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长春一院处女膜修复多少钱长春市哪家妇科医院权威吉林中西结合医院有微创手术吗 Business商业报道Libraries and e-books图书馆和电子书Literary labours lent文学劳动力已借出The uncertain economics of lending virtual books难以预料的实体书借阅经济I hear Muggles make books disapparate我听说麻瓜能让书籍幻影移形LIKE a tired marriage, the relationship between libraries and publishers has long been reassuringly dull.就像是一个令人疲惫的婚姻,图书馆和出版商之间长期存在着无聊的关系。E-books, however, are causing heartache.然而,电子书的出现引起了它们的心痛。Libraries know they need digital wares if they are to remain relevant,图书馆知道,如果它们想保持自己存在的价值,就需要数字化的设备,but many publishers are too wary of piracy and lost sales to co-operate.但对于许多出版商而言,由于在盗版和失去销量问题上太过谨慎的态度,而不予合作。Among the big six, only Random House and HarperCollins license e-books with most libraries.在最大的六家出版商中,只有兰登书屋和哈珀·柯林斯出版社授予了绝大多数图书馆电子书的许可。The others have either denied requests or are reluctantly experimenting.其它出版社或是拒绝了这项要求,或是在勉强进行试用。In August, for example, Penguin will start a pilot with public libraries in New York.例如,在八月份,企鹅出版社将在纽约的公共图书馆开始试验。Publishers are wise to be nervous.出版商感到紧张是明智的。Owners of e-ers are exactly the customers they need:电子阅读器的所有者们恰恰是他们需要的顾客:book-lovers with money.有钱的爱书人。If these wonderful people switch to borrowing e-books instead of buying them, what then?如果这些了不起的人们由借阅电子书而变为购买电子书,将会怎样呢?Electronic borrowing is awfully convenient.电子借阅非常方便。Unlike printed books,与印刷版书籍不同,which must be checked out and returned to a physical library miles from where you live, book files can be downloaded at home.电子书籍文件在家就可以下载,而不需要去离家几英里外的实体图书馆借阅和还书。Digital library catalogues are often browsed at night, from a comfy sofa.人们常在晚上在舒适的沙发里浏览数字图书馆目录。The files disappear from the device when they are due.当文件到期时,它们将自动从设备上消失。Awkwardly for publishers,这对出版商而言却很尴尬。buying an e-book costs more than renting one but offers little extra value.购买一本电子书比租用一本的花费更多,然而带来的收益增加却相当微小。You cannot resell it, lend it to a friend or burn it to stay warm.你不能把电子书二次售出或是借给朋友,甚至不能将它烧了以取暖。Owning a book is useful if you want to savour it repeatedly, but who s Fifty Shades of Grey twice?如果你想重复品味一本书,那么拥有一本书是非常好的,但谁愿意读第二遍《格雷的50道阴影》?E-lending is not simple, however.然而电子借阅并不简单。There are lots of different and often incompatible e-book formats, devices and licences.电子书的格式、设备和许可之间有极大不同,并常常不能互相兼容。Most libraries use a company called OverDrive, a global distributor that secures rights from publishers and provides e-books and audio files in every format.大多数图书馆所采用的是OverDrive公司提供的电子书,这家全球性经销商确保了来自出版商的版权,并提供所有格式的电子书和音频文件。Some 35m titles were checked out through OverDrive in 2011, and the company now sends useful data on borrowing behaviour to participating publishers.2011年,高达三亿五千万的条目通过OverDrive公司借出,这家公司现在正通过输出借阅行为相关的有用数据参与到出版商中来。Yet publishers and libraries are worried by OverDrives market dominance, as the company can increasingly dictate fees and conditions.OverDrive的市场占有率让出版商和图书馆担忧,因为这家公司可以提高授权费用和条件。Publishers were miffed when OverDrive teamed up with Amazon, the worlds biggest online bookseller, last year.去年,当OverDrive公司与世界上最大的在线图书销售商—亚马逊合作之后,出版商们有点恼火。Owners of Amazons Kindle e-er who want to borrow e-books from libraries are now redirected to Amazons website,亚马逊Kindle阅读器的所有者们现在如果想从图书馆借阅电子书,就将被带入到亚马逊的网站上,where they must use their Amazon account to secure a loan.在那里,他们必须使用他们的亚马逊账户来为他们的借阅提供担保。Amazon then follows up with library patrons directly, letting them know they can Buy this book when the loan falls due.亚马逊还进一步与图书馆的老主顾们直接交涉,告诉他们若是借阅过期,则他们可以直接购买这本书。This arrangement nudged Penguin to end its deal with OverDrive earlier this year.这一约定迫使企鹅出版社在今年早些时候终止了它和OverDrive的合约。The publishers new pilot involves 3M, a rival distributor that does not yet support the Kindle.这家出版商的新合作者包括3M公司,OverDrive的竞争对手之一,一家尚未持Kindle的经销商。Ultimately Amazon wants to control the library business, says Mike Shatzkin, a publishing consultant.亚马逊最终想控制图书馆事务。出版业咨询师麦克·肖特金说。Library users—nearly 60% of Americans aged 16 and older, according to Pew, an opinion researcher—are a perfect market for Amazon.根据民意调查研究机构皮尤的数据,16岁以上并占美国人口数近60%的图书馆使用者,是亚马逊最好的市场。It woos them by making loans on the Kindle uniquely easy. Late last year Amazon also unveiled its Kindle Owners Lending Library,它通过在Kindle上极其便利的借阅程序,从而取悦了他们。去年晚些时候,亚马逊还推出了Kindle所有者的借阅图书馆,which lets its best customers borrow free one of thousands of popular books each month.这个图书馆允许亚马逊最好的客户每月在上千本畅销书中免费借阅一本。Library boosters argue that book borrowers are also book buyers,图书馆的持者认为,借阅图书者也就是购买图书者,and that libraries are vital spaces for ers to discover new work.而图书馆则是这些读者发现新作品的重要根据地。Many were cheered by a recent Pew survey, which found that more than half of Americans with library cards say they prefer to buy their e-books.许多人为皮尤研究机构最近的调查而感到欢欣鼓舞,这项调查发现,超过一半拥有图书馆卡的美国人说,他们更喜欢购买他们的电子书。But the report also noted that few people know that e-books are available at most libraries,但是这项报告也指出,几乎没有人知道电子书在大多数图书馆都是可借阅的,and that popular titles often involve long waiting lists, which may be what inspires people to buy.而那些畅销书籍常常有着很长的等候借阅名单,这也许将促进人们的购买行为。So publishers keep tweaking their lending arrangements in search of the right balance.因此出版商在不断微调他们的借阅合约以找到最恰当的平衡点。Random House raised its licensing prices earlier this year, and HarperCollins limits libraries to lending its titles 26 times.兰登书屋在今年早些时候提高了授权价格,哈珀·柯林斯出版社限制图书馆借阅条目的次数为26次。Penguin plans to keep new releases out of libraries for at least six months, and each book will expire after a year.在企鹅出版社的计划中,新书从出版后到进入图书馆,至少要等六个月的时间,且一年后就到期。Hachette is engaged in some secret experiments, and the others are watching with bated breath.阿歇特出版社正在进行一些秘密实验,而其它出版社则在屏息观望。In Britain the government will soon announce a review of the matter.在英国,政府不久将宣布一份这一事项的报告。The story of the library e-book is a nail-biter.电子图书馆的故事实在是一个令人高度紧张的故事。 /201307/250320双辽中心医院在线医生咨询

德惠市中医院好吗五马路妇产医院怎么走 Does Facebook Lead To Loneliness?脸谱会导致孤独吗?Dear:A Moment of Science,亲爱的《科学一刻》栏目组:Im not a big Facebook user, but I have friends who are.我不是脸谱的忠实用户,但是我的一些朋友是。And Ive noticed that some of them are constantly updating their status.而我注意到,一些人总是很频繁在脸谱上更新个人状态,Where some people might post a message once a day, others seem to be posting something every few minutes.一些人一天会发布一条消息,另外一些人看上去没几分钟就会发布一次消息,Can science help explain this phenomenon?科学能对这种现象给予解释么?Interesting question.这是很有趣的问题,Of course, there are many reasons why people join and post stuff on Facebook.尽管每个人注册脸谱并发布信息的原因不尽相同,But researchers have begun to study the phenomenon you describe.但是科学家已经对你所提到的现象进行研究,And they found that copious posting on Facebook may have something to do with loneliness.而他们发现频繁的在脸谱上发布消息可能与孤独有关。Specifically, the researchers found that people who update their status more often report feeling less lonely than people who post less often.特别要一提的是,科学家发现经常更新状态的人比不经常更新状态的人要感觉更不孤独。Now, granted, the study looked at only 100 undergraduate students, around half of whom were instructed to update their status more frequently than they normally would.当然,这项研究只对100名大学生进行研究,其中半数被研究者受到研究的指导性影响而比平时更频繁地更新状态。And then they self reported on their levels of loneliness, happiness, depression, and so on.然后让这些同学自己报告各自的幸福感、孤独感、失落感等等。So this question requires more in depth research.因此这个问题需要更深入的研究。Still, its a noteworthy finding.但这仍是一个值得关注的发现。Interestingly, the students who posted more did not report feeling happier, or less or more depressed.有趣的是,经常发布消息的学生并没有感到更幸福或者或多或少的失落,So status updates seem to have something to do specifically with feeling less lonely and more socially connected.看上去,更新状态会减少个人的孤独感以及增强社会归属感。What I find even more interesting is that it did not seem to matter whether the students got any Likes or responses to their posts. Just the act of updating their status was enough to make them feel less lonely.我注意到另外一个有趣的地方是,学生发布的信息是否得到别人的赞或者回应都无所谓,更新自己状态这件事本身就可以让他们感到不那么孤独。 /201309/257670长春中医药大学附属医院要预约吗

长春市中医大附属一院做药物流产多少钱Who supports independence?谁是苏独拥护者?Yes men赞成党The typical pro-independence Scot is young, male and working-class持苏独的群体往往年轻,男性居多,中产阶级为主WITH two months to go until Scotland votes on independence, opinion polls are in one sense rather disappointing. With only minor blips, they continue to suggest that three out of five Scots favour sticking with Britain. Nothing that nationalists or unionists say seems to budge opinion. But, as the polls pile up, something else is becoming clear: exactly how the country divides.距离苏格兰公投仅有两个月之远,但从某种角度而言,民众投票结果却十分不尽如人意。仍显示五分之三的苏格兰民众不愿从大不列颠国独立出来。无论民族主义者亦或是联合主义者,都无法说改变那些民众的想法。但随着调查结果的累积,人们找到了一些新的发现,一些迹象且越发的清晰:即全国意见具体如何分布。Middle-class voters turn out to be more conservative than working-class ones. In the seven polls taken so far this year by ICM, the “no” camp has led by 19 points among the former but by four among the latter. The well-to-do are also firmer in their views, vacillating much less than working-class voters over the past few months.调查数据显示中产阶级比工人阶级更为保守。截至当前,今年由ICM发起的7场调查活动中,中产阶级反独率高达19%,而工人阶级仅4%。同时,调查还发现富裕群体立场比较坚定。近数月来,其立场变化远没有工人阶级明显。Unsurprisingly, given the class profile of “yes” support, the pro-independence camp is strong in Scotlands industrial heartland and weak in the areas farthest from it: the border with England to the south and the mountains and islands to the north. ICMs polls suggest that “no” leads by 13 points on average in the northern Highlands and Islands. In the most pro-independence region, Glasgow, it lags “yes” by a point.毫不意外地是,即便工人阶级展现出赞成党形象,持独立的阵营仍集中在苏格兰的工业核心区,而在它的边远地区,持苏独的呼声远要小得多:英格兰南部边境一带和北部山区及岛屿附近。英国调查机构ICM发起的民意投票结果显示,在北部高地和岛屿地区,反对苏独的人口比例一般为13%。哥拉斯加最为拥护苏独一举,其反对苏独的人口比例也就低了一个百分点,为12%。A Scots appearance is another clue to his views. Grey hair and wrinkles suggest a “no” supporter. The young are keener on independence, which is one reason nationalists pushed to allow 16- and 17-year-olds to vote in the referendum. Some polls suggest people simply become more unionist as they age; others hint that people in their teens and 20s are slightly more conservative than people in their mid-20s to mid-30s.苏格兰人民的长相也表明其意见想法。棕色头发和皱纹表现出他们是不持苏格兰独立的。年轻一代更喜欢独立,正是如此,民族主义者允许16到17岁的公民参与公投。一些民意调查结果已经表征出,人们只是随着年龄的增长,渐渐会增强民族统一意识;也有些调查显示,青少年及20出头的人会比25-35岁之间的人稍微保守些。But perhaps the starkest demographic divide between “yes” and ;no; supporters is sex.Polls consistently show that women are cooler on independence than men. Peter Kellner of YouGov, another pollster, says this is part of a broader pattern. Past opinion polling suggests that women are less supportive of wide-eyed or gung-ho policies in general, whether the issue is Scottish independence or foreign military adventures.然而,或许性别差别才是持和反对党间最明显的分水岭。调查结果始终表明,女性对独立的热情度往往不及男性。来自网上市场研究公司YouGov 的彼得?科尔Peter Kellner,表示性别差只是更广义范围下的一部分。过去的民意调查活动也显示,女性群体一般不大持,无论是苏独还是外国军事冒险。The fact that Scots are divided in so many ways means that “yes” and “no” supporters do not exist in separate bubbles. Rather, they rub up against each other-in the same towns, sometimes even in the same households. Perhaps that explains why one in four say they have rowed over independence with family members and friends.苏格兰划分方式如此多元化,这明苏独持党和反对党并非独立存在。相反,他们是关系密切,相互影响着—在同一小镇,有时甚至在同一屋檐下。也许,那就是为何有1/4的人宣称,自己在苏独一事上和家人朋友分道扬镳。 /201408/319474 At first glance, astronomers and cancer researchers may not seem to have a lot in common.乍一看,天文学家和癌症研究者似乎没有什么共同点。After all, astronomers spend their time gazing at distant stars and galaxies, while oncologists fight tumors.毕竟,天文学家致力于观察遥远的星体和星系,而肿瘤学家则治疗肿瘤。But at the University of Cambridge in the UK, astronomers and cancer researchers have joined forces.但是,在英国的剑桥大学,天文学家和癌症研究者已经开始合作了。Specifically, astronomers there repurposed image analysis algorithms they use to spot distant galaxies to help oncologists diagnose aggressive tumors.具体来说,天文学家改进了过去曾用于观测遥远星系的影像分析法,来帮助肿瘤学家诊断恶性肿瘤。Here is how it works如何实现Astronomers use the algorithms to analyze faint, indistinct images captured by large telescopes.天文学家用这种影像分析方法分析由大型望远镜捕捉到的微弱,模糊的星体图像。Powerful computers help identify these images as galaxies, stars, planets, and other celestial bodies.强大的计算机可以帮助辨认这些图像是星系,恒星,行星还是其它天体。When cancer researchers study tumors, they stain samples to pick out subtle differences that clue them in to what types of proteins a given tumor harbors.当癌症研究者研究肿瘤时,对样本染色,进而辨别出微小的差异,染色可以显示出肿瘤样本的蛋白质类型。Identifying the proteins helps researchers know if a tumor is especially aggressive.鉴别蛋白质可以帮助研究人员确定肿瘤是否是恶性的。This process typically involves individual scientists peering at tumor samples under microscopes, which is time consuming and laborious.这一过程通常需要专业的科学家在显微镜下观察肿瘤样本,既费时又费力。But using reconfigured image analysis algorithms to identify tumor proteins can speed the process up significantly.但是使用改良后的图像分析方法鉴别肿瘤蛋白质,速度就显著加快了。To test the process, the researchers used the adapted algorithms on samples from more than 2,000 breast cancer patients.为了测试这种方法,研究人员对2000多名乳腺癌患者的样本使用改良后的算法分析。They found that computer analysis was just as accurate at detecting specific proteins as scientists peering through microscopes.他们发现,电脑分析和科学家通过显微镜的观察在鉴别特定蛋白质时同样精确。And the computer was much faster.而且计算机的速度更快。The researchers plan to further refine the computerized method by testing it on samples from more than 20,000 breast cancer patients.研究人员计划通过测试20000多名乳腺癌患者样本,进一步改进计算机算法。 /201311/264391公主岭妇幼保健妇保医院医术信得过?辽源中医院治疗妇科炎症好吗

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