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2019年12月08日 12:09:29 | 作者:最新生活 | 来源:新华社
Marilyn Monroe, 1926-1962: America's Most Famous Sex SymbolThe beautiful movie star had an exciting but tragic life. VOICE ONE:I'm Shirley Griffith. VOICE TWO:And I'm Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program, People in America. Today we tell about movie star Marilyn Monroe. She died many years ago, yet still is one of the best known American women. (MUSIC)VOICE ONE:Her name at birth was Norma Jean Baker. Her life as a child was like a bad dream. She lived with a number of different people, and often was mistreated. At age sixteen Norma Jean married a sailor. But she soon ended that marriage. She changed her hair color from brown to shining gold. And she changed her name to Marilyn Monroe. She wanted to be an actress. And she succeeded. She appeared in a number of Hollywood movies. Millions of people went to see them. By the time Norma Jean had reached the age of twenty-six, her beautiful face and body earned her a place as one of America's leading movie stars. But success and fame were not enough to make her happy. The troubles of her childhood days stayed with her. She drank too much alcohol. She took too many drugs. At the age of thirty-six, she took her own life. VOICE TWO:She has been dead since nineteen sixty-two. Still, her fame continues to grow. People born long after she died are watching her movies on television. Objects that belonged to her bring huge prices at public sales. The Warner Brothers museum in Hollywood has the white dress she wore in one of her movies, "The Prince and the Showgirl. "People continue to talk about what they feel is her strange death. Some people believe she was murdered. Two investigations showed that she died as the result of too many drugs. VOICE ONE:Why is the public still so interested in a woman who died so many years ago? A number of reasons. Her exciting but tragic life. Her connections with well-known people. And her image as an especially desirable woman. In the nineteen fifties, many Americans believed sex was a very private subject. People often severely judged those who were sexually appealing. Into this atmosphere burst Marilyn Monroe. As one critic said, her body was round in all the right places. She wore her clothes like skin. When she walked, she moved her lower body in a way that few other actresses had done. Her voice was soft and breathy. She soon became America's golden girl. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:The story of Marilyn Monroe begins on June first, nineteen twenty-six. Norma Jean was born that day in the West Coast city of Los Angeles, California. Her birthplace was not far from the Hollywood movie studios where she would someday be a star. Her mother, Gladys Baker, suffered from mental problems. Often the mother had to be treated in a hospital for long periods of time. Her daughter was sent to live with a number of different people. The actress later would describe her stays with these foster families as sometimes very unhappy. During the worst experiences, she would go to a movie theater. There the young Norma Jean escaped into the make-believe world of movies. She would act all the movie parts after she went to a movie. She told this to a long time friend, actor Ted Jordan, who later wrote a book about her. VOICE ONE:By the time she was seventeen, Marilyn was trying very hard to be a movie actress. She finally was able to get an actors' agent to help her. He got Twentieth Century Fox Company to give Marilyn parts in some movies it produced.Marilyn continued to change the way she had looked as Norma Jean. She had an operation to improve the appearance of her nose. Her eyes were made to appear larger. She began using a great deal of bright red lipstick on her mouth. Marilyn may have worked more to improve her appearance than to improve her performance in acting classes. Some people at Twentieth Century Fox said she did not like to work at all. She appeared in only one movie. And she had only one line to speak in that. The Fox movie company dismissed her. Soon, however, her agent got her a job at Columbia Pictures. She appeared in a movie called "Ladies of the Chorus. " She sang two songs. Several critics praised her performance. But Columbia dismissed her. VOICE TWO:Marilyn did not stop struggling. She next won a small part in a movie called "Love Happy." It was a comedy starring the famous Marx Brothers. Critics said it was not one of their better efforts. Marilyn, though, earned praise for simply taking a short walk in the movie. The movie called for her to say, "Some men are following me. " Groucho Marx answered that he did not understand why. As he said that, he watched Marilyn walk her famous walk. His eyes opened very wide. That short scene in the movie made many people in Hollywood talk about Marilyn Monroe. VOICE ONE:Marilyn got her first major chance when director John Huston invited her to act in a movie called "The Asphalt Jungle. "Huston said her performance as a criminal's girlfriend was good. It gained Marilyn her dream of a long-term agreement with Twentieth Century Fox, the company that had dismissed her earlier. Now its officials gave her a part in "All About Eve." The movie, released in nineteen fifty, was about a movie star. She played a golden-haired woman who did not have much intelligence -- "a dumb blonde." In nineteen fifty-two, Marilyn again appeared as a dumb blonde in "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes." This performance at last won her widesp fame. Marilyn Monroe was now a lead actress, a star. VOICE TWO:Marilyn Monroe, 1954 Huge successes now followed. Between nineteen fifty-three and nineteen fifty-nine she appeared in lead parts in many popular movies: "How To Marry a Millionaire." "The Seven Year Itch." "Bus Stop." "Some Like it Hot."Her part in "Some Like it Hot" showed that she was very good at making people laugh. Marilyn's picture appeared on the front cover of many magazines and the front pages of many newspapers. She began to earn more money. Life should have been good. But Marilyn was not happy. She was being asked to repeat her part as a dumb blonde in movie after movie. She wanted to be accepted as a good actress. She went to the Actors' Studio school in New York City with many serious actors. She thought she could change the way people thought of her. VOICE ONE:But she did not succeed. People thought of Marilyn Monroe as "that blonde bombshell." Few people thought of her as a serious actress. She also failed in her attempts at marriage. She admitted that she got married the first time only to escape from being forced to live in a group home for children without parents. In nineteen fifty-four she married again. Her husband was the famous New York Yankee baseball player, Joe Di Maggio. They were together for only a few months. Later, she tried again. She married Arthur Miller, a famous writer of plays. That marriage ended unhappily in nineteen sixty-one, after five years. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:Marilyn returned to Hollywood. But things were different now. Friends said she was drinking too much alcohol. They said she was taking too many drugs. She seemed to always be in trouble with the movie company. She had gained too much weight. Or, she had not learned what she was to say in the movie. Or she had arrived late for the filming. By nineteen sixty-two, Marilyn's problems were threatening her work in the movies. She was to appear in the Twentieth Century Fox movie called "Something's Got to Give." She lost weight for her part. She tried to arrive on time for the filming. She reportedly knew her part. However, she became sick several times and missed work. Fox company officials dismissed her. VOICE ONE:On August fourth, nineteen sixty-two, Marilyn Monroe died alone in her home. She was thirty-six years old. Reports said taking too many drugs killed her. But people who knew her said failed marriages, and the failure of her latest movie also led to her death. Many people said Marilyn Monroe never escaped her past. She continued to suffer from the early, sad life of a little girl named Norma Jean. (MUSIC)VOICE TWO:This Special English program was written by Jeri Watson and directed by Marilyn Christiano. I'm Steve Ember. VOICE ONE:And I'm Shirley Griffith. Join us again next week for another People in America program on the Voice of America. Article/200803/31765I have too many clothes. I have many clothes I’ve only worn once. Sometimes I even find something at the back of a drawer that I never even wore. I bought it, put it away, and then forgot about it. I’m sure I don’t need so many clothes. I don’t think anyone really needs 11 pairs of jeans and 32 sweaters. I won’t tell you how many pairs of shoes I’ve got. That’s way too embarrassing. The simple truth is I love clothes and I love shopping. Maybe I have a problem. I’m sure I’d be a lot richer if I didn’t buy so many clothes. I like brands, so the clothes I buy are quite expensive. One day I’m going to have a big clearout. I’ll take all the clothes I no longer wear and give them to charity. Article/201104/131255Baxter had wandered around Blockbuster for almost 30 minutes after work. He was looking for a movie that seemed even slightly interesting. He had to rent a “new release” in order to get a free “favorite.” Actually, he would rather just rent two favorites; he hadn’t one good thing about any of the new releases.Finally, because a coworker had liked it, he selected a new release called “Cloverfield.” It was a story about a giant monster that destroys Manhattan. The other DVD he selected was “South Park,” a popular HBO comedy series about third-grade students in Colorado. He went to the front counter.He said hello to the employee. She did not look at him; all she said was, “Card?” Baxter gave her his Blockbuster card. She scanned it. She broke open the two locked DVD cases and checked to make sure the DVDs were in them. She said, “.28.” Baxter corrected her, “You mean .64.” She repeated, gruffly, “.28.” Boy, this is one rude woman, Baxter thought. He told her to check again; he was entitled to a free movie. She checked again, and said, “.64.” Baxter handed her a five, noting that she did not bother to apologize for her mistake.She handed him his change without a word. “What’s your name?” Baxter asked. She told him. “What’s your last name?” he asked. She placed the two DVDs and the receipt on the counter top, where she could see him printing her full name on a piece of paper. Without asking him if he wanted a plastic bag for the DVDs, she turned back to the register. He looked at her, took the DVDs, and walked out. Maybe her manners will improve after I call her supervisor, he thought. Article/201108/149025Inspector Walsh put his hands behind his head.#39;What time is it?I#39;m hungry.We#39;re learning a lot,but I need some coffee.#39;沃尔什探长把手放在脑后。;几点了?我饿了。我们了解了不少东西,但我需要点咖啡。;#39;Shall I go to the kitchen?#39;Sergeant Foster asked.;要我去厨房吗?;福斯特警官问。#39;Oh,no.Later.Let#39;s see Jackie Clarkson next.#39;;哦,不,呆会儿。咱们接下来见见杰基;克拉克森。;Jackie came in and sat down.She looked down at her hands and said nothing.杰基走进来坐下,她低头看着手没说话。#39;We found the empty bottle of your mother#39;s sleeping tablets in Diane#39;s room,#39;the Inspector said suddenly.Then he waited.Jackie#39;s face did not change and she said nothing.;我们在黛安娜的房间发现了你妈妈安眠药的空瓶子。;探长突然说,然后他等着。杰基脸色没变,她一言不发。#39;Tell me,did your mother get her tablets from the shop in the village?#39;;告诉我,你的妈妈是从村里的商店买到药的吗?;#39;Yes.My mother usually took a sleeping tablet every night so she needed a lot of tablets.Sometimes she got them from the shop,sometimes I did.On Thursday,I asked Peter Hobbs to get them.He lives in the house across the road,and he of-ten goes to the village on his bicycle.#39;;对。妈妈通常每晚都要一片安眠药,所以她要许多药片。有时她去商店买,有时是我去。周四我请彼特;霍布斯去买。他住在马路对面的那幢房子,他经常骑自行车去村里。;#39;I see.Your mother wanted to stay in this house.How about you?Did you want to move?#39;;明白了。你母亲想留在这幢房子里。你呢?你想搬家吗?;Jackie looked up for a minute and then down at her hands a-gain.#39;This is Mother#39;s house.I loved my mother.She was good to me.#39;杰基抬头看了会然后又低下头看着她的手。;这是我妈妈的房子。我爱我的妈妈,她对我很好。;#39;Did you see your mother in her room last night?#39;;昨晚你去她的房间见她了吗?;#39;Yes,everyone did.Diane made hot milk and took it to Mother.She usually drank a cup of hot milk before she slept.#39;;去了,每人都去了。黛安娜煮了热牛奶并端给了妈妈。她通常在睡前要喝杯热牛奶。; Article/201202/172982

29Hezekiah was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned in Jerusalem twenty-nine years. His mother's name was Abijah daughter of Zechariah. 2He did what was right in the eyes of the Lord , just as his father David had done. 3In the first month of the first year of his reign, he opened the doors of the temple of the Lord and repaired them. 4He brought in the priests and the Levites, assembled them in the square on the east side 5and said: "Listen to me, Levites! Consecrate yourselves now and consecrate the temple of the Lord , the God of your fathers. Remove all defilement from the sanctuary. 6Our fathers were unfaithful; they did evil in the eyes of the Lord our God and forsook him. They turned their faces away from the Lord 's dwelling place and turned their backs on him. 7They also shut the doors of the portico and put out the lamps. They did not burn incense or present any burnt offerings at the sanctuary to the God of Israel. 8Therefore, the anger of the Lord has fallen on Judah and Jerusalem; he has made them an object of d and horror and scorn, as you can see with your own eyes. 9This is why our fathers have fallen by the sword and why our sons and daughters and our wives are in captivity. 10Now I intend to make a covenant with the Lord , the God of Israel, so that his fierce anger will turn away from us. 11My sons, do not be negligent now, for the Lord has chosen you to stand before him and serve him, to minister before him and to burn incense." 12Then these Levites set to work: from the Kohathites, Mahath son of Amasai and Joel son of Azariah; from the Merarites, Kish son of Abdi and Azariah son of Jehallelel; from the Gershonites, Joah son of Zimmah and Eden son of Joah; 13from the descendants of Elizaphan, Shimri and Jeiel; from the descendants of Asaph, Zechariah and Mattaniah; 14from the descendants of Heman, Jehiel and Shimei; from the descendants of Jeduthun, Shemaiah and Uzziel. 15When they had assembled their brothers and consecrated themselves, they went in to purify the temple of the Lord , as the king had ordered, following the word of the Lord . 16The priests went into the sanctuary of the Lord to purify it. They brought out to the courtyard of the Lord 's temple everything unclean that they found in the temple of the Lord . The Levites took it and carried it out to the Kidron Valley. 17They began the consecration on the first day of the first month, and by the eighth day of the month they reached the portico of the Lord . For eight more days they consecrated the temple of the Lord itself, finishing on the sixteenth day of the first month. 18Then they went in to King Hezekiah and reported: "We have purified the entire temple of the Lord , the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, and the table for setting out the consecrated b, with all its articles. 19We have prepared and consecrated all the articles that King Ahaz removed in his unfaithfulness while he was king. They are now in front of the Lord 's altar." 20Early the next morning King Hezekiah gathered the city officials together and went up to the temple of the Lord . 21They brought seven bulls, seven rams, seven male lambs and seven male goats as a sin offering for the kingdom, for the sanctuary and for Judah. The king commanded the priests, the descendants of Aaron, to offer these on the altar of the Lord . 22So they slaughtered the bulls, and the priests took the blood and sprinkled it on the altar; next they slaughtered the rams and sprinkled their blood on the altar; then they slaughtered the lambs and sprinkled their blood on the altar. 23The goats for the sin offering were brought before the king and the assembly, and they laid their hands on them. 24The priests then slaughtered the goats and presented their blood on the altar for a sin offering to atone for all Israel, because the king had ordered the burnt offering and the sin offering for all Israel. 25He stationed the Levites in the temple of the Lord with cymbals, harps and lyres in the way prescribed by David and Gad the king's seer and Nathan the prophet; this was commanded by the Lord through his prophets. 26So the Levites stood y with David's instruments, and the priests with their trumpets. 27Hezekiah gave the order to sacrifice the burnt offering on the altar. As the offering began, singing to the Lord began also, accompanied by trumpets and the instruments of David king of Israel. 28The whole assembly bowed in worship, while the singers sang and the trumpeters played. All this continued until the sacrifice of the burnt offering was completed. 29When the offerings were finished, the king and everyone present with him knelt down and worshiped. 30King Hezekiah and his officials ordered the Levites to praise the Lord with the words of David and of Asaph the seer. So they sang praises with gladness and bowed their heads and worshiped. 31Then Hezekiah said, "You have now dedicated yourselves to the Lord . Come and bring sacrifices and thank offerings to the temple of the Lord ." So the assembly brought sacrifices and thank offerings, and all whose hearts were willing brought burnt offerings. 32The number of burnt offerings the assembly brought was seventy bulls, a hundred rams and two hundred male lambs-all of them for burnt offerings to the Lord . 33The animals consecrated as sacrifices amounted to six hundred bulls and three thousand sheep and goats. 34The priests, however, were too few to skin all the burnt offerings; so their kinsmen the Levites helped them until the task was finished and until other priests had been consecrated, for the Levites had been more conscientious in consecrating themselves than the priests had been. 35There were burnt offerings in abundance, together with the fat of the fellowship offerings and the drink offerings that accompanied the burnt offerings. So the service of the temple of the Lord was reestablished. 36Hezekiah and all the people rejoiced at what God had brought about for his people, because it was done so quickly. Article/200901/61346

Some people look at a hole and see empty space. Others see opportunity. That's what Sheri Schmelzer spotted a few years ago when everyone-including her three children-started wearing Crocs, the colorful resin clogs dotted with holes."My kids and I were clowning around, and my eldest daughter, Lexie, got the sewing kit out. I grabbed one of the Crocs, pulled some buttons, rhinestones, and fabric out of the kit, and stuck them in the holes. Lexie said, 'Mom, I love that!' "Sheri and Lexie, then seven, spent the rest of the day filling holes in the family's 12 pairs of Crocs. Every look-alike shoe was suddenly unique.When her husband, Rich, a seasoned entrepreneur with two technology start-ups under his belt, came home later that day, says Sheri, "I could see the lightbulb go on over his head." Crocs had sold millions of pairs of shoes; the couple figured they could create a business simply by riding the wave. Rich refused to let a decorated Croc leave their Boulder, Colorado, house until he'd filed a patent.But first they needed a name. "Rich and I had seen a movie where Meg Ryan says to Tom Hanks, 'I'm such a flibbertigibbet!' That became my nickname, so I called the business Jibbitz."While Sheri designed, Rich strategized. They decided to sell the charms through a website, jibbitz.com.Six months later, in February 2006, Sheri was doing so well that Rich left his business to work with her full-time. She was making hundreds of Jibbitz to order, by hand, by herself, in their basement. And filling those holes wasn't as easy as it looked. The bigger the shoe, the bigger the holes; it took six prototypes before Sheri figured out how to make her charms one-size-fits-all.Rich soon found a way to get plastic Jibbitz manufactured in China, but Sheri hated giving up control. Aly she was spending much of her time sending out replacements or refunding money for broken Jibbitz. Soon they have to hire help and move the operation out of their home.Someone at Crocs was bound to notice the charms-after all, the company was headquartered just ten miles down the road. Duke Hanson, one of Crocs' founders, spotted Lexie and her Jibbitz at the local pool, handed her his business card, and said, "Have your mom call me."Sheri and Rich met with Crocs execs, but no one suggested buying the company. Sheri was actually relieved because she wanted to see if she, not Crocs, could make it big.Biding her time allowed Sheri to develop over 300 designs and sign up 4,000 retail outlets. Having more products, more customers, and better distribution boosted the company's value. In December 2006, Crocs bought Jibbitz for million, with the Schmelzers staying on board. And Sheri is branching out into messenger bags and cell phone cases. The diversification turned out to be a good thing when Crocs stock fell sharply earlier this year. As popular as the shoes are, it's not yet clear if they're a short-term fad or a long-term business.Today Sheri sits in bright new digs, the chief design officer of a global business. Even she is amazed by how far you can go with one simple idea. "All I heard from family and friends was 'Gee, there are holes right there! Why didn't I think of that?''So young people should be aware that they will always have opportunity for growth and advancement. Opportunity only goes to those who are aly prepared and those who are adept in observation of life. Article/200909/83901

有声名著之红与黑 Chapter7 相关名著:查泰莱夫人的情人简爱呼啸山庄有声名著之傲慢与偏见有声名著之儿子与情人 Article/200809/48097

We all stayed that night at the house of Shaws. But while Alan and Torrance and Mr Rankeillor slept on the hard beds upstairs, I lay down on the kitchen chests,which now belonged to me. I, who had slept out on the hills for so many days and nights, was now the owner of a large house and several farms.那天晚上我们整夜都待在肖家大院。但当艾伦、托伦斯和兰基勒先生躺在楼上的硬床上睡觉时,我躺在厨房的柜子上,那些现在属于我了。这么多个日日夜夜我一直在山上露天躺着,而现在成了一幢大房子和几个农场的主人。My head was full of exciting plans and ideas,and I found it difficult to sleep.我脑子里满是令人兴奋的计划和念头,我发现自己难以入睡。The next day, while Mr Rankeillor and I were having breakfast together, I talked to him about Alan.第二天,当我和兰基勒先生一起用早餐时,我和他说起了艾伦。‘Mr Thomson is still in danger,’ said the lawyer.‘He must leave the country as soon as possible, and stay with his friends in France for a while. I#39;ll give you money to buy him a place on a ship. He#39;ll have to stay hidden until then.’“汤姆森先生仍然有危险。”律师说,“他必须尽快离开这个国家,和他在法国的朋友待一段时间。我将给你钱以便给他在船上买个舱位。在此之前他必须一直藏匿着。”‘And his clansman, James Stewart, who#39;s in prison?’ I asked.‘I know he didn#39;t kill Colin Campbell. I saw the mur derer! I must speak for James Stewart in court!’“还有他的同族人,詹姆斯·斯图尔特,即还在监狱里的那位呢?”我问。“我知道他并没有杀害科林·坎贝尔。我看到了谋杀犯!我肯定会在法庭上为詹姆斯·斯图尔特说话的!”‘My dear boy,’ said Rankeillor,‘it#39;s dangerous for anyone to speak for a Stewart in Campbell court. But you must do what you think is right. I#39;ll write you a letter to a good lawyer who will be able to help Mr Thomson#39;s clansman.’ He stood up.‘Well, I think that we#39;ve finished our business here. I must leave now,and go back to my work.“我亲爱的孩子,”兰基勒说,“每一个在坎贝尔族人的法庭上为斯图尔特人说话的人都会有危险的。但你应该做你认为对的事。我将为你给一个能帮助汤姆森先生的同族人的好律师写封信。”他站起来。“唔,我想我们在这儿的事已经结束了。我现在必须离开,回去做我的工作。Come and see me often, Mr David! Goodbye!’常来看我吧,戴维先生!再见!”Alan and I started walking towards Edlnburgh,while Mr Rankeillor and Torrance turned back to Queensferry. we talked about what would happen next. Alan was going to hide in the countryside near Edinburgh, until it was safe for him to take a ship to France.我和艾伦开始向爱丁堡走去,而兰基勒先生和托伦斯则折回昆斯费里。我们讨论接下来怎么办。艾伦将躲在爱丁堡城附近的乡下,直到他坐船去法国脱离危险为止。When I had found him a place,I would send him a message. Then I planned to go back to the High lands to help James Stewart return to his family.我为他在船上找到了地方时,我将给他送个信。然后我计划回到高地帮助詹姆斯·斯图尔特回到自己的家。Alan and I walked slowly. We were both thinking that soon we would have to leave each other. And we had been through so much together!We stopped when we came to the top of the Corstorphine Hill, and looked down at Edinburgh. We knew that this was the moment to say goodbye, but we stood there silently for a while.我和艾伦慢慢地走着。我们都想着不久后我们将各自离去。而且我们曾经在一起经历这么多事情!我们走到科西托芬小山的山顶的时候停了下来,俯瞰着爱丁堡。我们知道已经到了说再见的时候了,但我们在那儿静静地站了片刻。‘Well, goodbye,’ said Alan, and held out his hand.“好了,再见,”艾伦说着,并伸出了他的手。‘ Goodbye,’I said, and took his hand.“再见,”我说,并握住了他的手。Then I went off down hill.I did not look back at him,but I felt very miserable, and wanted to sit down and cry like a baby.然后我下山去。我没有回头看他,但我感到很难受,并想坐在地上像小孩子一样大哭一场。Edinburgh was full of noise and traffic and people, but I did not notice any of that. All the time I was thinking of Alan on the hill, and there was an ice-cold feeling inside me.爱丁堡声音嘈杂,车水马龙,人群熙攘,但我一点儿没有注意到那些。我一直想小山上的艾伦,心里感到冰冷。In the months that followed, I kept Alan#39;s silver button safe and often looked at it, remembering our escape through the heather in the wild Highlands. I felt proud to call Alan Breck Stewart my friend, and wondered if I would ever see him again.When I returned to the Highlands to help his clansman, James,I found that my adventures with the Stewarts were far from finished… but that is another story.之后的岁月里,我一直珍藏着艾伦的银扣,并且经常拿出来看一看,回忆着我们一起在荒凉的高地石南丛中逃跑的事。我为能把艾伦·布雷克·斯图尔特当自己的朋友而自豪,我不知道我能否还能再见到他。当我回到高地去帮助他的族人詹姆斯时,我发现我和斯图尔特人在一起的历险还远未结束……但那是另外一个故事了。 Article/201204/177012

According to the writer Walter Ellis, author of a book called the Oxbridge Conspiracy, Britain is still dominated by the old-boy network: it isn't what you know that matters, but who you know. He claims that at Oxford and Cambridge Universities (Oxbridge for short) a few select people start on an escalator ride which, over the years, carries them to the tops of British privilege and power. His research revealed that the top professions all continue to be dominated, if not 90 per cent, then 60 or 65 per cent, by Oxbridge graduates.And yet ,says Ellis, Oxbridge graduates make up only two per cent of the total number of students who graduate from Britain's universities. Other researches also seem to support his belief that Oxbridge graduates start with an unfair advantage in the employment market. In the law, a recently published report showed that out of 26 senior judges appointed to the High Court last year, all of them went to private schools and 21 of them went to Oxbridge.But can this be said to amount to a conspiracy? Not according to Dr. John Rae, a former headmaster of one of Britain's leading private schools, Westminster:"I would accept that there was a bias in some key areas of British life, but that bias has now gone. Some time ago - in the 60s and before - entry to Oxford and Cambridge was not entirely on merit. Now, there's absolutely no question in any objective observer's mind that entry to Oxford and Cambridge is fiercely competitive."However, many would disagree with this. For, although over three-quarters of British pupils are educated in state schools, over half the students that go to Oxbridge have been to private, or "public" schools. Is this because pupils from Britain's private schools are more intelligent than those from state schools, or are they simply better prepared?On average, about £5,000 a year is spent on each private school pupil, more than twice the amount spent on state school pupils. So how can the state schools be expected to compete with the private schools when they have far fewer resources? And how can they prepare their pupils for the special entrance exam to Oxford University, which requires extra preparation, and for which many public school pupils traditionally stay at school and do an additional term?Until recently, many blamed Oxford for this bias because of the university's special entrance exam (Cambridge abolished its entrance exam in 1986). But last February, Oxford University decided to abolish the exam to encourage more state school applicants. From autumn 1996, Oxford University applicants, like applicants to other universities, will be judged only on their A level results and on their performance at interviews, although some departments might still set special tests.However, some argue that there's nothing wrong in having elite places of learning, and that by their very nature, these places should not be easily accessible. Most countries are run by an elite and have centers of academic excellence from which the elite are recruited. Walter Ellis accepts that this is true:"But in France, for example, there are something like 40 equivalents of university, which provide this elite through a much broader base. In America you've got the Ivy League, centered on Harvard and Yale, with Princeton and Stanford and others. But again, those universities together - the elite universities - are about ten or fifteen in number, and are being pushed along from behind by other great universities like, for example, Chicago and Berkeley. So you don't have just this narrow concentration of two universities providing a constantly replicating elite."When it comes to Oxford and Cambridge being elitist because of the number of private school pupils they accept, Professor Stone of Oxford University argues that there is a simple fact he and his associates cannot ignore:"If certain schools do better than others then we just have to accept it. We cannot be a place for remedial education. It's not what Oxford is there to do."However, since academic excellence does appear to be related to the amount of money spent per pupil. This does seem to imply that Prime Minister John Major's vision of Britain as a classless society is still a long way off. And it may be worth remembering that while John Major didn't himself go to Oxbridge, most of his ministers did.据《牛津剑桥阴谋帮派》一书作者沃尔特·埃利斯所说,英国如今仍然处于老同学关系网的控制下:你懂什么并不重要,重要的是认识谁。他声称在牛津大学和剑桥大学求学的少数精英一开始便平步青云,扶摇直上,几年之内,就登上了特权和权力的顶峰。他的调查结果显示,英国高级职能部门仍然由牛津和剑桥的毕业生控制着,如果没有90%,至少也有60或者65%。埃利斯指出,牛津、剑桥的毕业生只占英国大学毕业生总数的2%。其它的研究者似乎也明了这一点,即牛津、剑桥的毕业生一开始就在劳动市场上占据着不公平的优势。最近公布的一份调查结果显示:在法律界,去年任命的26名高级法官都就读过私立学校,其中21人曾就读过牛津和剑桥。但仅凭这些就能说是一个阴谋帮派吗?根据英国一家有代表性的私立学校--威斯敏斯特的前任校长约翰·雷士的看法,情况并不是这样的:"我承认过去英国的某些重要领域内存在着偏见,可如今这种偏见已经不存在了。一段时间以前--即60年工或更早的时候进牛津、剑桥并不完全是凭本事的。而现在,在任何能够客观看问题的人的眼里,毫无疑问,去牛津和剑桥读书竞争理很激烈的。"然而,很多人都不同意这种说法。尽管有3/4的英国毕业生就读于公立学校,而上牛津剑桥的学生中有半数以上的人曾就读于私立学校,即"公学"。难道这是因为英国私立学校的学生比公立学校的学生更聪明些?或者,仅仅因为他们准备得更加充分吗?私立学校平均每年在一个学生身上的花费是5000英镑,是公立学校每个学生费用的两倍还多。那么财源少得多的情况下,公立学校的学生怎么可能与私立学校的学生竞争呢?这些考试需要精心准备,为此许多公立学校的学生传统上要住校,以便有额外的学习时间。直到最近,仍有很多人就牛津大学的专门入学考试一事谴责牛津存在偏见。但牛津大学直到去年2月才决定取消入学考试,鼓励更多的公立学校毕业生报考本校。从1996年秋天开始,申请上牛津大学的学生像其它大学的申请者一样,将只根据他在中学学习期间的成绩和面试的表现来决定是否录取,尽管有些系仍可能需要专门考试。 Article/200802/28006

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