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来源:搜医门户    发布时间:2019年05月22日 05:48:14    编辑:admin         

Some of the best moments in World War II movies occur when, during a battle at sea, a periscope pokes up from the water, surveying the ocean terrain. 二战题材的电影中一些可赞的片段是,海上作战的时候,一个潜望镜从水中穿出,用以测量海洋地形。Cut to a submarine gliding through the depths. Torpedoes away, and the enemy battleship is doomed. How do these amazing vessels rise and sink so quickly to specific depths? 镜头切换到潜水艇潜到水下。然后发射鱼雷,敌军战队注定会失败。这些神奇的军舰是如何实现快速上升下沉到特定的深度?Although submarines are sophisticated machines, their ability to rise and sink is based on the elementary principle of buoyant force. 尽管潜艇是很复杂的机器,但它们上升下沉所依据的却是浮力的基本原理。Say you fill your bathtub with water and put a rubber gym ball on the surface of the water. 将浴缸填满水然后在水面上放一个橡胶健身球。It floats because the air-filled ball is less dense than the surrounding water. 它会在水面上漂着因为充气球的密度小于水的密度。But poke a hole in the ball and as water displaces the air, the overall density increases until the ball is heavy enough to sink to the bottom. 但在球上戳一个洞,用水代替健身球中的空气,其整体密度会变大,一直到该球重的足以落到水的底部。A submarine works in much the same way, with one major exception: a sub can alter its buoyancy by manipulating overall density. 海底工作大致是相同的,但有一点例外:通过操控整体密度,潜水艇能够改变其浮力。Submarines come equipped with tanks that can be filled with various levels of water and air. 潜艇都配备蓄水池,贮备着不同的水量和空气。When a sub floats on the surface, its tanks are filled mostly with air, which makes the sub less dense than the surrounding water. 但潜水艇浮在水面的时候,它的蓄水池里大部分都是空气,这样可以使得潜水艇的密度小于水的密度。When the crew wants to make the sub sink they open valves to allow just enough water to flood the tanks and make the sub sink to a specific depth. 若工作人员想要使潜艇下沉,他们可以打开阀门,让足够多的水流入蓄水池,然后使其下沉到一个特定的深度。Of course the sub must be able to rise again after filling its tanks with air. 当然将蓄水池充入空气,潜艇会再次上升。To that end submarines carry tanks of compressed air that can be used to displace water from the tanks and increase buoyancy.最后潜艇会携带带有压缩空气的蓄水池,用来替换蓄水池中的水,增加浮力。201308/251983。

Business商业报道Mexicos maquiladoras墨西哥边境工厂Big maq attack兵临城下A 50-year-old export industry that provides millions of jobs has to reinvent itself quickly to stay competitive维持了半个世纪的出口产业提供了数以万计的就业岗位,现今他们不得不迅速改造以保持足够的竞争力ELECTRONICS are like drugs.电子产品就像毒品一样利润巨大,You can buy them for 1 and sell them for 40, says Jordi Muoz, a 27-year-old Mexican entrepreneur.1美元买入的廉价货你可以40美元高价卖出。 27岁的墨西哥企业主祖狄穆诺兹如此说道。People in Tijuana, where he makes small, insectlike drones for civilian use, would probably prefer he used a different metaphor: the city is trying to put its narcotic reputation behind it.穆诺兹在提华纳创办了一家制造民用小型遥控飞机的工厂,在那里人们或许更喜欢与之不同的说辞:这座城市正试图甩掉这个蒙蔽性的名头。But Mr Muoz feels free to say what he likes, because he has found the holy grail for exporters in northern Mexico. He has brought inventive flair, not just deft fingerwork, to the process of making things .但是穆诺兹觉得自己想说什么就说什么,因为他为墨西哥北部的出口公司找到了圣杯:不仅仅是加工制造,而是如何制造。Mr Muozs drone-producing plant is a maquiladora, a factory that enjoys special tax breaks.穆诺兹的遥控飞机厂是一家能够享受税额优惠的美墨联营工厂。When Mexico set up the first maquiladoras half a century ago, they were sweatshops that simply bolted or stitched together imported parts, then exported the assembled product north across the border to the ed States.半世纪前,墨西哥首家美墨联营工厂还是血汗工厂,简单的组装、焊接零部件,再将那些装配产品出口美国。America got cheap goods;Mexico got jobs and export revenues.如此一来,美国廉价商品,墨西哥则增加了就业岗位、增加了出口收入。Now, with competition growing from other low-cost locations, and with the government cutting some of their tax breaks, the maquiladoras are having to step up their efforts to become innovative.现在,来自其他生产成本低廉国家的竞争日益加剧,政府逐渐减少税额优惠,墨西哥境内的美墨联营工厂不得不努力创新。On October 18th the lower house of Mexicos Congress approved President Enrique Pea Nietos proposal to sweep away a range of deductions and allowances that the maquiladoras enjoy.10月18日,墨西哥国会众议院批准了总统裴纳尼托的提案,该提案取消了美墨联营工厂享受的一系列减税及补贴的权利。In general, Mexicocollects less tax than other middle-income countries, and the government is striving to raise more revenues to improve its lamentable public services.总之,比起其他中等收入国家,墨西哥税率更低,政府正试图增加财政收入,用于改善其落后的公共设施。But the maquiladoras aly face stiff competition from other countries offering juicy tax breaks to manufacturers: KPMG, an accounting firm, last year rated Mexico worse than five of its main rivals in terms of tax competitiveness.但是,其他国家正制造商提供诱人的税额优惠,美墨联营工厂已经面临着激烈竞争。毕马威会计事务所称,去年墨西哥在税额优惠方面已经落后于其五个主要竞争对手。Accountants at another firm, Deloitte, reckon the reforms, if passed by the upper house in the coming days, will raise the maquiladoras effective income-tax rate from 17.5% to at least 30%.会计事务所会计师认为,如果上院同意了该项提案,美墨联营工厂实际税率将从17.5%涨至至少30%。Over the years the maquiladoras have aly lost much basic work, such as stitching together fabrics, to cheaper places in Asia, like Bangladesh.多年以来,联营工厂已经损失了不少基本工作,如装生产已经转向了亚洲成本更低的国家。But more recently, rising pay in Chinese factories has madeMexico look an attractive location once more.但是,最近中国工资水平上升让墨西哥再度焕发生机。According to the maquiladoras industry association, their exports and foreign investment each grew by more than 50% between and 2012, to 196 billion and 7.4 billion respectively.据联营工厂产业协会称,至2012年,墨西哥的出口及国外投资增长速度都超过了50%;其中,出口、国外投资分别增至1960亿美元、74亿美元。Employment, having fallen sharply in the wake of the global financial crisis, rebounded by 25% to just over 2m, slightly above the average for 2007-08.此前,在全球经融危机的大背景下,墨西哥的就业率大幅下滑;现在,就业率上升了25%,失业人口仅超过200万,这一数值仅比2007-2008年的平均水平略高。Carmakers, in particular, have been investing heavily in Mexico in response to a recovery in sales across the border in theed States.随着美国汽车销量的增长,汽车制造商在墨西哥大举投资。The lure of cheaper shores廉价诱惑However, the tax rise risks prompting a fresh wave of departures to cheaper shores:然而,税率的增长恐怕会引起制造商新一轮的转移浪潮:even impoverishedHaitiis now touting itself as a hub for low-cost assembly.即便是贫困的海地现在都已低成本制造吸引投资。So the maquiladoras are having to up their game, moving into more sophisticated types of manufacturing and doing more product design.因此,美墨联营工厂必须升级换代,转向制造更为精密的产品,设计更多的产品。On the first score, there has been some progress: much of the stitching done inTijuanathese days is not of T-shirts but of finicky medical devices such as stents, made of fine pig tissue.他们的首次尝试也取得了一定的成绩:如今的提华纳变革的不是装加工,而是精密的医疗设备,比如由优质猪肉组织制作的撑管。The aim of Mr Muozs company and others like it is to go a step further and to get involved in design and development.像穆诺兹这样的工厂正进一步转型,逐步走向设计与开发。If they succeed, they stand to gain some of the investment that American manufacturers are expected to make, as they shift work closer to home in reaction to rising costs in China.如果能够成功,他们一定能够获得美国制造商正在考虑的投资项目,中国生产成本的增长使得那些制造商转移到离美国更近的国家。Otherwise, those firms may instead be tempted to put their new plants in American states such as Nevadaand New Mexico.另外,那些制造商或许会被美国国内某些州,如内华达、新墨西哥抢走。These may not be able to match Mexican labour costs, but they have a better-educated workforce and are offering attractive tax rates and utility costs.上述各州或许劳动力成本不如墨西哥低廉,但是那里有受过更好教育的劳动力,并提供足够诱人的税率及通用费用。Aerospace and defence companies are among those thought likely to nearshore some of the manufacturing currently sent to China.宇航及防务公司同样在考虑迁回当前在中国的制造工厂,The maquiladora zone nearTijuanaaly has more than 50 firms in these industries, and it is here that the efforts to become more innovative are most visible.提华纳附近地方的美墨联营工厂区有超过50个此类工厂,这是这种地方其创新的愿望最为强烈。The Tijuanaplant of Zodiac Aerospace, a French company, makes aircraft interiors.位于提华纳的法国佐迪亚克航宇公司专门生产航空器内部构件:Downstairs, nimble-fingered women glue window-frames onto interior panels, and technicians operate machines that cut, stamp and weld metal parts.车间里,动作麻利的女工们将窗框粘贴到航空器的内墙板上,技工则操纵机器切割、冲压、焊接金属部件;But upstairs, young engineers are hunched over computers. One is designing from scratch a netting system for planes overhead lockers, to stop luggage shifting during flights.而在研究室,年轻的工程师都在电脑上埋头研发,一名工程师刚开始为航空器的头部储物柜设计网络系统以免行李在航行过程中飘移,He has proudly attached a note saying Made inMexico on his screen.他还骄傲的将一个写着墨西哥制造的标贴贴在自己的电脑上。His boss, Raul Perez, says that product design is the next logical step for his firm—and for Mexican manufacturing in general. It hasnt been easy, he admits.他的老板劳尔佩雷斯称下一步公司便会着眼于产品设计,佩雷斯坦承对于墨西哥制造业来说这并不容易。Mexican universities and colleges tend to produce engineers expert in industrial process rather than products; they are good at making production lines more efficient, but not at inventing what goes on them.墨西哥的高等院校更倾向于培养工业工序方面的工程师,而不是产品设计工程师,这样培养出来的学生更擅长让生产线更高效运作,而不会产品设计。So Zodiac, which used to train recruits in-house, now sends its staff into universities to teach, and helps design courses that will produce engineers suitable for his industry.因此,过去Zodiac企业内部培训新人,现今则派遣员工到大学里,指导、帮助学校进行课程设计以利于培养需要的工程师。Even more than other industries, aerospace needs skilled and versatile workers.即便是在其他企业,宇航公司同样需要技术出众、复合型员工。Honeywell, one of the biggest aerospace firms in the region, employs 350 people in the design, engineering and testing of aircraft components inMexicali, the capital of Tijuanas home state of Baja California.霍尼韦尔公司,提华纳地区最大的宇航公司之一,在墨西卡利招聘了飞机部件设计、工厂、测试工作人员共计350人。But on a recent visit, its boss, David Cote, told reporters the talent pool lagged other potential aerospace hubs such as eastern Europe.但是,霍尼韦尔公司老板告诉记者这批人中有来自其他航空准发达地区,诸如东欧。He said Mexiconeeded more multi-skilled engineers able to work in mechanics, electronics and software.他说,墨西哥需要有更多能够在机械、点子、软件方面都能胜任的复合型工程师Another drawback for the maquiladoras is that they have not developed local suppliers:联营工厂的另一短板是他们没有成熟的本地供应商:less than 5% of their inputs are sourced within Mexico.他们的投入仅有不到5%是来自墨西哥。Aerospace is a particularly demanding field because safety standards require a high degree of certification for all the parts that go into an aircraft; and suppliers making components for defence equipment are subject to strict security requirements.航空业的要求特别高,因为安全标准规定航空器上的每一个另见都有极高的安全保,为防护设备制造部件的供应商同样严格执行安全标准。To become a plausible aerospace cluster, and attract more investment from the worlds top manufacturers, the maquiladoras around Tijuananeed to bolster the local supply chain, as well as produce more engineers capable of product design.要想成为看上去可信的宇航基地,吸引更多来自世界顶级制造商的投资,提华纳周边的联营工厂需要持本地的供应链,培养更多产品设计工程师。For decades, low costs have made the maquiladoras one of the two main pillars ofMexicos exports, second only to oil.过去的几十年里,生产成本低廉让联营工厂成为墨西哥仅次于石油的第二柱。From now on, creativity will be a better way of beating the competition than cost.从现在起,比起低成本,创造力将会成为击败竞争对手的更有力武器。 /201310/262179。

Books and Arts; Book Review;Human decision-making; Not so smart now;文艺;书评;人类的决策;聪明不在;Thinking Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman.《思考,快与慢》丹尼尔·卡尼曼著。Towards the end of “Thinking, Fast and Slow”, Daniel Kahneman laments that he and his late collaborator, Amos Tversky, are often credited with showing that humans make “irrational” choices. That term is too strong, he says, to describe the variety of mental mishaps to which people systematically fall prey. Readers of his book may disagree. Mr Kahneman, an Israeli-American psychologist and Nobel economics laureate, has delivered a full catalogue of the biases, shortcuts and cognitive illusions to which our species regularly succumbs. In doing so he makes it plain that Homo economicus—the rational model of human behaviour beloved of economists—is as fantastical as a unicorn.在《思考:快与慢》一书的结尾之处,丹尼尔卡内曼说对人们的一些赞誉感到悲痛,人们赞赏他和他已故的合作者阿莫斯特沃斯基发现了人类做“无理性决定”,他说,用这个说法来形容“人们可能受到的各种方的面精神问题的困扰太严重了”。这本书的读者也许不赞同这个说法。卡内曼拥有以色列和美国双重国籍,心理学家,诺贝尔经济学奖获得者,他将人类通常会有的偏见,心理捷径,和认知幻象进行了系统全面的分类并清晰的阐释了新鲜的“经济人”的概念(Homo economicus),这是经济学家所钟爱的人类行为的理性分类。In one experiment described by Mr Kahneman, participants asked to imagine that they have been given 50 pound behave differently depending on whether they are then told they can “keep” 20 pound or must “lose” 30 pound—though the outcomes are identical. He also shows that it is more threatening to say that a disease kills “1,286 in every 10,000 people”, than to say it kills “24.14% of the population”, even though the second mention is twice as deadly. Vivid language often overrides basic arithmetic.卡内曼描述了一个实验:要求实验参与者想象他们每人得到50英镑,尽管结果一样—都被告知他们只能留下20镑,而必须要损失30镑,但他们每个人表现却大不相同。卡内曼还告诉我们,如果说一种疾病使每10000人中有1286人死亡,或者表述为它使占人口总数的24.14%的人死亡,尽管后者的死亡人数是前者的两倍,但前者更有震慑力。形象生动的语言比简单的数字更为感染力。Some findings are downright peculiar. Experimental subjects who have been “primed” to think of money, perhaps by seeing a picture of dollar bills, will act more selfishly. So if someone nearby drops some pencils, these subjects will pick up fewer than their non-primed counterparts. Even obliquely suggesting the concept of old age will inspire people to walk more slowly—though feeling elderly never crossed their mind, they will later report.有些实验结果十分奇怪。那些在看到美元的图像,更容易想到钱的人的实验参与者通常会表现得更为自私。如果坐在他们身旁的人有人掉了铅笔,相比较那些没那么容想到钱的人,他们肯弯腰捡起笔的几率要大大降低。这甚至间接地暗示:想到老年的意象会使人们走路速度放缓—尽管他们自己从没有老年的感觉,这些结论稍后将后发布。After all this the human brain looks less like a model of rationality and more like a giddy teenager: flighty, easily distracted and lacking in self-awareness. Yet this book is not a counsel of despair. Its awkward title refers to Mr Kahnemans two-tier model of cognition: “System 1” is quick, intuitive and responsible for the quirks and mistakes described above (and many others). “System 2”, by contrast, is slow, deliberative and less prone to error. System 2 kicks in when we are faced with particularly complex problems, but much of the time it is all too happy to let the impulsive System 1 get its way. (Readers may be reminded of Freuds “id” and “superego”, though Mr Kahneman never mentions this particular intellectual ancestor.)最后,作者得出结论,与其说人类的大脑是理性的集合,还不如说它更像一个轻浮的少年:反复无常,容易分神,缺少自觉意识。当然这本书不是人们悲观的忠告。书的标题有些拗口,但它表明了卡内曼对认知的双层分类模型:“系统一,快速,受直觉引导,易犯上述的错误。相比之下,系统二则缓慢,慎重思考,不易犯错误。只有当我们面临着复杂的问题时,系统二才会启动,更多的时候,是让受直觉影响的系统一来替我们做决定。(读者可能会想到弗洛伊德的“本我”“超我”,但卡内曼在书中压根没有提这位贡献卓著的前人)What, then, is System 1 good for? Rather a lot, it turns out. In a world that often demands swift judgment and rapid decision-making (fight or flight?), a creature who solely relied on deliberative thinking wouldnt last long. Moreover, System 1 generally works well. As Mr Kahneman says, “most of our judgments and actions are appropriate most of the time”. He urges ers to counteract what he considers to be mistakes of System 1 thinking, such as the “loss aversion” that deters people from accepting favourable gambles (such as a 50-50 chance to win 200 dollar or lose 100 dollar). He also recommends checking the performance of an investment portfolio no more than once a quarter, to limit needless anguish over short-term fluctuations and the “useless churning” of shares.那么,系统一适合做什么呢?是:很多。在这个世界里,我们常常需要迅速做出判断,并快速做出决定(开战与否?)一个人不能只是依靠深思熟虑,这样是不行的。并且,系统一通常可以很好的运行。正如卡内曼所说:“我们大部分的判断和决策通常都很合理”他建议读者自觉避免系统一思考方式会犯的错误,例如“讨厌损失”会让人们不愿接受有利可图的打赌(比如,有一半对一半的机会来赢200美元或者损失100美元)他也强烈建议我们每次在观察券投资的行情时考虑的时间不要超过15分钟,这样会减少我们对短期内股价的浮动和调整不必要的担心。Mr Kahneman does not dwell on the possible evolutionary origins of our cognitive biases, nor does he devote much time to considering why some people seem naturally better at avoiding error than others. Still this book, his first for a non-specialist audience, is a profound one. As Copernicus removed the Earth from the centre of the universe and Darwin knocked humans off their biological perch, Mr Kahneman has shown that we are not the paragons of reason we assume ourselves to be. Often hailed as the father of behavioural economics (with Tversky as co-parent), his work has influenced a range of disciplines and has even inspired some policy.卡内曼并没有详述我们认知偏见的进化源头,也没有花太多笔墨解释为什么有些人天生就比其他人善于规避错误。但他的这本书作为给大众的普及型读物是十分出色。正如哥白尼提出了地球是宇宙的中心,达尔文指出人类不是万物之灵,卡内曼也展示了我们人类并没有自己想象的那样充满理性的智慧。卡内曼被人们称为行为经济学之父(和特沃斯基并称),他的理论影响了许多学科,甚至给一些政策的制定提供了参考。But the true consequences of his findings are only starting to emerge. When he presents the poor victims of his experiments with conclusive proof of their errors, the typical reaction is not a chastened pledge to shape up, but confused silence, followed by business as usual. No one likes to be told he is wrong.基于他的发现,其真正结论现在才开始显现出来。当他拿出确凿的据给可怜的实验者们看,来明他们的错误时,人们明显的反应不是发誓改正这些错误,而是非常困惑的保持了沉默,紧接着,一切又回归原样。没有人喜欢别人告诉自己做错了。 /201304/234102。

Mobile telecoms in Pakistan巴基斯坦的移动通信业At last, 3G终于等到你,3GThe government raises a bit of money and gets a long-awaited industry started政府筹集到了一定资金,启动了长期停滞的产业Now we can really start shopping现在我们可以真正意义上开始购物IN PAKISTAN, as in other poor parts of the world, mobile telecoms are vital to the countrys development, bypassing obstructive bureaucrats and bringing services directly to the masses—from banking to voter registration. Yet it is the only country in South Asia that does not have high-speed mobile internet, because only this week, after eight years of delays and regulatory snarl-ups, did it at last hold an auction of the spectrum required to roll out 3G and 4G services.移动通信的发展对于巴基斯坦以及世界上其他的贫困地区的发展至关重要,避开官僚作风的阻碍,将直接务于大众—从业到选民登记。同时,他也是南亚唯一没有高速移动网络的国家。因为在持续8年的推延以及官僚阻滞的影响下,直到这个星期,巴基斯坦才举行开展3G和4G业务所需频谱的招标。 Demand for the licences fell short of the governments hopes. The finance minister, Ishaq Dar, had talked of the auction raising billion; in the end it produced just under .2 billion. Successful bids were made by two local operators, Mobilink and Ufone, and two foreign ones, China Mobile and Telenor of Norway. Two other big foreign firms that had been expected to take part, Saudi Telecom and Turkcell of Turkey, got cold feet after, it is said, having their request for exclusive one-year licences rejected.运营权的需求度低于政府的预期。金融部长Ishaq Dar曾经提及招标计划是20亿美金,但是最后只产生了12亿不到。成功中标的包括Mobilink 以及Ufone 这两家本土公司以及China Mobile 和 Telenor of Norway这两家国外公司。其他两个国外大集团Saudi Telecom 和 Turkcell of Turkey曾有望参与其中,但是却临阵退缩了。据说是因为拒绝了他们一年独家经营权的要求。The year Pakistans government first talked about auctioning 3G spectrum, 2006, was the year Sri Lanka actually started its services. India held its auction in 2010. Even now, in both these countries only a modest proportion of the population enjoys access to high-speed mobile broadband—but they are far ahead of Pakistan and Bangladesh (see chart).在斯里兰卡实际开启其3G业务的2006年,巴基斯坦政府第一次提及3G频谱的拍卖。印度在2010年招标。即使是现在,这两个国家只有一部分人喜欢连接高速移动宽带——但是这比例也远比巴基斯坦和孟加拉要高。In 2003 Pakistans then military dictator, Pervez Musharraf, deregulated mobile telecoms to attract foreign investment. But the civilian administration that succeeded him in 2008 spent years lurching from one crisis to another, and failed to promote the industry. A new government, in power since last June, has faced down protests from opposition politicians and, at last, held the auction.2003年,巴基斯坦当时的军事独裁者Pervez Musharraf解除对于移动通信业的管制来吸引外商投资。但是2008年接任的平民政府在不断发生的危机中步履蹒跚,发展该产业也失败了。去年六月上台的新政府面对反对派的抗议,最终举行了招标。It could have copied war-torn Afghanistan, which has done without an auction, and simply sold licences at low prices, starting in 2012. It did so on the grounds that the economic boost from introducing 3G should be bigger than the one-off windfall from an auction that might have got mired in corruption allegations.它本可以模仿饱受战乱的阿富汗,自2012年开始,不进行招标,单纯地以低价出售经营权。阿富汗这样做,因为引入3G带来的经济发展的利益比一次性拍卖来得高,后者还可能会陷入腐败的指控中去。Pakistans new government, however, needed cash to replenish its foreign reserves. It has not got as much as it wanted, but a less competitive auction may give the successful operators more of a chance to build a profitable business. They have long been plagued by fickle government policies and tight margins in a market that has some of the lowest average revenues per user in the world, at around a month.但是巴基斯坦的新政府需要现金来重新扩大它的外汇储备。它没有获得其预期的那么多,但是竞争不太激烈的招标或许能给中标方更多的机会来建立一个盈利的项目。他们长期困扰于多变的政策以及市场利润空间不足的情况,因为一些用户处于世界上最低收入水平,每月收入在2美元左右。With a crippling energy crisis that leaves its cities powerless for up to 12 hours a day and the villages for longer, and an Islamist insurgency that has paralysed businesses and deterred all but the bravest foreign investors, the country of nearly 200m people sorely needs the boost that high-speed mobile-internet access should bring. A recent study by a British consulting firm, commissioned by the Pakistani government, predicted that by increasing economic activity it could help create up to 900,000 jobs over the next four years, and bring in hundreds of millions of dollars a year of new tax revenues.伴随着严重的能源危机,巴基斯坦的城市一天有12个小时断电,乡村更久。并且伊斯兰叛乱活动使得商业瘫痪,除了那些最勇敢的外国投资者,没有其他人敢来。有将近2亿人的国家十分需要高速移动网络连接带来的发展。最近一项受巴基斯坦政府委任由英国顾问集团进行的研究,其预计通过增加经济活动,发展高速网络能在接下来的思念时间帮助创造90万的岗位,并带来每年亿万美元的税收收入。Nevertheless, as elsewhere in South Asia, the sp of the mobile internet is likely to be slow, since it depends on people replacing their basic handsets with smartphones, which remain unaffordable for most Pakistanis. So far less than 10% of the countrys 132m mobile subscribers have smartphones, according to industry figures. However, Pakistans mobile operators are playing a long game. Even the local ones have deep-pocketed foreign backers that are prepared to wait for growth to pick up and dividends to flow.然而,就像南亚其他地方一样,手机网络的推广过程是缓慢的,因为它需要人们将他们的功能机置换成智能机,这对于大多数巴基斯坦人来说是难以负担的。产业数据显示,目前,该国1.32亿手机用户中不到10%拥有智能机。但是,巴基斯坦的移动运营商着眼于未来。即使本地运营商也有着有钱的国外赞助人,他们准备等待着发展腾飞、利益的扩张。 /201405/294997。

The obvious risk of this happening to crowded passenger planes in British airspace was enough for the UKs Civil Aviation Authority to enforce a total ban on flights-a move which was mirrored by other northern European countries.发生在英国领空拥挤乘客的飞机中最为明显的风险足以让英国民航执行全面禁飞,其他北欧国家可以借鉴此举。The dangers of flying through volcanic ash were demonstrated in 1982 when a British Airways flight from Malaysia to Australia lost power in all four engines after flying into a cloud of dust spewed out by an eruption of Mount Galunggung in Indonesia.飞过火山灰的危险之旅出现在1982年从马来西亚飞往澳大利亚的一架英国航空公司航班在飞入一片印度尼西亚加隆贡火山喷发出的火山灰云层后所有四个引擎失去动力。After 15 minutes of gliding in a controlled descent from 37,000 feet to 12,000 feet, the pilot, Captain John Moody, managed to restart the engines once enough of the molten ash in the engines solidified and broke off.15分钟后滑翔从37000英尺控制降至12000英尺,飞行员,队长约翰?穆迪曾经试图启动引擎,但融化的火山灰在其中已经凝固并且造成机器停止运转。The plane went on to land safely in Perth.飞机最终安全降落了在珀斯。Speaking to the B last week, Captain Moody demonstrated the typically phlegmatic attitude of his profession.上周对于B发表讲话时,队长穆迪展示了他职业般冷漠示人的态度。;It was, yeah, a little bit frightening,; he said.“是,是的,是有一点害怕,”他说道。201309/258384。

Science and technology科学技术The genetics of politics 政治遗传学Body politic 人体政治Slowly, and in some quarters grudgingly, the influence of genes in shaping political outlook and behaviour is being recognized在某些方面,塑造政治前景和行为的基因影响正在慢慢地被人们所接受,虽然还是不情愿。IN 1882 W.S. Gilbert wrote, to a tune by Sir Arthur Sullivan, a ditty that went I often think its comical how Nature always does contrive/that every boy and every gal thats born into the world alive/is either a little Liberal or else a little Conservative.在1882年,W.S吉尔伯特写的一首小诗-是为阿瑟-沙利文爵士的一首曲子而作,我一直认为,大自然的精工雕作是那么可笑/每个出生到这个世界上,并存活下来的男孩和女孩们/不是有一点自由倾向,就是有一点保守。In the 19th century, that view, though humorously intended, would not have been out of place among respectable thinkers.在十九世纪,这个观点虽然有一点幽默的意味,但是在那些备受尊敬的思想家眼中,也并不是一无是处。The detail of a mans opinion might be changed by circumstances.一个人意见的详细观点可能会由于环境而改变。But the idea that much of his character was ingrained at birth held no terrors.但是,这种与生俱来的,由他的性格决定的观念也没什么恐怖的。It is not, however, a view that cut much ice in 20th-century social-scientific thinking, particularly after the second world war.然而,它在二十世纪的社会科学思想中没有占到一席之地,特别是二战之后。Those who allowed that it might have some value were generally shouted down and sometimes abused, along with all others vehemently suspected of the heresy of believing that genetic differences between individuals could have a role in shaping their behavioural differences.那些认为它有一些价值的人们发出的呐喊,通常会被持不同观点人们的声音所掩盖,有时还会遭到辱骂,和那些对当时的异端邪说----即个体之间的遗传差异在塑造他们各自不同的行为上起了一定的作用----有些猜测的人们一样受到不公平对待。Such thinking, a product compounded of Marxism and a principled rejection of the eugenics that had led, via Americas sterilisation programmes for the feeble minded, to the Nazi extermination camps, made life hard for those who wished to ask whether genes really do affect behaviour.这样的想法,与马克思主义融合后的产物,加上美国借口弱智而产生的绝育计划,这种优生学的原则性排斥反应直接导致了纳粹集中营的大屠杀,让那些想知道基因是不是对行为真的有影响的人们更加难以生存了。Now, however, the pendulum is swinging back.然而,现在,这个一直在变化的问题又摆到了人们面前。In the matter of both political outlook and political participation it is coming to be seen that genes matter quite a lot.就政治观点和政治参与而言,即将可以看出,基因确实起到了很大的作用。They are not the be-all and end-all.他们并不是最重要的。But, as a review of the field published in September in Trends in Genetics, by Peter Hatemi of Pennsylvania State University and Rose McDermott of Brown University, shows, they affect a persons views of the world almost as much as his circumstances do, and far more than many social scientists have been willing, until recently, to admit.但是,由美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学的彼德-哈特米和布朗大学的罗斯麦克德莫特合著的遗传学的发展趋势于今年九月出版,书中所持的遗传学观点认为,基因对人们世界观的影响几乎等同于环境的影响,而且,远远超过了许多社会科学家愿意承认的影响,直到最近他们才愿意接受这个结果。Family values 家庭价值The evidence for this claim comes from two types of source, one relatively old and one spanking new.这种说法的据有两种来源,一种比较古老,一种非常新颖。The old is studies of twins, comparing identical and non-identical pairs.古老的来自于对双胞胎的研究,以同卵双胞胎与异卵双胞胎进行对比研究。The new is a direct examination of peoples DNA, searching for genes whose variation correlates with observable behavioural differences.新颖的是对人类的DNA直接进行检查研究,探求基因变异与观察到的行为变异的关系。Twins studies, which seek to control for the effects of upbringing by comparing identical twins with fraternal ones, have been going on since the 1950s.双胞胎研究从二十世纪五十年代就开始了,主要是通过对同卵双胞胎和异卵双胞胎进行比较,寻求控制成长的影响基因。In that time, quite a number, in many countries, have looked in part at political questions.那时候,很多国家的大多数人,他们的注意力主要集中在政治问题上。Dr Hatemi and Dr McDermott pored over 89 peer-reviewed papers on the effects of genes and environment on political matters.哈特米士和麦克德莫特士认真钻研了,89名同行对于基因和环境对政治问题影响的文章。These included twins political knowledge, their attitudes to racial, sexual and religious questions, their views on defence and foreign policy, and their identification with particular political parties.这些报道包括了双生子的政治知识,他们在种族,性别和宗教问题上的态度,他们对国防和外交政策的看法,还有他们对特别党派的认同感。On all counts, identical twins were found to be more alike than fraternal twins.通过这些项目的研究,发现同卵双胞胎比异卵双胞胎更相像。That knowledge, refracted through the prism of statistical theory, allows calculations of the proportionate influences of genes, family environment and general environment on particular traits to be made.通过统计理论分析得到的结果,可以推算出基因、家庭环境和外部环境对特别性状的相应比例的影响。Some show strong genetic influence.其中,一些结果表明受到了很强的基因影响,Some show little.而有一些几乎不受基因影响。Intriguingly, political knowledge and party identification are at opposite ends of the spectrum.有趣的是,政治知识和党派认同分别处于研究结果的两端。As the chart shows knowledge is highly genetically determined. Identification with a particular political party, by contrast, is largely a question of family upbringing—much more so than are opinions about the sorts of policy that it might be thought would determine voting patterns.就像上表揭示的,政治知识受到基因的影响最大。相反,对特别政治党派的认同主要是家庭教育的问题,而对于各种政策的意见,家庭教育对这个的影响远远不如对前者的影响。But even family ties weaken when people leave home—and they do so in a way that helps disentangle genetic influence.但是当人们离开家,家庭联系甚至日益减弱时,这样在某种程度上就把研究的方向聚集到了基因的影响上。Dr Hatemi showed this in when, along with a group of colleagues, he looked at twins aged between 11 and 75.哈特米士在年-当时他与他的同仁们一起工作,对11岁到75岁的双生子进行了研究-公布了这个研究结果。His results demonstrated that until their late teens both kinds of twins had equally similar political views.他的研究结果说明了,直到这些双生子十几岁时,他们的政治看法都很相似。Soon after they flew the nest, though, as might be expected, their views began to diverge.但是,可能就像预测的一样,在他们离巢后不久,这些双生子之间的看法就开始有分歧。And, just as would be expected if genes have political influence, the views of fraternal twins diverged more than did those of identical ones.而且,就像预计的,如果基因有政治影响力的话,那么异卵双胞胎的意见分歧将会比那些同卵双胞胎更加严重。Between the ages of 18 and 20 identical and fraternal twins both shared nearly 70% of their political ideology.18到20岁的同卵和异卵双胞胎的政治思想近70%都相同。Between the ages of 21 and 25, that had shrunk to 60% for identical twins and 40% for fraternal twins. Clearly, then, genes matter.21到25岁,同卵双胞胎的这个数值减小到了60%,而异卵双胞胎只有40%。那很明显,基因影响。Nor do they merely affect a persons opinions.基因不仅仅影响一个人的意见。They also affect his level of political engagement.它们也影响人的政治参与水平。This was shown in a study published in 2008 by James Fowler of the University of California, San Diego.2008年公布的一项研究-研究者是位于圣地亚哥的美国加州大学的詹姆斯福勒揭示了这点。Dr Fowler and his team analysed the voter-registration records of identical and fraternal twins from Los Angeles, and also from a more nationally representative database.福勒士和他的团队分析了洛杉矶市的同卵和异卵双胞胎的选民登记记录,也对更多有代表性的国家数据库的数据进行了分析。They found that identical twins are 53% more likely either both to register or both not to register than are fraternal twins.他们发现,在登记或者不登记这点上,53%的同卵双胞胎的选择可能相同,远远高于异卵双胞胎。Political signals 政治信号Twins studies like these unequivocally demonstrate the heritability of politically related behaviour.像这样的双胞胎研究明确地实了有关政治行为的遗传性。What they do not do, though, is explain the underlying biology.虽然他们不这样做解释了基本生物学原理。That is an area which is only now starting to be explored.这是一个现在刚刚开始进行探索的领域。In 2010 a study published by Dr Fowler and his colleagues implicated a gene known asDRD4 in the development of political affiliation.2010年,福勒士和他的同事公布的一项研究暗示,被称为多巴胺D4受体基因是政治立场发展过程的关键因素。DRD4 encodes a receptor molecule for a neurotransmitter called dopamine.DRD4对一种称为多巴胺的神经传递素的受体分子进行了编码。Those with a variant of DRD4 called 7R, and also a large network of friends acquired during their adolescence, tended to be liberals—ie, left wing.那些带有称为7R的DRD4的变异体,在他们青春期也需要一个朋友圈的人,往往会成为自由派,即左翼。One interesting point about this observation is that it requires both a genetic input and an environmental one to take effect.这次观察的一个有趣的地方是,政治背景的形成需要一种遗传性输入,也需要环境输入才能产生影响。DRD4-7R has previously been associated with novelty-seeking behaviour.长外以来,DRD4-7R一直与寻求新颖的行为有所关联。The authors of the paper speculate that the interaction of that tendency with possible exposure to lots of different ideas held by lots of different people might push an individual in a leftwardly direction.本文作者猜测,许多不同持不同观念的人可能会相互接触,而他们之间的相互影响可能会让他们成为左翼阵营。Following up on Dr Fowlers work, research published earlier this year by a team led by Dr Hatemi found a further 11 genes, different varieties of which might be responsible for inclining people towards liberalism or conservatism in the way that Gilbert described.今年初,在福勒士研究的基础上,哈特米士领导的团队公布了他们的继续研究成果。他们发现,还有11个各不相同的基因,它们可能影响了人们对自由派或者保守派的倾向,而这却是吉尔伯特在那首小诗中描述到的。These included genes involved in the regulation of three neurotransmitters—dopamine, glutamate and serotonin—and also G-protein-coupled receptors, which react to a wide variety of stimulants.这些基因包括了参与调节三种神经传递素-多巴安,谷氨酸和5-羟色胺-的基因,它们也参与调节G-蛋白偶联受体。Most astonishingly, the researchers found that olfactory receptors are also implicated, giving a whole, new twist to the idea that someones political platform smells wrong.最令人惊讶的是,研究者发现,嗅觉受体也牵连其中,提出了一个新的,整体颠覆性的观念,即人的政治纲领闻起来是错误的。The word inclining is important.这个倾向要注意。No one is suggesting that there are particular genes, or versions of genes for liberalism or conservatism. But inclinations there do seem to be.没有人认为,有什么特别基因,或者说带有自由主义或者保守主义基因的这种说法。Moreover, direct studies of genes also support what the twins studies suggest about political engagement, independent of opinion.但是,这种倾向又似乎存在。而且,对基因的直接研究也持双胞胎研究上有关政治参与、独立意见的结果。In particular, work by Dr Fowler implicates another dopamine receptor, DRD2, and also 5HTT, which regulates serotonin levels, in influencing voter turnout.特别是,福勒士的研究暗示了另一种多巴胺受体-多巴胺D2受体,还有五羟色胺转运基因-功能是调节血清素水平,这些基因都影响到选民的投票率。People with versions of these genes that increase the effect of the neurotransmitter are more likely to vote than those with low-activity versions.拥有这些增加神经传递素效力的基因变体的人,他们比那些拥有相同基因,但活性较低的人更有可能参加选举投票。The will and the way 愿望和方式The third part of the question, though, is how this all links up with the fundamental driver of biology, evolution.这个问题的第三部分则是分析这些是怎样和生物学的基本驱动力-进化连接起来的。The suggestion of Dr Hatemi and Dr McDermott is that political action is the collective expression of some pretty primal biological motives: those of survival and procreation.哈特米士和德默特士认为,政治行为是一些很原始的生物性动机的集中表达:那些生存和繁衍的原始生物动机。Deciding whether or not to be part of a particular group, whom else to admit to your group, how to keep or share resources, and how much sexual freedom to afford oneself, ones neighbours and ones children are all, and always have been, lively matters of political debate.确定是不是一个特别团体的一部分,其他人是不是承认你这个团体,怎样保存或者共享资源,自己可以承担多少的性自由,一个人的邻居和孩子,这些都是原始的生物性动机,还有政治辩论一直以来的热闹事项等。But they are also all matters that have an impact on the crucial Darwinian business of getting genes into the next generation.但是它们也对达尔文重要理论--提取基因以塑造优秀下一代的研究-有一定影响。Dr Hatemi and Dr McDermott are not suggesting genetic factors directly create ideologies that relate to these matters.哈特米和麦克德莫特士都不相信,基因因素直接导致了与这些事务相关的思想意识。They are suggesting, though, that genes assist in deciding which opinions an individual will find it most attractive to cleave to.但是,他们认为,基因对决定个人发现并坚持他认为的更有吸引力的意见有一定的辅助作用。Unlike the social determinists of old, however, who frequently refused to concede even the possibility of genetic influence on behaviour, the new generation of genetic political scientists are perfectly happy to acknowledge nurture along with nature.然而,并不像过去的社会决定论-这种理论甚至一直拒绝承认基因对行为影响的可能性,新一代的遗传学的政治科学家们乐于接受先天和后天的共同作用。Dr Hatemis own work, for instance, has shown that external shocks, such as unemployment and divorce, effectively abolish the genetic influences he has detected on many ideological questions as other responses, more appropriate to survival in the changed circumstances, kick in.比如,当其它更适合在变化成千的环境下成立的理论出现时,哈特米士自己的研究展示了外部冲击的影响,比如,失业和离婚,有效地抵消了他在许多意识形态问题上检测到的基因影响。These responses too, of course, are probably under evolutionary—and hence genetic—control. But they are different from the ones being looked for at present.当然,这些理论的出现也可能受到进化论的影响。但是它们和目前的研究是截然不同的。That sort of granularity, and the need to accept partial rather than universal explanations for biological phenomena, led the two researchers to one other thought.这种间隔差距,及为了接受部分而不是普遍的生物现象解释的需要,让两位研究者又产生另一个想法。This is that part of the problem social science has had in the past in accepting biological explanations is that its practitioners do not understand the nature of the claims being made.即在过去已经被接受的生物现象解释的社会科学的部分问题是,从事这门科学的人员不明白这种理论的本质。There are, to repeat, no genes for socialism or conservatism, or for prejudice or tolerance, any more than there are genes for Christianity or Islam.再次重申一遍,没有什么社会主义基因或者保守主义基因,或者偏见或容忍基因,更不用说还存在基督教或者伊斯兰教基因。But a persons genes can sometimes propel him more easily in one direction than another.但是一个人的基因有时会驱使他更容易走上另一条道路。His free will is, if you like, a little freer to turn right than left, or vice versa.换句话说,他的自由意愿可能会更倾向于偏右,而不是偏左,反之亦然。Gilbert was therefore not quite right. But he was not exactly wrong, either.因此,吉尔伯特并不完全正确。但是他也没有完全错。 /201401/273114。