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湖北省襄阳四院医院是正规医院吗?爱问解答襄樊市军工医院看前列腺炎好吗

2019年06月27日 09:08:55
来源:四川新闻网
京东晚报

Like many 10-year-olds, Nick Wald takes private lessons. His once-a-week tutor isn#39;t helping him with piano scales or Spanish conjugations, but teaching him how to code.与许多10岁大的孩子一样,尼克·沃尔德(Nick Wald)也会在课外开小灶。不过,一周给他上一次课的家教为他辅导的并非钢琴音阶和西班牙语的动词变位,而是教他如何写代码。Nick, a fifth-grader in New York, went in with no experience and has since learned enough HTML, JavaScript and CSS to build a simple website. He is now working in Apple#39;s AAPL +0.97% XCode environment to finish an app named #39;Clockie#39; that can be used to set alarms and reminders. He plans to offer it in the iOS App Store for free.尼克是纽约一名五年级的学生,一开始他没有任何经验,自学写代码以来他学会了足以建一个简单网站的HTML、JavaScript和CSS知识。目前他正在苹果(Apple)的XCode环境下开发一款名为“Clockie”、可用于设置闹钟和提醒事项的应用。他还打算在iOS应用商店免费提供这款应用。#39;I always liked to get apps from the app store, and I always wanted to figure out how they worked and how I could develop it like that,#39; Nick says.他说:“我一直都喜欢从应用商店获取应用,而且我一直想弄明白它们是如何运行的以及我怎样能开发出那样的应用。”As the ability to code, or use programming languages to build sites and apps, becomes more in demand, technical skills are no longer just for IT professionals. Children as young as 7 can take online classes in Scratch programming, while 20-somethings are filling up coding boot camps that promise to make them marketable in the tech sector. Businesses such as American Express Co. AXP -0.53% send senior executives to programs about data and computational design not so they can build websites, but so they can better manage the employees who do.由于编程或使用编程语言来建网站和开发应用的能力越来越受欢迎,科技技能不再只是针对IT专业人士的要求。现在,只有七岁大的孩子也能学习Scratch编程网络课程,20来岁的年轻人则挤满了承诺让他们成为科技行业抢手人才的编程培训班。美国运通(American Express)等企业还送高管去参加数据和电脑设计的培训项目,这么做的目的不是让他们能建网站,而是让他们能更好地管理从事此类工作的员工。#39;I equate coding to ing and writing and basic literacy,#39; says Adam Enbar, founder of New York#39;s Flatiron School, which offers 12-week, ,000 programs to turn novices into developers. #39;Not everyone needs to be Shakespeare, just as not everyone needs to be an amazing developer,#39; he says. #39;But...we#39;re entering a world where every job if not aly, will be technical.#39;纽约Flatiron培训学校的创始人亚当·恩巴尔(Adam Enbar)说:“我认为编程好比读写和基本的文化素养。不是每个人都需要成为莎士比亚,就如不是每个人都需要成为了不起的开发者一样。但是…我们正在迈入这样的一个世界:每项工作即使现在还没有做到科技化,将来也必将实现科技化,。”Flatiron学校提供为期12周的课程,意在将新手培养为开发者,学费为12,000美元。Programming languages vary in popularity and difficulty, and it takes hundreds of hours to become even a junior developer. But understanding what #39;code#39; is and knowing what#39;s possible and what#39;s not, when working with an IT team, is generally more important than being able to make apps yourself.编程语言的热门度和难度各有不同,就算成为一名初级开发者也需要学习几百个小时。不过,在与一个IT团队合作时,明白什么是“代码”以及了解什么是可能的、什么是不可能的,通常比能够自己开发应用更重要。The Younger Set青少年培训Johns Hopkins University#39;s Center for Talented Youth offers online courses in everything from essay writing to music theory, but Web-development classes have been #39;a juggernaut in terms of level of interest,#39; says Patricia Wallace, senior director of CTY Online. The courses are geared toward elementary- and middle-school students. In 2009, 63 children signed up for Introduction to Web Design, one of the few coding classes then offered. This year, there are aly 762 enrollments.约翰·霍普金斯大学(Johns Hopkins University)精英学生学习中心(Center for Talented Youth)推出的网络课程涵盖从写作到音乐理论的各类主题。但该中心网络课程部门高级总监帕特里夏·华莱士(Patricia Wallace)称,网页开发课程一直是“极其受关注的大热门”。这些课程的对象为小学生与中学生。2009年,有63名学生报名学习《网页设计入门》,这是当时开设的少数编程课程之一。今年该课程已招收了762名学生。The classes, which began with Introduction to Web Design and soon may include Intermediate Scratch Programming, are growing because there aren#39;t many opportunities to learn coding in elementary and middle school, says Ms. Wallace. Some parents want children to learn programming as early as possible.华莱士称,课程一开始教的是《网页设计入门》,接下去可能很快就会教《中级Scratch编程》。由于在小学和中学学习编程的机会不多,此类班级的规模在不断扩大。有些家长希望孩子尽早学习编程。In-person coding programs for kids are springing up across the country. CoderDojo Twin Cities, a Minneapolis-based volunteer program, holds free, daylong coding programs. It has filled each of its 20 sessions with about 80 students since it launched in April. #39;We#39;ve had to turn students away at every event,#39; says CoderDojo Twin Cities co-founder Matt Gray. The kids build games with Ruby, work with Linux, and-in one of the most popular programs-learn Python to build things in the world of Minecraft, a popular game.针对儿童的面对面授课编程课程也在全美各地涌现出来。明尼阿波利斯的志愿者计划CoderDojo Twin Cities便提供连续一整天的免费编程培训。自从在4月份启动以来,该项目的20次课每次都挤满了80名左右的学生。该计划联合创始人马特·格雷(Matt Gray)说:“每次开课时我们都不得不拒绝一些学生。”孩子们使用Ruby开发游戏,运用Linux系统,他们还学习Python语言来在热门Minecraft的世界中造东西——这是最受孩子们欢迎的课程之一。Another group has started in Rochester, Minn., and a girls-only camp, Katie CoderDojo, had its first session last month.另一组已在明尼苏达州的罗切斯特启动,还有一个只限女孩参加的Katie CoderDojo训练营也在2月份举办了第一次培训。The Job Seekers求职者培训At a recent Web Development Immersive class offered by General Assembly, an education startup that offers coding and design courses, about 25 students-mostly men, mostly in their 20s and each with a MacBook-listened to a lecture on how to use JavaScript to add check boxes to pages. Previously, the students each had completed a project using coding language Ruby. One example: A website showed nearby restaurants#39; health ratings.General Assembly为一家提供编程和设计课程的初创教育机构,在其前不久开设的《沉浸式网页开发》课堂上,大约25名年龄大多在20几岁的学生(多数为男生)每人配备一部MacBook,正在听着如何使用JavaScript给页面添加复选框的讲课内容。在此之前,每名学生都使用Ruby编程语言完成了一个项目。其中一个项目是显示周边餐厅卫生评分的网站。Alina Guzman, 23, recently paid the ,500 tuition to take the 12-week course. She graduated from Baruch College in 2013 with a degree in digital marketing. #39;I had worked in a marketing agency before and did stuff with a small-scale e-commerce website, but I wanted to do something different and I had always been interested in tech and websites,#39; she says.今年23岁的阿林娜·古兹曼(Alina Guzman)前不久交了11,500美元学费参加为期12周的课程。她在去年从柏鲁克学院(Baruch College)毕业,并获得了数字化营销学位。她说:“我以前在一家营销机构工作过,也在一家小型电商网站做过些事情,但是我想做些不同的工作,而且我一直对科技和网站感兴趣。”She took classes from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. weekdays to learn Ruby and JavaScript. Two months after the course ended, she was hired as a junior engineer by New York-based startup Superhuman, which builds personal assistant applications.她从周一到周五的上午九点到下午五点上课学习Ruby和JavaScript。在课程结束的两个月后,她受聘成为开发私人助理应用的纽约初创公司Superhuman的初级工程师。General Assembly also has programs in San Francisco, Los Angeles, London, Boston, Hong Kong and Sydney. According to a General Assembly spokeswoman, 95% of its students world-wide find jobs within three months.General Assembly还在旧金山、洛杉矶、伦敦、波士顿、香港和悉尼开设课程。该公司一名女发言人称,其全球学生中有95%的人在三个月内找到了工作。Co-founder and CEO Jake Schwartz says that coding is important because it teaches a different way of thinking. #39;Programming teaches logic, higher-level math and learning concepts that make you smarter and are useful no matter what,#39; he says.该公司联合创始人兼首席执行长杰克·施瓦茨(Jake Schwartz)称,编程之所以重要,是因为它教授了一种不同的思维方式。他说:“编程教给你逻辑、较高层次的数学和学习理念,它们让你变得更聪明,无论在什么方面都有用。”The majority of students at Flatiron and General Assembly are between 20 and 30. Flatiron accepts 8% of its applicants.Flatiron与General Assembly大多数的学生在20岁至30岁之间,其中Flatiron会接收8%的申请者。#39;The vast majority of our students are those who, later in life, realize that this is a really interesting career and also one where there are a lot of jobs,#39; he says.施瓦茨说:“我们绝大多数的学生都在日后的生活中意识到这是一个非常有趣的职业,也是一个就业机会很多的行业。”James Vanneman, 27, was in the first class at Flatiron School. A former professional poker player, he had been teaching himself to code with books and websites. #39;I#39;d get stuck and it#39;d get frustrating because I felt like I needed a place to get me over the hump of learning,#39; he says. A few weeks after graduating he was hired as a software engineer at Concierge Live, a ticket-management service.今年27岁的詹姆斯·范内曼(James Vanneman)是Flatiron的首届学生。他原来是一名职业扑克选手,之前一直通过书籍和网站自学编程。他说:“我会陷入困境,情况会变得令人沮丧,因为我觉得我需要一个地方来帮助我跨越学习障碍。”他在毕业数周后在票务管理公司Concierge Live找到了一份软件工程师的工作。企业管理者培训The Corporate ManagersEven people who don#39;t plan on becoming developers may hear at work that they ought to learn to code.即使是无意成为开发者的人,他们或许也会在工作中听到他们应当学习编程。American Express Co., General Electric Co. GE -0.54% , Staples Inc., SPLS -0.09% Merck amp; Co., Inc. and PepsiCo Inc. PEP +1.32% have worked with General Assembly, Mr. Schwartz says. These corporations have sent senior teams to two-day programs on topics such as Introduction to Big Data and Rapid Prototyping, also known as computer-aided design.施瓦茨称,美国运通、通用电气(General Electric Co.)、史泰(Staples Inc.)、默克(Merck amp; Co.)以及百事公司(PepsiCo)都是他们的合作伙伴。这些企业派遣了高管团队参加为期两天的培训,学习与《大数据入门》和《快速成型》(也被称作电脑辅助设计)之类的主题有关的知识。Summit Group, an Atlanta-based marketing company, has sent employees for the past three years to learn HTML 5 and basic Web development, says Jill Hood, Summit#39;s director of strategic initiatives.亚特兰大营销公司Summit Group的战略计划总监吉尔·胡德(Jill Hood)称,过去三年间该公司都派出了员工去学习HTML 5语言和基础的网页开发。#39;People learning these skills become more self-sufficient,#39; says Ms. Hood. Training employees in coding saves the company from having to use additional IT managers to help manage client accounts, she adds.胡德称:“学习了这些技能的人变得更能独立工作了。”她还说,对员工进行编程培训替公司节约了另雇IT管理员来管理客户账户的花费。Lynda.com, based in Carpinteria, Calif., sells online education s on everything from Photoshop to JavaScript. Its customers include Patagonia Inc., Volkswagen Group VOW3.XE +1.31% and Penguin Random House, says co-founder and executive chair Lynda Weinman.加州卡平特里亚(Carpinteria)的Lynda.com销售从Photoshop到 JavaScript的各类主题的网络教学视频。该网站联合创始人兼执行董事长林达·温曼(Lynda Weinman)称,他们的客户包括Patagonia、大众集团(Volkswagen Group)和企鹅兰登书屋(Penguin Random House)等。Patagonia, the outdoor-gear retailer, will require its employees learn technical skills through Lynda.com in the next six months, says Ceci Saez, global director of organizational development. Half of Patagonia#39;s 800 American employees have voluntarily taken courses through Lynda.com.户外装备零售商Patagonia的企业发展全球总监切奇·赛斯(Ceci Saez)称,该公司将要求员工在未来六个月中通过Lynda.com学习科技技能。Patagonia的800名美国员工中已有半数自愿通过Lynda.com学习相关课程。赛斯说:“在过去,科技不是我们要经常去努力学习的东西,但是事情发生了变化。一群不同的人加入了公司,现在它变得必要了。” /201404/284906襄阳市第四人民医院是私人医院吗Elizabeth has had enough of life as a City lawyer. Now, in her mid-thirties, she has decided to change careers. “Life is short,” she says, wincing at the cliché.伊丽莎白(Elizabeth)受够了在伦敦金融城当律师的工作,年届35岁的她决定转行。为此她颇为感慨地说了一句老掉牙的话:“人生短暂!”As the first person in her family to make it to university, Elizabeth – who does not want to use her real name – had felt obliged to follow through with a sensible profession. Her twenties were consumed by office all-nighters, finding her way and proving herself. When she hit her thirties, while the hours continued to be punishing, she felt able to lift her nose from the grindstone and evaluate her career. “I am not as engaged in my work as my peers,” she reflects. To make partner she would have to crank up her commitment – and she just cannot bear to do that. So in her spare time she studies psychology, in anticipation of switching professional tracks.作为家里第一个上大学的孩子,伊丽莎白(她不希望用自己的真名)感到有必要从事一份“现实”的职业。在20岁到30岁这段时期,她经常加夜班,兢兢业业地工作,努力明自己的能力。步入而立之年后,虽然工作依然忙碌,但她觉得可以缓一口气,评估一下自己的职业。她若有所思地说道:“我不像其他同事那样投入工作了。”如果她想成为合伙人,就要更加拼命,而她就是受不了这么拼命。因此她在闲暇时间学习心理学,期待有朝一日能够转行。She admits to feelings that border on depression but views them as a “productive indication” that she no longer wants to be a lawyer and desires a job with “more meaning”. A “midlife crisis” is how she views it.她承认自己濒临抑郁,但认为这样的情绪是“有益的暗示”,表明自己不想再当律师了,而是想要一份“更有意义”的工作。她认为这是一种“中年危机”。“Midlife crisis” is not a clinical disorder. However, Dr Michael Sinclair, a consultant psychologist based in the City, has observed increasing numbers of thirtysomethings experiencing profound anxiety about their career choices and lives. “These are problems more commonly associated with people in their mid-forties thinking about mortality. They are coming out of recession, a period of being single-minded. They are burnt out and asking ‘what’s the point of work?’”“中年危机”并非一种临床上的疾病。然而,在伦敦金融城工作的咨询心理学家迈克尔#8226;辛克莱士(Dr Michael Sinclair)发现,在30多岁这个群体中,越来越多的人对自己的职业选择和生活深感焦虑。“这些问题在45岁左右的人身上更为常见,这个年龄的人会思考人必有一死这样的问题。人们刚刚经历了经济衰退——那是一个必须老老实实工作的时期。现在他们感到疲倦不堪,自问‘工作的意义是什么?’”Louise Matthews, a work and lifestyle blogger and former personal assistant in recruitment and insurance, believes that the “midlife crisis is beginning earlier these days”. She suggests it could be “because we have too much choice and information coming”, which can lead to feelings of dissatisfaction but also paralysis. “It can be pretty overwhelming.”经常写有关工作与生活的客、曾在招聘和保险行当做过个人助理的路易斯#8226;马修斯(Louise Matthews)认为,“如今中年危机开始得更早了”。她表示,这可能是“因为我们有太多的选择和信息”,从而导致不满足感,但同时也让人麻木。“它可能会把人压垮。”The notion of a midlife crisis, is contentious. Coined in 1965 by Elliot Jaques, a psychologist, he described it as “the adult encounter with the conception of life to be lived in the setting of an approaching personal death”. In popular mythology it is generally characterised by fortysomething men swapping families and jobs for sports cars, hair plugs and young girlfriends – all rather silly.“中年危机”的概念存在争议。心理学家埃利奥特#8226;雅克(Elliot Jaques)在1965年发明了这个词,他将其描述为“成年人遇到了人生的概念,人生就是个体在不断接近的死亡到来前度过的那段时间”。按照流行的观念,它通常的特征是四十多岁的人不惜牺牲家庭和工作来换取跑车、植发和年轻女友——都是相当愚蠢的事。However, research published earlier this year found an average midlife dip in happiness – or subjective wellbeing as it is described by economists – happened between 40 and 42. Professor Nattavudh Powdthavee, co-author of the longitudinal research across three countries, says this confirms previous studies that show a hill-shape relationship between age and the use of antidepressants. It builds on research, published in 2012, that found chimpanzees and orang-utans also experience a U-shape in happiness (as reported by zookeepers rather than the apes themselves). Prof Powdthavee says this suggests there could be biological explanations behind the midlife nadir. He sees this as a reason to be optimistic. “When you know this, you can go through the period thinking at some point it will get better.”然而,今年早些时候发表的研究结果显示,中年人幸福感——或者说是经济学家所称的“主观幸福感”(subjective well-being)——下降一般发生在40岁到42岁之间。纳塔武#8226;鲍德塔威(Nattavudh Powdthavee)表示,这实了以前的研究结果,即年龄与抗抑郁药的使用存在“山型曲线”的关系。鲍德塔威与人合作在3个国家开展了这项纵向研究,该研究基于2012年发表的一项研究结果,即黑猩猩和猩猩的幸福感也经历了U型曲线(这是由动物管理员而不是猩猩自己报告的)。鲍德塔威表示,这表明中年低谷背后可能有生物学上的原因。他认为这个发现给了人们乐观的理由。“当你知道这一点的时候,你就可以想,总有一天会好起来的,从而安然度过这一时期。”Mid-life crises can manifest themselves in different ways. “It is a transitionary phase,” says Dr Derek Milne, a psychologist from Newcastle University and author of Coping With a Mid-Life Crisis. “It can be intermittent or express itself as vague disquiet.”中年危机可能有不同的表现形式。英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)的心理学家德里克#8226;米尔恩士(Dr Derek Milne)表示:“这是一个过渡阶段。它可能是间歇性的,或者表现为隐约的心神不宁。”米尔恩士著有《如何应对中年危机》(Coping With a Mid-Life Crisis)一书。Dr Hannes Schwandt of Princeton University believes midlife, unlike infancy and old age, is under-researched. Last year, he published research focused on “unmet expectations”. It found the young are optimistic – perhaps even “over-optimistic” – while those in their forties and fifties feel regret, before making their peace in older age. “Perhaps people in middle age can learn from the elderly who feel less regret and have adapted,” he suggests.普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的汉内斯#8226;施万特士(Dr Hannes Schwandt)认为,与针对儿童和老年人的研究不同,有关中年的研究明显不足。去年他发表了关于“未实现的期望”的研究报告。该报告发现,年轻人很乐观——甚至是“过度乐观”——而四五十岁的人总是抱有遗憾,然后再老一些才会内心平和。他表示:“或许中年人可以向那些不再怀有强烈遗憾心理、已经适应现实的老年人学习。”The fallout from midlife malaise might make people less productive, notes Dr Schwandt. Employers might therefore want to take note. “It could improve peoples’ wellbeing if we acknowledged the problem,” he says.施万特士指出,中年危机的影响可能导致人们的劳动效率下降。为此雇主可能会重视这个问题。他说:“如果我们承认这个问题,就有可能提高人们的幸福感。”Jodie Rogers, a careers coach, says work is a source of crisis for her middle-aged clients. “They ask themselves what legacy they are leaving behind. They start to feel bad about feeling discontented. They have a job and pay cheque, they don’t know if they have the right to seek more. There is a real tug of war between the feeling they should be satisfied with their life and wanting to do something more meaningful.”职业指导顾问乔迪#8226;罗杰斯(Jodie Rogers)表示,对她的那些中年客户来说,工作是一个危机感的源头。“他们问自己能给后世留下什么。这种不满足感开始让他们感到不安。他们有工作,有薪水,但不知道是否有权寻求更多。他们左右为难,不知道是应该安于现状,还是应该做一些更有意义的事情。”Paul Dolan, professor of behavioural science at the London School of Economics, and author of Happiness by Design, believes we need a mix of purpose and pleasure in order to feel truly happy. In a forthcoming paper, he argues that much of the economic literature on midlife crises focuses on our evaluations of what makes us happy rather than our actual experiences. In other words, the stories we tell ourselves about what makes us happy – that a prestigious job is good – even if our day-to-day experience of the work makes us miserable.伦敦政治经济学院(LSE)的行为科学教授保罗#8226;多兰(Paul Dolan)著有《设计幸福》(Happiness by Design)一书,他认为,要真正感到幸福,我们既要怀着目标,也要保持心情愉悦。他在一篇即将发表的论文中提出,许多关于中年危机的经济学文献聚焦于我们自认为的幸福理由,而不是我们实际的体验。比如说,我们告诉自己,体面的工作让我们感到幸福,即便实际上我们的日常工作让我们感到痛苦。Other experts, however, dismiss any connection between age and crisis. Susan Krauss Whitbourne, professor of psychology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, sees age as a “social construct, highly dependent on the individual”. The attraction of seeing midlife as a period prone to crisis, she says is akin to horoscopes: “It gives you certainty. It gives an excuse and an expectation.”然而,有些专家对年龄和危机存在联系的说法不以为然。马萨诸塞大学阿默斯特分校(University of Massachusetts Amherst)的苏珊#8226;克劳斯#8226;惠特伯恩(Susan Krauss Whitbourne)教授认为,年龄是一种“社会建构,在很大程度上取决于个人”。她表示,认为中年容易出现危机的说法具有像星座学说一样的吸引力:“它带给你确定感,提供一种借口,一种预期。”She does, however, think that today, more people want to express their true sense of self in their job.然而,惠特伯恩也认为,如今更多的人希望在工作中展现对自我的真实感知。Elizabeth agrees – she says her parents are baffled by her career dissatisfaction: “They say it is a luxury of my generation. They never thought of enjoying their careers – they just got on with it.”伊丽莎白对此表示赞同,她说,父母不理解自己为何对职业感到不满:“他们说,职业满足感是我们这代人的奢侈品。他们从未想过在职业上获得享受,他们只是按部就班地工作。”Many people, says Prof Whitbourne, fantasise about dramatically quitting their jobs. But, she says, “it is better to make baby steps towards a change”.惠特伯恩表示,许多人幻想着突然辞职。但她表示,“一点一点地做出改变会更好”。Dr Sinclair agrees: “People can be too goal-focused. They have ticked off making money and career goals, and wonder what next?” He helps them to understand life is not about ticking off their goals but living by their values. Rather than resign, they may find that making small changes in their jobs, for example collaborating with colleagues or mentoring a junior employee, can make work feel more meaningful.辛克莱对此表示赞同:“人们可能过于看重目标,在完成赚钱和职业方面的目标后,他们不知道下一个目标是什么?”辛克莱帮助人们明白,人生的意义不在于完成一堆目标,而是要活出价值来。与其辞职,还不如在工作中做出小改变,比如与同事合作或者指导初级员工,这可能让人觉得工作更有意义。 /201409/332008襄樊市中医院男科是公立医院吗Most of us are adult enough to know magic doesn#39;t exist. And yet we#39;re the same species that thinks fat rings are fairy-tale items which somehow ;secure; another person#39;s love, one step away from a ;happily ever after;.我们中的大多数都已经足够成熟,知道这个世界上并不存在什么魔法。我们同样也都知道用一颗大钻戒去“套住”一个人的心,然后“永远幸福地生活在一起”是只是童话中才会出现的故事。They#39;re expensive, useless and, worse, are insulting to notions of actual love. As anyone who#39;s been in a serious long-term relationship knows, you don#39;t need geology to proclaim (let alone justify) said love.戒指又贵又没用,更糟糕的是,它们还侮辱了爱情的真谛。任何一个认真处在长久恋爱关系的人都知道,你并不需要通过地里埋藏的东西来宣告(甚至刻意明)你的爱。Before you take me for a cheapskate who just doesn#39;t want to spend the money on a ring, let me explain a bit more. Many of us, especially men, have strapped our feet to the commercialised notions of what constitutesrelationships. We#39;ve turned into zombies, hungry for all things red and supposedly lovey dovey. We buy into the baffling displays of romance like the nauseating crimson heart-shaped horror show we call Valentine#39;s Day. Or the flowers and boxed chocolates we#39;re supposed to deliver on anniversaries to celebrate monogamous tolerance and the disbelief you haven#39;t murdered each other.在我被你们视为不愿花钱买戒指的吝啬鬼之前,请允许我多做一些解释。我们很多人,尤其是男人,已经被束缚在商业化概念构成的情感之中。我们变得像僵尸一样,渴望一切红色的东西和所谓的情爱缠绵。我们相信那些莫名其妙的浪漫表达方式,比如满眼红到令人作呕的恐怖心形物(我们称之为情人节),或者是我们应该在周年纪念日那天送上鲜花和盒装巧克力,以庆祝我们竟能在一夫一妻制下相互容忍而没有相互残杀。We speed through our finances and morals, enjoying the exhilaration of fitting in to societal expectation, as opposed to reflecting on whether our actions are warranted or justified. And our partners seem all too y to go along with it.我们忽视了自身的经济能力和个人信念,享受着因为符合社会期望而带来的喜悦,却没有反思我们的行为是否必要或者合理。我们的伴侣对此似乎也都是赞同的。Engagement rings – specifically expensive diamond ones – are often prime examples of this unthinking mindset. The problem isn#39;t the rings themselves, but the justifications – or the lack of justifications – behind their acquisition.订婚戒指——尤其是昂贵的钻石戒指——往往是这种盲目心态的典型例子。问题并不在于戒指本身,而是在于买戒指这件事的合理性。We mustn#39;t confuse engagement rings – given, usually to a woman, when a proposal is accepted – and wedding rings – given on wedding day. (Aly, we should recognise how strange it is to need two different kinds of rings.)我们千万不能把订婚戒指和结婚戒指弄混了,前者是在女人同意了男人的求婚之后,男人送给她的戒指,而后者是在结婚当天送给她的戒指。(好吧,其实我们已经意识到需要两种不同的戒指是件很奇怪的事情了。)Whatever the long history of engagement items – I#39;ve heard claims of it dating from ancient Egypt or Rome, for example – the focus on engagement rings should really start with De Beers, in the 20th century.有传言称订婚习俗起源于古埃及或古罗马,但不管订婚习俗的历史有多么悠久,我真正听说订婚戒指这件事应该是从20世纪的戴比尔斯公司(De Beers)开始的。After large diamond mines were discovered here in South Africa around 1870, the mines#39; major investors amalgamated their interests to form De Beers Consolidates Mines. They recognised that due to diamonds having little intrinsic value, they would need to create demand via (the illusion of) scarcity and pretend worth. So began one of the most successful marketing and public manipulation campaigns of the 20th century, originating from four words: ;A diamond is forever;.1870年左右,在南非发现一些大钻矿之后,这些矿的主要投资者们便达成了利益联合,成立了戴比尔斯联合矿业。他们知道钻石本身并没有什么价值,但他们需要利用钻石稀缺的假象来创造需求,假装它们很有价值。所以“钻石恒久远,一颗永流传”这句广告语便成为了20世纪最成功的营销和公关案例之一。By convincing men their love for their future wife is directly proportional to the expense of the diamond ring, and convincing women to expect love in the form of shiny stone, De Beers and their marketers, NW Ayer, began a tradition so embedded we forget it#39;s a marketing ploy. Genius marketing, to be sure, but marketing nonetheless.通过让男人们相信他们对未来妻子的爱与钻戒的价格成正比,同时也蛊惑女人们去期待闪亮石头所表达的爱,戴尔比斯和他们的营销伙伴爱尔广告公司开启了一段深入人心的经典之旅,甚至让我们都忘了这是一种营销策略。它的确是一种天才营销,但不管怎样,也只是营销而已。And guess what? The prices keep going up, as if we are really loving more and deeper these days. According to the XO Group Inc 2011 Engagement Engagement amp; Jewelry survey, the average engagement ring cost ,200. If you think that#39;s bad, consider that nearly 12% of US couples spend more than ,000 for an engagement ring. Of course, we should take such stats with some measure of scepticism, as Will Oremus highlights. Nonetheless, these are the prices at a time when the average American family earns less than it did in 1989.猜猜接下来怎样了?钻石的价格持续增长,时至今日,我们对它们的爱更是有增无减。根据XO集团有限公司(XO Group Inc)的2011年度订婚首饰调查,人们在订婚戒指上的平均花费约为5200美金。如果你觉得这已经是非常可怕的数字了,那么再想想,其实还有近12%的美国夫妻会花8000美金以上去买订婚戒指。当然,正如作家欧蕾慕斯(Will Oremus)所强调的,我们应该带着怀疑的态度去看这些数据。这些价格都是1989年的调查结果,而在那个年代,美国家庭平均赚到的美金其实都达不到这些数字。The American bias of these stats shouldn#39;t negate the overall point: diamonds – and therefore diamond rings – are expensive and the demand was created artificially for an item that#39;s only property here is shininess (it decreases in value as soon as you walk out the store).尽管钻戒花费的可信度有待商榷,但这不能掩盖这个事实:钻石以及钻戒的天价都是人为创造出来的,它们唯一的特性就是闪亮(但一旦走出商场,闪亮的它们就会黯淡下来)。Any remotely logical person can see that spending several thousand on actually important items for a new couple like a place to live or putting money in an investment account will serve them far better in the future (and likely help with romantic and/or wedded bliss).任何一个有长远思维的人都会发现,对新婚夫妇来说,花数千块钱在一些住房或是投资理财之类真正重要的事情上对他们的将来可能会更有意义(也可能有助于营造浪漫和提高婚姻幸福感)。That engagement ring purchases tend to be for women – not by women – is also insulting to the cause of not viewing women as objects to be acquired. Consider that this is worthy of a headline in a respected US magazine at the beginning of this month: ;Women Now Paying for Their Own Engagement Rings;.订婚戒指是买给女人的,而不是被女人买的,这种不将女人视为购买戒指的对象也是对女性的一种侮辱。想像一下,如果本月初在一个权威的美国杂志上看到这样一条新闻:“女人为自己购买订婚戒指”,那么它一定可以成为新闻头条。Many people will say that engagement rings are symbolic of love and devotion. Ignoring that this idea is itself manufactured by the profiting businesses, it also gives an arbitrary definition of ;symbol;: why can#39;t a beautiful home be a symbol? Why can#39;t long-term investments be a symbol? Indeed, would it not be more impressive to show off a house than a finger rock?很多人会说,订婚戒指是爱情和忠诚的象征。但却忽视了这个想法本身就是被盈利的商家们创造出来的,同样也对“象征”下了一个专断的定义:为什么一个漂亮的家不能成为爱情和忠诚的象征?为什么长期投资不能成为爱情和忠诚的象征?说实话,难道一栋房子不比一个手指上的石头更印象深刻吗?Tradition is another assertion when discussing almost anything to do withmonogamy and marriage. But, like nature, tradition is a description not moral justification. Just because we#39;ve always done a particular action, doesn#39;t mean it#39;s always (or ever was) justified. Pointing to tradition means pointing to the mistreatment of different races and sexes, human sacrifices, and so on. Longevity, too, doesn#39;t give moral immunity, or automatic goodness, to anything.每当讨论起任何关于一夫一妻和婚姻的话题时,传统就成了我们要坚守的另一种东西。然而,传统在本质上只是一种描述,不代表其具有道德合理性。并不会因为我们已经做了什么,就代表着这种行为总是(或曾经是)合理的。当你向着传统时,也就意味着可能会默许对不同种族、性别的虐待,还有活人祭祀等等。即使是存在已久的古老传统,也不会给予任何事物道德豁免,或是理所应当的仁慈。Engagement rings aren#39;t even used to show one is married: they#39;re used before the wedding even occurs. Indeed, even helping avoid awkward social encounters isn#39;t aided, since there are other (and cheaper) ways of showing you#39;re ;in a relatinship; (not to mention just telling people trying to hit on you).戴了订婚戒指并不代表已经结婚,订婚是发生在结婚之前的。实际上,订婚戒指也无力帮助你避免一些尴尬的社交场合,但其实有其他低花费的方式能向所有人表明你已经“有主了”,更不用说那些试图搭讪你的人。If you need a ring to prove your love, it#39;s not your lack of a ring that#39;s the problem.如果需要一枚戒指才能明你的爱,那么问题就不仅是缺少一枚戒指那么简单了。 /201311/266035襄城区妇幼保健中医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱

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