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2019年09月20日 12:16:50|来源:国际在线|编辑:周门户
What we found in the ACE study involving seventeen and a half thousand middle-class adults wasACE研究通过对17500名中产阶级成人的观察发现that life experiences in childhood that are lost in time童年经历会随着时间的流逝在他们的记忆中逐渐丢失and then further protected by shame and by secrecy and by social taboos against inquiry into certain realms of human experience,但那些由于羞耻 保密和社会禁忌等原因不愿意被人盘问的经历反而会被保护从而遗留在人的记忆的某个角落that those life experiences play out powerfully and proportionately a half century later以致于即便是很多年后这些人生经历对其影响深远in terms of emotional state,in terms of biomedical disease, in terms of life expectancy.它们会在自身情绪状况、生物医学疾病、或寿命方面成比例地对人生造成影响In 1985, I first became interested in developmental life experiences in early childhood really by accident.In the major obesity program we were running,a young woman came into the program.在我们着重研究的肥胖问题中 一个年轻姑娘来到我们这She was twenty-eight years old, and weighed 408 pounds,她28岁 重达408磅and asked us if we could help her with her problem.向我们求助And in fifty-one weeks, we took her from 408 to 132.在接下来的51周中 我们帮她从408磅减到132磅And we thought, well my god, we’ve got this problem licked.我们想 谢天谢地 终于解决这个问题了This is going to be a world-famous department here!这次胜利将举世闻名She maintained her weight at 132 for several weeks,她将她的体重稳定在132磅几周的时间and then in one three-week period regained 37 pounds in three weeks,which I had not previously conceived as being physiologically possible.我之前压根没想到会有这种可能性That was triggered by being sexually propositioned at work by a much older man,as she described him.这是由工作中一个比她大的多的人对其性暗示导致的(当然)她是这么描述的That was triggered by being sexually propositioned at work by a much older man,as she described him.这是由工作中一个比她大的多的人对其性暗示导致的(当然)她是这么描述的And in short order, she was back over 400 pounds faster than she had lost the weight.很快 她就就增肥到400磅 比她减重快多了I remember asking her why the extreme response.我记得问过她为什么会出现这种极端反弹情况After initially claiming not to have any understanding of why the extreme response,她起初一直说她也不知道she told me of a lengthy incest history with her grandfather from age 10 to age 21.后来 她告诉了我 祖父对她漫长的乱伦经历从10岁直到21岁Ultimately it turned out that fifty-five percent of the people in our obesity program最终得到实 在我们这项对肥胖研究中有55%的人acknowledged a history of childhood sexual abuse.都有童年时被性侵的经历I mean that obviously is not the only issue going on but it was where we began.我想说 显然问题不止一个但我们就是从那个问题起步的And as we went down that trail, then we discovered other forms of abuse随着我们的继续追查 发现在很多机能失调家庭(或其他家庭)中also growing up in massively dysfunctional households, etc.其他形式的侵害也大幅增加the ACE study was really designed to see whether these things existed at all in the general population,ACE研究目的就在于确认是否大多数人都经历过这些侵害and if so, how did they play out over time?果真如此 那它们(指侵害)又如何随着时间的推移造成影响?We studied 10 categories of adverse life experiences我们研究选择了了十类有害生活经历that were chosen because of their prevalence in the weight program因为它们都与体重研究紧密相关childhood sexual abuse, heavy-duty childhood physical abuse这些包括童年性侵 严重的童年身体伤害I#39;m not talking spanking—我不是指打屁股um, major emotional abuse, recurrent humiliation, two categories of neglect还有严重的情感伤害 经常性的精神羞辱 以及两类忽视growing up in a home孩子童年和青春期成长过程中where one of the members of the household,家庭中有人uh, was chronically depressed, suicidal, mentally ill, or in the state hospital;长期抑郁 自杀 患精神疾病 或长期住院的家庭环境中growing up in a home without both biological parents;或者是 没能与亲生父母生活在一起growing up in a home where, um, one of the members of your household was alcoholic or a drug user;或者是 有家人嗜酒或吸毒growing up in a home where mother was beaten;或者是 妈妈被家暴growing up in a home where one of the members of your household was imprisoned during your childhood or adolescence.或有家人入狱Those were the 10 categories.以上就是这十类In a middle-class population, one in 11 people has experienced six or more of those adverse life experiences in childhood.中产阶级群体中 每11人中就有一人经历过以上六类或更多So this is very common totally unrecognized.这种情况非常普遍却完全不被注意到It was difficult for us to accept their commonness.让我们接受他们的共性很难But on the other hand, these are issues that most people never touch.但另一方面 大多数人从未接触过这些问题And so who would know without routinely asking?如果没有例行公事的询问又有谁会知道呢But at a so-called ACE score of six, experiencing any six of the ten categories that we studied,但在ACE六类测评分中 (如果一个人)经历了我们研究得出的10类中的任何六类that person was 4,600% more likely to become an IV drug user than a person那他就会有4600%更可能变成静脉注射毒品的瘾君子who had experienced none of those ten categories.相较于什么都没经历过的正常人Okay? Now, you know,好吧 现在 你知道了you think, you the newspaper, the latest cancer scare of the week,你想 你看报纸 本周最新的癌症恐慌you think, you the newspaper, the latest cancer scare of the week,你想 你看报纸 本周最新的癌症恐慌prostate cancer or breast cancer increases 30%, and everyone goes nuts.前列腺癌或乳腺癌上升了30% 每个人就都不淡定了I’m talking 4,600% increase.我说的可是4600%的上涨率The same ACE score of six produces a likelihood of attempting suicide同样的 ACE研究也暗示了这些人的潜在自杀可能性that is between 3,100% and 5,000% greater than the likelihood of suicide attempts in someone with none of those life experiences.比没有这些人生经历的人要高3100%到5000%的自杀率So the power of this relationship is enormous.所以这种联系的影响力是巨大的So ultimately the question arises: how do life experiences in childhood end up with那么 最后 问题来了 童年的阴影是如何with disease states a half century later?影响到接下来的生活的There are at least two big categories to account for that.主要有两大方面原因One is through the use of various coping devices.一种是通过各种各样的应对方法One smokes to feel better;如通过吸烟来安抚自己one overeats to feel better; one drinks to relax, etc..通过暴食 喝酒 等等And those things carried out in heavy amounts have major destructive patterns,这些行为(如果)过度都会有极恶劣的影响even though they may be immediately beneficial.即使可能短期内很有效果The other broad category has to do with另一种是必须处理the effect of chronic major unrelieved stress on the workings of one’s brain and central nervous system.慢性难除刺激对这个人的大脑或中枢神经系统产生的影响In recent years, this is relatively new,近年来 这些研究不断发展it’s become clear that chronic major unrelieved stress研究结果也逐渐清晰——慢性难除刺激can produce the release of pro-inflammatory chemicals in a person’s body,会产生促炎性细胞活素and also can suppress immune system function.也会抑制免疫系统功能Of the ten categories that we studied,我们研究的十类中any six of them produces a shortening in life expectancy of almost twenty years.其中任何六类都会削减大概20年寿命The magnitude of this problem is so huge,这个问题的影响太深远了and the complexity of dealing with it after the fact is so huge,处理这影响也太复杂了that realistically, the only serious approach is going to have to involve primary prevention.唯一可行的方法就是防患于未然No one knows how to do that, but it’s the right question to focus on.没有人知道如何做 但我们仍需关注它 Article/201706/512187零起点英语口语 第17讲:How much 句型 相关专题推荐:从零开始学口语英语口语999句疯狂英语现场教学新英语900句视频色拉英语乐园视频 /200810/53700

So I guess he#39;s going to be hunting up that hedgerow.我猜他是去那片灌木丛里捕猎What he was doing at the farm,他在农场那到底做了什么of course, we don#39;t know.我们无从得知They were right to suspect hunting that night.他们对他出去捕猎的推测是正确的Billy and Molly#39;s owner比利和茉莉的主人has seen the cats the following morning.在第二天早上见到过他们I think they were out pretty well我猜那天晚上他们大部分时间most of the night, actually.都在外面活动I#39;m pretty certain they went out as soon as we went to bed.我很肯定他们是在我们睡觉以后出门的Billy in particular came in with a very bloated tummy,特别是比利 回家时肚子撑得鼓鼓的so I don#39;t know quite what he#39;s been up to,我不太清楚他在外面干了什么but probably eaten quite a few bits and pieces along the way,但他可能一路上吃了不少东西and he#39;s very sleepy today.而且今天他特别贪睡In fact, both of them are very sleepy,实际上他们两个都很贪睡so I think they#39;ve been hunting a lot last night.所以我猜昨晚他们应该一直在捕猎They start to identify the cats他们开始找出那些that seem to have the strongest indications很显而易见they#39;ve been hunting.会在外捕猎的猫Like Sooty.比如苏提Spends quite a lot of periods of time there.在那里待了很长一段时间Backwards and forwards and backwards and forwards,不停地来回走动suggesting he may be using that as a bit of a hunting ground.说明那里可能是他的狩猎场A lot of time and a lot of movement in that area他在回家前在那个区域待了很久before he comes back down.而且不停地活动重点解释:1.hunt up 猎取例句:He#39;s hunting up details of Elizabethan household expenditure in a document of the time.他正在当年的旧文件中搜寻伊丽莎白时代一般家庭开的细节。2.most of 大多数例句:Most of the rock in this mountain is shale.这座山上大部分的岩石都是页岩。3.seem to 似乎 ...例句:Does that seem to make sense?这讲得通吗? Article/201608/462936

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