees that are growing in that area, and you compare the number of species that have teeth to the number of species that have smooth margins. That gives us some idea of what the temperature is. So the higher the proportion of plants with jagged edges compared to plants with smooth edges, the colder the temperature of the site. And the colder the temperature, the higher the mountain. So if you've got into a hot air balloon here today, and you float it straight up into the atmosphere, the temperature will decrease in a very predictable way, and it turns out that for about every mile you go up in the atmosphere, you lose about 20 degrees Fahrenheit. So if we know how temperature changes with elevation, we can back out elevation from those estimates of temperature. To work out the height of the early mountain, Miller needs to compare samples from two areas, one at the base of the mountain and one at the top. Fossils found at the base of the Rockies near the present-day Denver have an amazing story to tell. These ancient leaves are incredibly similar to plants growing in the tropics today. So after the Rockies rose, down in the area of Denver, it was sub-tropical and tropical forests, we have palms, and cycads, and canopies like we see in the tropics today. Up here we had a forest that looked probably more like a forest that grows in North or South Carolina on the east coast of the U.S. By comparing the ancient fossil leaves from the top of the mountain with fossil leaves from the foot of the mountain, Miller has come up with a surprising conclusion. It turns out that the fossil leaves here are predominantly toothed as compared to those that are in Denver which are predominantly smooth margin. And it turns out the ones in Denver grew in a climate that was about, on average about 75 degrees Fahrenheit, the ones up here grew in a climate that was probably about 50 degrees Fahrenheit. So if we know how temperature changes with elevation, that means that this site, when these fossil leaves were deposited, was about a mile higher than Denver. Today it's only a half mile higher. So 60 million years ago, the mountains would be twice as high as they are today.小编有约:本期的文章中有许多对比的句子,非常的地道。可以摘抄下来,试着自己写作文的时候用。不仅仅是优美的文章,同时Daisy也认为它告诉了我们探索真理的一种方法。这种方法叫“比较研究法”,通过对近缘物种的行为进行对比分析,以了解行为适应和进化的重要方法。这是一种科学的研究方法。在学习物理和化生时,会用到这个方法。课后题目:Daisy提供这三个线索,你来找找看这个。A. You've got into a hot air balloon. B.You float it straight up into the atmosphere. C. The temperature will decrease in a very predictable way. 201110/159217

西南地区的旱灾仍在继续,救援工作正在进行。在云南,省政府、非政府机构和当地人民一起携手共度难关。Duan Lijun is a primary school student in Mile County, one of areas hit hardest in Southwest China's Yunnan Province. Thanks to relief work, Lijun is given a bottle of mineral water each day. But the teenage girl saves most of her limited water a for her family. Because of this, she drinks just one and a half bottles of water each week. "It's been a long time since we lacked drinking water. Everyday, I pray it will rain soon, and that my folks at home won't suffer from thirst any longer."Since last fall, Southwestern China has been plagued by its worst drought in six decades. In some areas, the disaster is worst in a century. According to the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the disaster has affected around 61 million people and left about 5 million hectares of land barren across Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing and Guangxi. Duan's hometown Yunnan is the worst-hit province, with about 5.4 million people facing water shortages.To cope with the severe challenge, the Chinese Red Cross Foundation has launched the Spring Rain program, calling for donations for water, food and other relief materials.The national Land and Resources system has also been given responsibility to pump underground water into drought affected areas. The first 153 meter-deep artesian well was made in Yiliang, a county nearby the provincial capital of Kunming, on Friday. One local farmer is very happy to have fresh water nearby his home again."I got here five this morning to queue for the water."The 552 cubic meters of water the well pumps every day will go some way to addressing the demand for water to drink and irrigate crops. Across the province, workers are drilling daily with the aim of digging over a thousand wells by mid-May. 52 are aly functioning and 288 are under construction, providing 20 percent of the needed drinking water. The Ministry of Water Resources has allocated more than 6.3 billion yuan, or around 900 million US dollars to support further relief work.Qiu Ruitian is deputy director of the State flood control and drought relieve office."The fund will be used to supply drinking water for both humans and livestock, to upgrade water conservation infrastructure and support small-scale farming water."With such industrious collaboration it is hoped that Southwest China will be enjoying a reliable water supply before long. Tingting, for CRI News.201003/100052

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