楼主:医护助手 时间:2020年01月23日 08:45:36 点击:0 回复:0
Gunpowder火药Gunpowder is considered to be one of the four great inventions of ancient China.火药是中国古代的“四大发明”之一。The invention of gunpowder had a close relationship with the advanced ancient workmanship of smelting industry. People began to know a lot of chemistry know-ledge about the nature of different mineral materials during the process of smelting operation. With the knowledge,ancient necromancers tried to seek the elixir of immortality fromcertain kinds of ores and fuel. Al-though they failed to get what they were looking for, they dis-covered that an explosive mixture could be produced by combining sulfur, charcoal, and saltpeter (potassium nitrate) in a certain proportion.This mixture finally led to the invention of gunpowder al-though its exact date of invention still remains unknown.火药的发明与中国古代发达的冶炼技术有密切的关系。在冶炼金属的过程中,人们不断总结经验,逐渐接触和熟悉了许多矿物的性能,积累了丰富的化学知识。从战国时代起,就有人把冶金技术运用到炼制矿物药方面,梦想能炼出长生不老的药来,也有人想从矿物中炼出金银来。虽然没有炼出长生不老的丹药或金银,但是炼丹工匠们在炼丹的过程中发现,硝石、硫磺与含碳物质在一起加热后会发生剧烈的化学反应。在一次次爆炸中,人们逐渐认识到硝石、硫磺、木炭按一定比例配制,将会制成会能爆炸的火药。Many historical materials indicate that gunpowder first appeared before the Tang Dynasty.It was called “Black Gunpowder” because irs black in color.It was firsf used to make firecrackers and fireworks. The military appliccrtions of gunpow-der began in the Tang Dynasty. The earliest weapon made from gunpowder was“Flying Fire”, tha. is, rocket.During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, the military ap-plications of gunpowder became common and some other weapons like “fire can-non” ,“rocket”, “missile”and “fireball”were introduced.火药发明的具体年代已无从查考,但根据资料可以推断,火药发明的时间应在唐代以前。由于这种火药的颜色是黑色的,所以叫做“黑火药”。火药发明后,先是被制成了爆竹和焰火。唐朝末年,火药开始用于军事。最早的火药武器是“飞火”,即火箭。宋、元时期,军事上广泛应用火药,出现了许多火药武器,主要有火箭、火铳、突火、火炮等。Between 1225 crnd 1248, gunpowder and the related weapons sp to Eu-rope via Arabia. Since the major raw material of gunpowder niter is as white as snow, Arabians called gunpowder “Chinese Snow” and “Chinese Salt”. After gunpowder sp into Europe, it was not only used in weapons, and also for cut-ting through mountains, constructing roads, and digging rivers. The invention of gunpowder accelerated the coming of the Industrial Revolution.公元1225—1248年之间,火药和火药武器经由阿拉伯传到欧洲。因为制造火药的主要原料硝石洁白如雪,所以火药被阿拉伯人称为“中国雪”和“中国盐”。火.药传到欧洲后,被各国用来制造兵器,还在开山、修路、挖河等工程中广泛使用,火药的使用促进了工业革命的到来。 /201512/410739The Silk丝绸The silk is the symbol of the anaent Chinese culture and the old silk in-dustry formed one of the glorious chapters in the history of the Chinese culture, making an indelible con-tribution to the development of the world cMlization. The Chinese silk is known throughout the world for its excellent qualities, exquisite colors and rich cultural connota-tions. Several thousand years ago, when the silk trade first reached Europe via the Silk Road,it brought with it not only the gor-geous silk apparel and decorcrtive items, but also the anaent and resplendent Oriental cMlization.From then on, silk was regarded as the emissary and symbol of the Oriental cMlization. The eadiest silk article discovered to date is approximately 4700 years old, un-earthed from a tomb dating from China’s Liangzhu Culture. According to an ancient Chinese legend, the Silkworm Goddess appeared to the Yellow Emperor, the leg-endary ancestor of the Chinese people, after he vanquished his adversary Chi You.She presented him with silk fibers spun from her own mouth as a sign of respect.The Yellow Emperor ordered the fibers woven into cloth and made into the silk ap-parel, which he found exceedingly soft and comfortable. His wife Lei Zu searched until she found a type of caterpillar capable of spinning silk fibers from its mouth.She raised these silkworms by feeding them mulberry leaves she picked herself.Later generations came to worship Lei Zu as the Silkworm Goddess, and the Yellow Emperor as the God of Weaving. Sericulture, including cultivating the mulberry plant, raising silkworms, and producing silk fabric, was a fundamental form of la-bor throughout thousands of years in ancient China. China is the birthplace of seri-culture. Raising silkworms and reeling the silk from their cocoons was ancient China’s greatest achievement in the utilization of natural fibers.丝绸是中国古老文化的象征,中国古老的丝绸业为中华民族文化织绣了光辉的篇章,对促进世界人类文明的发展作出了不可磨灭的贡献。中国丝绸以其卓越的品质、精美的花色和丰富的文化内涵闻名于世。几千年前,当丝绸沿着古丝绸之路传向欧洲,它所带去的,不仅仅是一件件华美的饰、饰品,更是东方古老灿烂的文明。丝绸从那时起,几乎就成为了东方文明的传播者和象征。目前已知的最早丝织物,是出土于距今约4700年良诸文化的遗址。关于丝绸中国有一个悠远的传说:远古时代,黄帝打败了蚩尤,“蚕神”亲自将她吐的丝奉献出来以示敬意。黄帝命人将丝织成了绢,以绢缝衣,穿着异常舒。黄帝之妻嫘祖便去寻找能吐丝的蚕种,采桑饲蚕。后世民间崇奉嫘祖为养蚕的蚕神,黄帝为织丝的机神。采桑养蚕与制丝织绸,便成了中国古代社会几千年的基本劳作手段。中国是养蚕业的发源地,养蚕,缫丝是我国古代在纤维利用上最重要的成就。 /201601/410759翻译仅供参考 中文在上 英文对照在下苹果(Apple)正求助于合作方的应用来说消费者付成百乃至上千美元购买该公司的新产品Apple Watch。自蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)接替史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)出任首席执行官以来,这是苹果推出的第一款全新类型的产品。Apple is turning to partners’ applications to persuade consumers to pay hundreds or even thousands of dollars for its new Watch, as it launched its first new category of device since Tim Cooksucceeded Steve Jobs as chief executive.昨天的发布会聚焦于信息发送和健康,库克在会上预演了撑迄今最高调可穿戴技术产品的第三方应用。Yesterday’s event focused on messaging and health as Mr Cook previewed third-party apps to back up the most high-profile piece of wearable technology to date.“它是一种与他人交流的具有革命意义的新方式,是一款综合性的健身伴侣,”他表示,“将会有一些很棒的第三方应用……”“It’s a revolutionary new way to communicate with others and it’s a comprehensive fitness companion,” he said. “There will be some great third party apps#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;”在乔纳森#8226;艾夫爵士(Sir Jonathan Ive)的领导下,苹果为Apple Watch设计了一系列表壳材质和表带,试图以此来赢得时尚行业的追捧。各式Apple Watch的定价从349美元至上千美元不等。Under the design leadership of Sir Jonathan Ive, Apple has wooed the fashion industry with an array of finishes and bands, with pricing from 9 to thousands of dollars.然而,一些分析师质疑,该产品紧凑的色触屏以及“数字表冠”能否赢得那些并未受到三星(Samsung)、托罗拉(Motorola)或Pebble类似产品吸引而购买智能手表的消费者的青睐。However, some analysts have questioned whether its compact colour touchscreen and “digital crown” controller can win over consumers who have not been tempted to buy smartwatches from the likes of Samsung, Motorola or Pebble.华尔街预计该设备上市头一整年的销量将在2000万到3000万块之间。只有2012年以来发布的iPhone能与这款将于下月上市的智能手表兼容,这意味着潜在用户大约超过3亿。Wall Street forecasts for the device’s sales in its first full year on the market range between 20m and 30m. Only owners with iPhones launched since 2012 — estimated to be more than 300m people — will find their smartphone is compatible with the Watch when it goes on sale next month.除健康追踪、信息发送、付、计时这几项功能以外,库克还加入了Facebook、Instagram、微信(WeChat)和Twitter的应用,以及叫车软件优步(Uber)和美国航空(American Airlines)订票软件等交通务应用。Alongside the smartwatch’s health-tracking, messaging, payment and timekeeping functions Mr Cook introduced apps from Facebook, Instagram, WeChat and Twitter, and transport services such as car-hailing app Uber and American Airlines ticketing [APP NAMES T]持者表示,智能手机用户每天大约查看150次手机,这款产品能让他们不再那么频繁地查看手机。Advocates say it can reduce the estimated 150 times a day that smartphone owners check their mobile devices. /201503/363493

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