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2019年10月14日 12:40:45 | 作者:普及面诊 | 来源:新华社
You can change your eating behavior by redesigning your environment.你可以通过改造环境来改变你的饮食习惯。Brian Wansink, author of Mindless Eating, describes how our environment influences how we eat:布莱恩文森克,《愚蠢的食物》以书的作者,描述了我们周围的环境是怎么影响我们吃东西的:“If you use a big spoon, you’ll eat more. If you serve yourself on a big plate, you’ll eat more. If you move the small bowl of chocolates on your desk six feet away you’ll eat half as much. If you eat chicken wings and remove the bones from the table, you’ll forget how much you ate and you’ll eat more.”“如果你用大勺子,你就吃得更多。如果你用大盘子吃饭,你就吃得更多。如果你把桌上的一小碗巧克力挪到离你6尺远的地方,你就会持掉一半。如果你在吃鸡翅的时候把骨头从桌子上清理走了,你就会忘记已经吃了多少,从而吃得更多。”Well, you can use your environment to help you eat less without starving yourself.当然,你可以利用环境来让你少吃点却又不用挨饿。You do this by eating your food in smaller plates/ bowls.通过用更小的盘子或者碗来吃饭解决。When you use a large plate, you have to add a lot of food on it to make it look full. If your brain thinks you’re eating less, the more likely it’ll be to want a second serving. (Thanks survival mode).当你用大盘子的时候,你会点很多食物让它看起来很满。如果你的大脑提醒你,你吃得太少了,那很可能你要再点一份了。(这是生存规律)However, if you put that same amount of food on a small plate, your mind will tell you that you are eating a large portion and you’ll stop adding food. That visual cue will trick your brain into thinking it’s had enough to eat.然而,当你把等量的食物放在一个小盘子里的时候,你的大脑会告诉你你已经在吃很大一份了,这样你就不会再点了。这种视觉提示会骗过你的大脑,告诉你不能再吃了。Look at the image below and tell me which circle is bigger – the one on the left or the one on the right?看下图告诉我哪个圆圈更大-左边的还是右边的?It’s a trick question - they’re both the same size.其实是一道迷惑你们的问题-它们是一样大的。Here’s the same image, but with actual food.这里是一样的图片,但是配上了真实的食物。Either way, you are eating the same amount of food.同样的,你吃了一样多的食物。This is known as the Delboeuf Illusion.这就是著名的德伯夫大小错觉。Delboeuf was a 19th-century Belgian philosopher, and he discovered if you surround two identical circles with different amounts of “white space,” people think they’re looking at two different circles.德波夫是一位19世纪比利时的物理学家,他发现如果两个有不同“留白区域”的完全相同的圆圈摆他们面前,人们会觉得他们在看两个不同的圆。The more “white space” around the circle, the smaller the circle appears.圆圈周围“留白部分”越大,这个圆圈看起来越小。This is why the black circle on the left in the image above looks smaller than the one on the right.这也是为什么以上图片中左边的被色圆圈看起来比右边的小。And it’s why the bowl of cereal on the left below looks less full than the one on the right. And that’s why the small plate feels fuller and more filling.这也是为什么下面左边那碗鼓舞看起来没有右边的满。而且这也是为什么小盘子看起来更满。Downsizing your plates will reduce the number of calories you are eating and allow you to feel satisfied at the same time.减小你的盘子的尺寸会减少你摄入的卡路里,而且会让你感到满足A study shows that eating from a 10-inch plate instead of a 12–inch one cuts your calories by a whooping 22%! That means this small change could result in an estimated 10 pounds in weight loss over the course of one year!调查显示用直径10英尺的盘子代替直径12英尺的盘子来吃饭的话,竟然可以减少22%的卡路里摄入。这就是说这个小小的改变可以让你在一年之中减重大约10英镑。Another study followed 200 homes in Syracuse over 4 months, and found that people randomly assigned to use smaller plates lost three pounds more than those given larger plates.另一个由在锡拉库扎的200个家庭经过4个多月完成的实验,得出的结论就是那些被安排使用小盘子家庭的人随随便便就比其他用大盘子家庭的人减重的3英镑。“It is easier to change your food environment than to change your mind.” – Brian Wansink“改变你的用餐环境比改变你的想法容易。” -布莱恩文森克Hope you found this helpful!希望这对你有用! /201703/496022Love is known to cause symptoms similar to those seen with addiction, and has even been linked to addiction-like activity in the brain.正如人们所知,爱情会引起类似上瘾的症状,甚至与大脑中的成瘾活动有关。But, scientists remain divided on whether you truly can become addicted to love.但是科学家们在人是否真的会对爱情上瘾这个问题上分歧很大。The researchers from Oxford University Centre for Neuroethics looked at 64 studies on love and addiction published between 1956 and 2016, according to New Scientist.据《新科学家》杂志报道,来着牛津大学神经伦理学中心的研究者们分析了64份研究,这些研究出版于1956年至2016年之间,都有关爱情和成瘾。As with drugs, the team found that love can trigger reward signals in the brain and can cause euphoria – but, it can also lead to cravings, obsessive behaviour, and grief when a relationship ends.该团队发现爱情和毒品一样,可以在大脑中出发奖励信号、并引发快感--但是当一段关系结束时,也会导致渴望、强迫行为以及悲伤。The team identified two distinct ways to describe love addiction: a #39;narrow#39; view and a #39;broad#39; view.该团队确定了两种不同的对爱情上瘾:一个是“狭义”上的,另一个则是“广义”上的。#39;The narrow view counts only the most extreme, harmful forms of love,#39; the authors wrote in the study.作者们在研究中写道:“狭义的爱情上瘾是最极端、最有害的爱。”According to the researchers, #39;narrow#39; love addiction is the result of abnormal processes in the brain#39;s reward center. This form of love addiction is thought to be #39;quite rare,#39; and has been linked to attachment behaviours that interfere with other aspects of that person#39;s everyday life.据研究者们表示,狭义的爱情上瘾是大脑奖励中心异常过程的结果。这种爱情上瘾被认为是“非常罕见的”,并且被认为和干扰个人日常生活其他方面的连接行为有关。And, it#39;s even led to stalking and murder, according to New Scientist.而且据《新科学家》报道,这种爱情上瘾甚至还会导致跟踪和谋杀。#39;Broad#39; love addiction, on the other hand, is more like typical love, though cravings are stronger.而另一方面,广义的爱情上瘾更像是典型的爱情--虽然欲望更强一些。#39;The broad view, by contrast, counts even basic social attachment as being on a spectrum of addictive motivations, underwritten by similar neurochemical processes as more conventional addictions.#39;“相比之下,广义的爱情上瘾是基本的社会依恋,包括一连串的致瘾动机,这是一种类似传统致瘾的神经化学过程。”Both of these forms, though, can cause harm, as they can lead to unhealthy and even abusive relationships.但是这两种爱情上瘾都会造成伤害,因为它们都可能会导致不健康、甚至是虐待的关系。 /201705/507664A major scientific review has found that simply having an electronic gadget in the room leaves children #39;switched on#39;.一项重要的科学研究发现,只要孩子们的房间里放有电子产品,他们隐形的生物钟就一直得不到休息。Youngsters are restless because they anticipate receiving texts and social media messages from friends, which affects their night-time routine even if parents impose rules about #39;screen time#39;.青少年们一直都处在睡眠不足的状态下,因为他们无视父母们规定的玩手机或者电脑的时间,在该休息时仍在和朋友们聊天、活跃在各大消息圈和社交媒体网络上。The review found that children and teenagers who use an electronic device within 90 minutes of going to bed are twice as likely to get insufficient sleep – and nearly three times as likely to feel sleepy during the day.这项研究表明,在睡前90分钟还在玩手机或者电脑等电子设备的孩子或者是青少年,睡眠不足的几率比一般的孩子要大2倍,白天打瞌睡的几率更是几乎高达3倍。Experts from King#39;s College London and Cardiff University found that access to media devices at night, even without use, put children at 79 per cent increased risk of getting insufficient sleep, 46 per cent increased risk of poor quality sleep, and 127 per cent increased risk of daytime drowsiness.来自伦敦大学国王学院和卡蒂夫大学的专家发现,孩子们晚上接触这些媒体产品,即使是不使用,也会增加79%的造成睡眠不足的可能,46%低质量睡眠的可能以及127%白天打瞌睡精神不振的可能。Dr Ben Carter, who led the review, said having access to social media at all hours meant children were #39;always alert#39;.这项调查的发起者本·卡特士告诉我们,如果孩子一整天都跟这些社交媒体绑在一起,那说明他的身体一直都处于警觉状态,得不到放松。#39;If the first thing you do in the morning is check your phone and the last thing you do at night is check your phone, that is indicative of addiction behaviour,#39; Dr Carter said.卡特士说:“如果你每天早晨起床的第一件事就是看手机,睡前的最后一件事也是看手机,那就说明你已经处于着迷状态了。”Dr Carter, who stressed that his theory had not been proven, added: #39;If you send a message an hour before you go to bed, you are still switched on when you try to sleep, in case there is a reply.#39;卡特士强调他的理论还没有被实过,并说:“如果你睡觉前发了一条消息,那当你睡觉的时候肯定大脑还在运转,以免担心错过了别人的回复。”Separate research suggests that 72 per cent of children and 89 per cent of adolescents have at least one device in their bedrooms and most are used near bedtime.其他独立的研究表明,72%的孩子和89%的青少年在他们的房间里至少有一项电子设备,而且大部分都是睡前使用。Dr Carter#39;s team, whose work is published in the JAMA Pediatrics journal, reviewed 20 existing studies from four continents, involving more than 125,000 children aged between six and 19.卡特士研究团队的工作成果已经在《美国医学会期刊》儿科分刊上发表了,综述了来自四大洲的20个现有研究,其研究对象是年龄在6到19岁的约12.5万名儿童。He said: #39;Our study provides further proof of the detrimental effect of media devices on both sleep duration and quality.#39;他表示:“我们的研究为实社交媒体对睡眠时间和睡眠质量的有害影响提供了进一步的据。” /201611/478230In an effort to combat plastic pollution, Indian startup EnviGreen has come up with a combination of natural starch and vegetable oils that looks and feels just like plastic, but is 100 percent organic, biodegradable and eco-friendly. 为了解决塑料污染问题,印度新兴企业EnviGreen用天然淀粉和植物油合成出一种塑料状的材料,这种纯有机材料是百分百可降解的,也绝不会损害环境。You can even dispose of such a plastic bag by eating it.你甚至可以通过食用来处理这种塑料袋。EnviGreen founder Ashwath Hedge came up with the idea for these revolutionary bags after seeing people struggling to find alternatives to plastic bags, following bans imposed by several Indian cities.此前,印度的一些城市颁发了禁塑令,但人们却很难找到塑料袋的替代品,目睹了这一窘境后,EnviGreen的创始人阿史沃斯.赫奇提出了这一革新性的理念——百分百降解可食用塑料袋。People were concerned about how they would carry products from the market now. 他对印度新闻网站The Better India说:人们现在关注用什么方式把商品从超市带回家。Everyone cannot afford a bag worth Rs. 5 or Rs. 15 to carry a kilogram of sugar, he told The Better India. 人们并不愿为了一千克糖多花五至十五卢比来买包装袋。So the 25-year-old decided to work on something that would solve this problem while being environment-friendly.所以,25岁的赫奇决定研发一种环保材料以解决这个难题。Hedge spent four years researching and experimenting with various materials, but one day he discovered a combination of 12 ingredients, including potato, tapioca, corn, natural starch, vegetable oil, banana, and flower oil, that looked and felt like plastic, but posed none of the environmental problems.赫奇用了4年时间去研究测试不同的材料,直到有一天,他发现用土豆、木薯、谷物、天然淀粉、植物油、香蕉和花油等12种原料混合在一起可以制作出一种新材料,这种材料的外形和触感都很像塑料,但却不会引起任何环境问题。The manufacturing process is obviously a closely-guarded secret, but the young entrepreneur did reveal that the raw materials are first converted into liquid form, and then taken through a six-stage process to create the bags.该材料的制作过程现在还是商业秘密,但赫奇透露称,他们会将原料先处理成流体,然后分六个阶段最终制成成品。The cost of an EnviGreen bag is about 35% higher than that of a plastic bag, but the benefits of using the former are more than worth the extra cost. 虽然EnviGreen研发的购物袋成本比一般的塑料袋高出35%左右,但它带来的利益远远大于其额外成本。Once discarded, EnviGreen bags biodegrade naturally in less than 180 days, and if placed in water at room temperature, they dissolve in less than a day. 此款购物袋被丢弃后,可以在6个月之内完全自然降解;如果将它们放置在室温的水中,它们则会在一天内溶解消失。For quick disposal, they can be placed in boiling water, and they dissolve in about 15 seconds.而如果将袋子放在沸水中的话,则分解得更快,大概只需要15秒。We don’t use any chemicals at all. 赫奇说:我们没有使用任何化学原料。Even the paint used for printing on the bags is natural and organic, Ashwath boasts. 就连袋子上的图案都是由自然有机的涂料绘成的。That not only means that users can discard them without hurting the environment, but also that animals can safely ingest them. 这不止能防止丢弃的袋子污染环境,还能避免动物因误食普通塑料袋而陷入危险。In fact, EnviGreen plastic bags are edible, something that Hedge was more than happy to demonstrate in his interview with The Better India. 事实上,EnviGreen的塑料袋是可食用的,在The Better India的采访中,赫奇对这一点颇为自豪。He simply soaked a bag in water and gulped it down with a smile on his face.他简单地用水浸湿袋子,然后面带微笑地将其吞了下去。The Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) has aly approved EnviGreen bags for commercial use, but not before conducting a series of tests. 经过一系列测试后,卡纳塔克邦州污染控制委员会批准EnviGreen袋上市出售。They found that despite their appearance and texture, they contain no plastic, and don’t share its hazardous properties. 测试发现,尽管这种袋子外形和结构与塑料很像,但它不含任何塑料成分和有毒物质。When burned, the innovative material does not melt, drip, or release any toxic fumes.EnviGreen袋在燃烧过程中也不会溶解,滴落或是释放有毒气体。EnviGreen has set up a factory in Bangalore, where it produces around 1,000 metric tonnes of eco-friendly plastic bags a month. EnviGreen已在班加罗尔建了一家工厂,每月可生产1000公吨的环保塑料袋。That’s not very much, considering that the city of Bangalore alone consumes over 30,000 metric tonnes of plastic bags every month, 仅班加罗尔一座城市每月就会消费超过三万公吨的塑料袋,与此相比1000公吨并不算多。They have however started supplying the bags to corporate retail chains like Metro and Reliance.现在,他们仅为麦德龙和里莱恩斯等连锁零售集团提供EnviGreen袋。but Hedge claims that he wants to set up enough production facilities before they start distributing to individual customers and shop owners. 但赫奇表示,他希望先拥有足够强的生产能力,再让这些塑料袋走向普通消费者和经营者。Apart from protecting the environment, Ashwath Hedge also plans to use EnviGreen bags to support local farmers. 除了保护环境,赫奇还计划用EnviGreen袋持当地的农民。We had this unique idea of empowering farmers in rural Karnataka by sourcing all our raw materials from them, he said. 我们希望通过从卡纳塔克的农民那里采购所需的原材料,来帮助他们致富,赫奇说,We are also planning to distribute seeds to help them produce the amount of materials required to make the bags.我们还计划为农民提供种子,以保我们有足够的原材料来生产袋子。According to the Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, over 15,000 tonnes of plastic waste is generated in India every day, only 9,000 of which are collected and processed. 环境、森林与气候变化部部长称,在印度,每天废弃的塑料袋超过15000吨,然而其中只有9000吨被回收和处理。Inventions like EnviGreen can help solve this problem, so let’s hope it lives up to its potential.类似EnviGreen袋的发明有利于解决塑料污染问题,希望它能蓬勃发展。 /201612/483611

A hard rain was falling on a summer’s day in 2009 when the call came into the police in the New Jersey shore community of Long Branch. 2009年夏天的一天,当新泽西海岸区朗布兰奇(Long Branch)的警局接到电话时,外面正下着暴雨。A dishevelled old man had been spotted walking around in the storm and staring into the windows of a vacant house with a for sale on it.有人看到一个头发凌乱的老人在暴风雨中游荡,盯着一套贴着在售标志的空房的窗户往里看。A 24-year-old officer was sent to investigate and found a strangely saturated senior citizen at the scene. 一名24岁的女警官被派去查看,她在现场发现了一个浑身湿透的奇怪老人。Dressed in a hooded raincoat and black sweat pants stuffed into his boots, he carried no identification and told a tale that seemed to be on the tall side.他身着连帽雨衣和黑色运动裤,裤腿塞进靴子里,他未随身携带任何身份件,说的话也让人难以相信。I asked him what his name was and he said, ‘Bob Dylan’, said the officer, Kristie Buble. 我问他叫什么,他说,‘鲍勃#8226;迪伦(Bob Dylan)’。Now, I’ve seen pictures of Bob Dylan from a long time ago and he didn’t look like Bob Dylan to me at all#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;I wasn’t sure if he came from one of our hospitals or something.警官克里斯蒂#8226;布勃莱(Kristie Buble)称,好吧,我很久以前见过鲍勃#8226;迪伦的照片,在我看来那个人一点都不像鲍勃#8226;迪伦……我当时不确定他是不是从哪家医院或其他类似地方跑出来的。Indulging the soaked-through fellow, the officer put him in her car and took him to the place where he said his tour bus was parked. 这位女警官没有为难那位浑身湿透的老人,她把他带到车上,送他去他说他的旅游车停放的地方。There, she found out that this Bob Dylan was the real McCoy — a discovery that made its way into the newspapers and provoked considerable amusement about the lack of historical consciousness among the US generations that followed the baby boomers.在那里,她发现这位鲍勃#8226;迪伦就是本尊——这个发现登上了报纸,引发了不少对美国婴儿潮后的几代人缺乏历史意识的调侃。This week, the hooded wanderer seen in Long Branch was back in the news because the Swedish Academy selected him as the 2016 winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, raising again the question of what to make of him.上周,这位曾出现在朗布兰奇的穿着连帽雨衣的流浪汉再次出现在新闻报道中,因为瑞典文学院(Swedish Academy)将他选为2016年诺贝尔文学奖(Nobel Prize for Literature)得主。这再次引发了该如何看待他的问题。The Swedish authorities knew Dylan well and honoured him for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition. 瑞典文学院很了解鲍勃#8226;迪伦,嘉奖他在美国歌曲的伟大传统中开创了新的诗性表达。Theirs was the Dylan who became the voice of his generation, expressing the young’s unease with the conformity of the postwar era and providing the poetry that animated the fights for civil rights and against the Vietnam war.他们眼中的鲍勃#8226;迪伦是这样一个人:为他那一代人发声,表达年轻人对战后时代的循规蹈矩的不安,创作的诗歌激励了人们争取公民权利的抗争以及反对越战运动。But the furtive fellow picked up by the police in New Jersey deserves to be part of the story, too. 但当时被新泽西警察局带走的那个鬼鬼祟祟的人也应该成为故事的一部分。For if there is one thing that has typified the former Robert Allen Zimmerman of Hibbing, Minnesota, in recent decades it has been his resistance to being too closely identified with the pop star version of Bob Dylan.因为,最近几十年,来自明尼苏达州希宾(Hibbing)、本名罗伯特#8226;艾伦#8226;齐默尔曼(Robert Allen Zimmerman)的他身上最典型的特征,就是他对与流行歌手鲍勃#8226;迪伦这一身份过于紧密地联系在一起的抵制。Now 75, Dylan still seems to live by the credo he set forth in his magisterial 1964 song, It’s Alright, Ma (I’m Only Bleeding): He not busy being born is busy dying. 如今已经75岁的迪伦,似乎仍然在依照他在1964年的经典歌曲《没事儿,妈妈(我不过是在流血)》(It’s Alright, Ma(I’m Only Bleeding))中提出的信条生活——没在忙着出生的人就在忙着死去(He not busy being born is busy dying)。His challenge has been that so many fans treat such words as if they were scriptural — as president-to-be Jimmy Carter seemed to do when he referenced the lyric at the 1976 Democratic convention in a bid to curry favour with younger voters. 他的难题一直是,太多的粉丝把这些歌词当作圣经来对待——就像之前尚未当选总统的吉米#8226;卡特(Jimmy Carter)在1976年的民主党全国代表大会上,为了迎合年轻选民而引用迪伦的歌词时那样。Following his period of pop stardom, Dylan quickly began turning away from the legions of people turning to him as their oracle.在流行歌星的人生阶段过去之后,迪伦开始迅速远离那些把他视为神明的人。Whatever the counterculture was, I had seen enough of it, he wrote in his memoir — Chronicles: Volume One — of his state of mind by the late 1960s. 不管反主流文化是什么,我都看够了,在回忆录《编年史》(Chronicles: Volume One,较早的一个中文版名为《像一块滚石》)中,他这样描述自己在1960年代末之前的思想状态。I was sick of the way my lyrics had been extrapolated, their meanings subverted into polemics and that I had been anointed as the Big Bubba of Rebellion, High Priest of Protest, the Czar of Dissent, the Duke of Disobedience, Leader of the Freeloaders, Kaiser of Apostasy, Archbishop of Anarchy, the Big Cheese.我厌倦了我的歌词被揣测,歌词的意义形成了论战,我被神化成了‘反叛的大佬’(Big Bubba of Rebellion)、‘抗议的大祭司’(High Priest of Protest)、‘异见的沙皇’(Czar of Dissent)、‘不从的公爵’(Duke of Disobedience)、‘寄生虫的领袖’(Leader of the Freeloaders)、‘叛教之皇’(Kaiser of Apostasy)、‘无政府主义的大主教’(Archbishop of Anarchy)和‘大人物’(Big Cheese)。The solution in recent years has been what he calls the Never-Ending Tour, with Dylan hiding in plain sight as a wandering minstrel, maintaining the musical flame carried before him by such heroes as Woody Guthrie and Big Bill Broonzy (his journeys have included visits to the old homes of other songwriters — leading to speculation that his mission in Long Branch was to see a house there that had once been occupied by Bruce Springsteen).近年来,他的解决办法是他所说的永无止境的旅行(Never-Ending Tour)——迪伦像游吟诗人一样隐藏在大庭广众之中,传承伍迪#8226;格思里(Woody Guthrie)和大比尔#8226;布伦齐(Big Bill Broonzy)等前辈曾传递过的音乐火焰(他的旅程包括拜访其他词曲作家的故居,这让人们猜测他去朗布兰奇是想看一看布鲁斯#8226;斯普林斯廷(Bruce Springsteen)曾经住过的房子)。These songs didn’t come out of thin air, he said at a music industry gathering in Los Angeles last year. 这些歌不是凭空诞生的,去年他在洛杉矶的一场音乐行业盛会上表示,I learnt lyrics and how to write them from listening to folk songs#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;sang nothing but these folk songs and they gave me the code for everything that’s fair game.我从听民谣中学习了歌词以及如何撰写歌词……只唱这些民谣,它们给了我一切可抒写对象的密码。The results are not meant to be easily understood. 以这种方式写出的歌曲注定不能轻易被理解。These songs of mine, they’re like mystery stories, the kind that Shakespeare saw when he was growing up, Mr Dylan said. 我的那些歌,就像莎士比亚成长时期所看过的那类神秘故事,迪伦称,They were on the fringes then, and I think they’re on the fringes now. 当时它们就属于边缘,我认为它们现在仍然属于边缘。And they sound like they’ve been on the hard ground.它们听起来像是一直在硬邦邦的地面上。Not everyone thinks that merits a Nobel. 并非所有人都认为这配得上得诺贝尔奖。More conventional literary types wondered why the Swedish committee failed to recognise writers — such as New Jersey’s native son Philip Roth — known for publishing books rather than cutting records and doing shows. 较传统的文学人士想知道为何瑞典文学院未嘉奖一些因著书而闻名的作家——比如新泽西土生土长的菲利普#8226;罗斯(Philip Roth)——而是选择了以出唱片和演出为主的歌手。Some critics detected the hand of self-indulgent, self-involved baby boomers.一些批评人士认为这是自我纵容、以自我为中心的婴儿潮一代的手笔。I’m a Dylan fan, tweeted Scottish novelist Irvine Welsh, the author of Trainspotting, but this is an ill-conceived nostalgia award wrenched from the rancid prostates of senile, gibbering hippies.我不是迪伦粉,苏格兰小说家、《猜火车》(Trainspotting)的作者欧文#8226;韦尔什(Irvine Welsh)在Twitter上写道,但这是从语无伦次的老嬉皮士发臭的前列腺扭下来的一个欠妥的怀旧奖项。In a way, the controversy showed that Dylan has not lost his touch. 在某种程度上,这种争议表明了迪伦宝刀未老。He has a talent for inspiring mixed feelings. 他拥有激发起复杂感情的天赋。Anyone who likes him at all has a relationship with him#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;that’s just about as personal as any they have with the people they actually know, Richard Hell, the punk rock pioneer, wrote in a recent collection of nonfiction. 每一个确实喜欢他的人都和他存在关系……这种关系就像他们与真正认识的人之间的关系那样私人,朋克摇滚先驱理查德#8226;黑尔(Richard Hell)在最近的散文集中写道,He’s been that useful, meaningful and exasperating all your life long.在你有生之年中,他一直都是那么有用、有意义、又令人恼火。Still working things out intellectually with Dylan himself, Mr Hell, 67, said he was pleased to see him win the Nobel. 仍然和迪伦本人一起解决脑力问题的黑尔现年67岁,他称,很高兴看到迪伦赢得诺贝尔奖。You have to smile, he told the Financial Times. 你必须微笑,他向英国《金融时报》表示,He’s an incomparable genius. 他是个无与伦比的天才。Yet a part of the old New York punk wondered whether the new Nobel laureate might turn his back on the academy once again — and take a walk.不过这位纽约老朋克也有一点儿好奇,想知道这位新诺奖得主又会不会拒绝瑞典文学院,独自走开。It would be funny, Mr Hell said, if he refused it.这会很有趣,赫尔称,如果他拒绝领奖。 /201610/472560

Ginger has been used as a medical aid for centuries. It contains over 100 different chemical components, the most effective being Gingerol - a highly potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, according to Dr. Axe.几个世纪以来,人们都在用生姜进行医疗救助。据埃克斯士所述,生姜还有100多种不同的化学成分,最有效的成分是姜酚,它是一种高效的抗氧化剂和抗炎剂。If you are in pain, just eat some ginger. Ginger helps reduce pain, decrease inflammation and inhibit bacteria such as protozoa and Salmonella. 如果你感觉疼痛,那就吃点生姜吧。生姜有助于缓解疼痛、降低炎症、抑制原生动物和沙门氏菌等细菌。It has also been proven to cure morning sickness and prevent indigestion and nausea. In some cases it relieves seasickness and motion sickness as well.也有人明生姜可治愈晨吐、预防消化不良和恶心。在某些情况下,生姜可以减轻晕船和晕车的症状。Support your digestive system, boost your immunity, heal your ulcers and fight off cancer with this flexible ingredient. It can be consumed in many forms; tea, beer and cooking.让功用多多的生姜提高你的消化系统、增强你的免疫系统、治疗你的溃疡、抗击癌症吧。吃生姜的方式多种多样:泡茶喝、放在啤酒里、做菜的时候也可放一点。1. It has anti-inflammatory effects- Ginger is an anti-inflammatory that has been used as a valuable tool for pain relief, according to Dr. Mercola. He explains that according to a study it has been ;found to be as effective as ibuprofen in relieving pain from menstrual cramps in women.; It also helps with migraine, muscle and joint pain.1. 生姜有抗炎作用。生姜是一种抗炎药物,已成为缓解疼痛的有效工具,据Mercola士说道。他解释道,据一项研究表明:研究员们已发现;在缓解女性月经疼痛方面,生姜和布洛芬同样有效。;生姜也能缓解偏头疼、肌肉酸痛和关节疼痛。2. May protect against cancer- Research has shown that ginger has the ability to shrink tumors; it#39;s even more effective than many cancer drugs, according to Natural Society.2. 可以预防癌症。研究已表明生姜可以缩小肿瘤;据自然协会所述,生姜甚至比许多的抗癌药物更有效。3. It#39;s great for your gut health- Ginger helps with digestion, reduces nausea and may even help reduce stomach infections. It helps relax the muscles in your gut lining, which in turn helps food move through your system and relieves irritable bowel syndrome symptoms - gas, bloating, cramps, constipation etc.3. 生姜有利于肠道健康。生姜有助于消化、减少恶心,甚至能降低胃部感染。它有助于放松肠道肌肉,从而使食物顺利的通过肠道。生姜还能减轻肠易激综合征症状--放屁、腹胀、抽筋、便秘等等。4. Boosts immune system- Ginger is a strong antioxidant that has been shown to naturally boost the immune system. It contains tons of vitamins, some of which include magnesium, iron, zinc and calcium. Ginger helps kill cold viruses and has been said to combat chills and fever.4. 增强免疫系统。生姜是强有效的抗氧化剂,已被明可天然增强免疫系统。生姜含有多种维生素,包括镁元素、铁元素、锌元素和钙元素。生姜有助于杀死感冒病毒,据说能治愈感冒和发烧。5. Can treat morning sickness and nausea- During the first few months of pregnancy, women tend to experience morning sickness - nausea, vomiting. Ginger has been shown to help soothe the stomach and relieve nausea symptoms. Tip: Add a slice of raw ginger to tea or water.5. 生姜可以治疗晨吐和恶心。怀的头几个月,女性往往会有晨吐的体验--恶心、呕吐。研究人员已表明生姜能舒缓胃部、缓解恶心症状。小贴士:在茶或水里放一片生姜即可。译文属 /201704/501660

I’m the first person who’ll put it to you, Bob Dylan said in a 1978 interview, and the last person who’ll explain it to you.我是第一个把它放在你面前的人,鲍勃#8226;迪伦(Bob Dylan)在1978年的一次采访中说道,也是最不愿意向你解释它的人。The Swedish Academy, which awarded Mr Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature on Thursday, has put it to us, and it has no explaining to do to most ers and listeners, however much they might have been pulling for Philip Roth or Don DeLillo or Margaret Atwood.星期四,瑞典文学院(Swedish Academy)把诺贝尔文学奖颁给了迪伦,他们把这个结果放在了我们面前,但是却没有为大多数读者与听众提供解释,不管这些读者们是多么看好菲利普#8226;罗斯(Philip Roth)、唐#8226;德里罗(Don DeLillo)或玛格丽特#8226;阿特伍德(Margaret Atwood)。This Nobel acknowledges what we’ve long sensed to be true: that Mr Dylan is among the most authentic voices America has produced, a maker of images as audacious and resonant as anything in Walt Whitman or Emily Dickinson.这次把奖颁给他,等于是确认了我们一直以来的一个感觉是真的:迪伦已经跻身美国最为真诚的声音之列,他所创造的意向如同沃尔特#8226;惠特曼(Walt Whitman)或艾米莉#8226;迪金森(Emily Dickinson)的一样大胆、令人产生共鸣。It has never hurt that Mr Dylan’s words were delivered, as the English poet Philip Larkin once put it, in a cawing, derisive voice that seemed to carry the weight of myth and prophecy. 正如英国诗人菲利普#8226;拉金(Philip Larkin)指出的,迪伦的歌词是用一种鸦叫般的嘲弄之声唱出,这嗓音从来无伤大雅,似乎承载了神话与预言的重量。Mr Larkin was not Mr Dylan’s greatest fan. 不过拉金并不是迪伦最大的歌迷。He found the lyrics to Desolation Row to be possibly half-baked.他觉得《荒凉小径》(Desolation Row)的歌词可能是半成品。It took a different Englishman, the venerated critic and scholar Christopher Ricks, to make the case most fully for Mr Dylan as a complicated and complicating poet. 彻底把迪伦作为一个复杂难解,且还在不断变得更加扑朔迷离的诗人来研究的,是另一位英国人——备受崇敬的家与学者克里斯托弗#8226;瑞克斯(Christopher Ricks)。In Mr Ricks’s sly 2004 book Dylan’s Visions of Sin, he persuasively compared Mr Dylan at various points with personages as distinct as Yeats, Hardy, Keats, Marvell, Tennyson and Marlon Brando.瑞克斯在2004年那本俏皮之作《迪伦的原罪想象》(Dylan’s Visions of Sin)一书中,从各个方面把迪伦同范围广泛的各路名人进行了令人信的对比,包括叶芝(Yeats)、哈代(Hardy)、济慈(Keats)、麦尔维尔(Marvell)、丁尼生(Tennyson)与马龙#8226;白兰度(Marlon Brando)。Dylan’s in an art in which sins are laid bare (and resisted), virtues are valued (and manifested), and the graces brought home, Mr Ricks wrote. 迪伦的作品是一种呈现原罪(并对之进行抵抗)的艺术,美德受到重视(并得以公开),恩宠清晰可见,里克斯写道。He added, Human dealings of every kind are his for the artistic seizing.他又说,人类的每一种行为都可供他以艺术的方式去捕捉。Mr Dylan, born Robert Allen Zimmerman in Duluth, Minn., in 1941, was inspired when young by potent American vernacular music, songs by performers like Woody Guthrie, Hank Williams and Robert Johnson. 迪伦原名罗伯特#8226;艾伦#8226;齐默曼(Robert Allen Zimmerman),于1941年出生在明尼苏达州的德卢斯,年轻时,他深受强大的美国民间音乐的影响,包括伍迪#8226;格瑟里(Woody Guthrie)、汉克#8226;威廉姆斯(Hank Williams)与罗伯特#8226;约翰逊(Robert Johnson)等人的歌曲。When his voice became fully his own, in his work of the mid-to-late 1960s that led up to what is probably his greatest song, Like a Rolling Stone, no one had ever heard pop songs with so many oracular, tumbling words in them.他渐渐形成了完全属于自己的声音,在其20世纪60年代中后期的作品《像一块滚石》(Like a Rolling Stone)中,众多如同神谕般云里雾里的字眼前所未有地出现在流行歌曲之中,而这首歌或许也是他最伟大的一首歌。When Bruce Springsteen inducted Mr Dylan into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, he described the opening seconds of that song this way: That snare shot sounded like somebody’d kicked open the door to your mind. 1988年,布鲁斯#8226;斯普林斯汀(Bruce Springsteen)引荐迪伦进入摇滚名人堂(Rock and Roll Hall of Fame)时这样描述这首歌的开头几秒钟:军鼓的声音就像有人一脚踢开通向你头脑的大门。The words that followed pulled that door from its hinge. 其后的歌词更是把这扇门整个拆了下来。In the chorus, they posed a question that has not stopped ringing over American life: How does it feel/To be on your own/with no direction home.副歌中提出的问题多年来一直回响在美国人的生活之中:孤身一人的感觉怎么样/没有回家的方向。At the time, Dylan wrote in his masterful memoir Chronicles: Volume One (2004), I just thought of mainstream culture as lame as hell and a big trick. 迪伦在他精的回忆录《编年史:第一卷》(Chronicles: Volume One,2004)中写道,那个时候,我觉得主流文化蹩脚极了,就是一个大笑话。That memoir demonstrated that Mr Dylan could write prose as fluently as lyrics. 这本回忆录表明,迪伦可以像写歌词一样流畅地书写散文。This needed proving only because Mr Dylan’s sole novel, Tarantula (1966), written when he was 25, is a largely unable wordstew, written so as to defeat the hardiest of his idolators.这一点之所以还需要明,只是因为迪伦的唯一一本小说,他在25岁那年创作的《狼蛛》(Tarantula, 1966)是几乎难以读懂的文字大杂烩,只是用来打击他最铁杆的崇拜者。As Elvis Costello said in his own recent memoir, If you want a long career, you have to drive people away now and again, so they realize they miss you.正如埃尔维斯#8226;科斯特洛(Elvis Costello)在前不久出版的回忆录中写到的,如果你希望拥有长久的事业生涯,就得时不时地赶走人群,好让他们意识到他们对你的想念。Everyone has his or her own private anthology of favorite Dylan lyrics. 所有人都有自己最心爱的迪伦歌词选。Mine come from songs including Idiot Wind (blowing every time you move your teeth), Brownsville Girl (Strange how people who suffer together have stronger connections than people who are most content), Hurricane (How can the life of such a man/be in the palm of some fool’s hand?), Sweetheart Like You (It’s done with a flick of the wrist) and Yea! Heavy and a Bottle of B, written with the Band (Pack up the meat, sweet, we’re headin’ out).我喜欢的歌词来自《白痴风》(Idiot Wind,每当启齿就呼啸而来);《布朗斯维尔女孩》(Brownsville Girl,一起受苦的人比心满意足的人更加紧密团结,这件事可真是奇怪);《飓风》(Hurricane,这样一个男人的生活,何以落入愚人之手?);《甜心如你》(Sweetheart Like You,就在手腕轻颤之间),还有《耶,沉沉的一大瓶子面包》(Yea! Heavy and a Bottle of B),是他与乐队(the Band)合写的(带上点肉,宝贝,我们要出发了)。Then there’s this, from Blind Willie McTell:然后还有《盲眼威利#8226;麦克代尔》(Blind Willie McTell)里的歌词:Well, God is in His heaven, and we all want what’s his. But power and greed and corruptible seed, Seem to be all that there is. Before this Nobel Prize, Mr Dylan has been recognized by the world of literature and poetry. 上帝在他的天堂/我们都想要他的国/然而权力、贪婪与腐坏的种子/似乎依然遍布大地在获得诺贝尔奖之前,迪伦已经获得文学界与诗歌界的认可。In 2008, the Pulitzer Prize jury awarded him a special citation for his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.2008年,普利策奖评委会因为他的歌词中带有非凡的诗意力量,对流行音乐与美国文化产生了深刻影响,把一个特别奖颁发给他。His songs have always packed social and political power to match the imagery. 他的歌中总是包含与这个描述相衬的社会与政治力量。In his book The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood, Ta-Nehisi Coates spoke of what Mr Dylan’s songs meant to his father as well as to a generation:塔-奈西希#8226;科特斯(Ta-Nehisi Coates)在《美丽的斗争:一位父亲,两个儿子与难以置信的成人之路》(The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood)一书中说起迪伦的歌曲对自己的父亲,乃至整整一代人的意义:Dylan’s voice was awful, an aged quaver that sounded nothing like the deep-throated or silky Ramp;B that Dad took as gospel. 迪伦的声音非常可怕,带着年迈的颤音,父亲视为福音的都是那些嗓音深沉或是如丝般润滑的节奏布鲁斯歌手,和迪伦可谓相去甚远。But the lyrics wore him down, until he played Dylan in that addicted manner of college kids who cordon off portions to decipher the prophecies of their favorite band. 但是他们的歌词让他厌烦,直到他上瘾般地放着迪伦的歌,就像那些把心爱乐队的歌曲分成一段段来听,企图破解歌中预言的大学生一般。Dad heard poetry, but more than that an angle that confirmed what a latent part of him had aly suspected. 爸爸从中听到了诗歌,但更多还是一个角度,确了已经潜藏在他心中的怀疑。What was confirmed was this: The Vietnam War was a moral disgrace.他确认的是:越南战争是一种道德上的耻辱。Songs are not poems, exactly. 准确地说,歌曲并不是诗歌。Songs prick our senses in different manner. 歌曲是以另一种方式来刺激我们的感官。Many of Mr Dylan’s lyrics can no doubt, as Mr Larkin put, look half-baked when set starkly alone on a white page.正如拉金指出的,如果只是白纸黑字地印出来,那么迪伦的很多歌词确实是半成品。But Mr Dylan’s work — with its iambics, its clackety-clack rhymes, and its scattergun images, as the critic Robert Christgau wrote — has its own kind of emblematic verbal genius. 但是,正如家罗伯特#8226;克里斯戈(Robert Christgau)所写到的,迪伦的作品带着抑扬格,带着咔哒作响的清脆节奏,带着机关般的意象,呈现出独特的标志性语言天分。His diction, focus and tone are those of a caustically gifted word man; his metrical dexterity is everywhere apparent. 他的措辞、焦点和语调都属于一个具有尖刻才华的文字创作者;歌词中对韵律的敏锐随处可见。He is capable of rhetorical organization; more often he scatters his rhetoric like seed, or like curses.他擅长组织修辞,经常把自己的雄辩像种子抑或诅咒一般播散在歌曲之中。This award is also a sign —after last year’s laureate, Svetlana Alexievich, whose work is made up of interviews — that the Swedish Academy is increasingly open to nontraditional forms of writing.这个奖项也是一个标志——继去年把桂冠颁给了主要作品为访谈的斯韦特兰娜#8226;阿列克谢耶维奇(Svetlana Alexievich)之后,瑞典文学院对非传统形式的写作有了更加开放的态度。In what feels like a blow for common sense and scalding wordplay, the academy has attended to Mr Dylan’s lyrics in Lay Lady Lay, to wit: Why wait any longer for the one you love/When he’s standing in front of you?说句似乎有点打击常识,而且非常尖刻的俏皮话吧,瑞典文学院肯定是看了迪伦《躺下吧,女士》(Lay Lady Lay)的歌词,就是那句当真爱就站在你的面前/为什么还要再去等待。In a 2004 interview in The New York Times, Mr Ricks summed up my sense of the best of Mr Dylan’s oeuvre: I just think we’re terrifically lucky to be alive at a time when he is.在2004年接受《纽约时报》采访时,瑞克斯的一句话极好地概括了我对迪伦作品的感受:我觉得我们能和他生活在同一个时代,简直是太幸运了。 /201610/472170

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