明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年11月12日 12:31:36

Xiaomi, the Chinese smartphone maker that gave Apple a run for its money, is taking on the drone world with a 0 product that undercuts market leader DJI by almost 25 per cent.曾对苹果(Apple)构成强劲挑战的中国智能手机制造商小米(Xiaomi),将凭借一款售价610美元的产品在无人机市场展开竞争。这款产品的售价比市场领跑者大疆(DJI)低了近25%。Drones are the latest gambit for Xiaomi, which launched its first phone in 2011 and, four years later, briefly became the top-selling maker in China. But its fortunes have since faded, prompting a wave of diversification spanning smart rice cookers and air purifiers.无人机是小米下出的最新一步棋。该公司在2011年发布其首部手机,四年后便迅速成为了中国市场上销量最高的手机制造商。但自那以来,小米的好运气逐渐减弱,促使其实施了一连串多元化发展举措,其产品涵盖智能电饭煲和空气净化器。Beijing-based Xiaomi said its drone would cost about Rmb4,000 (0), versus 9 for a comparable product from Shenzhen-based DJI. It plans to unveil its first drone on May 25.总部位于北京的小米表示,其无人机价格约为4000元人民币(合610美元)。相比之下,总部位于深圳的大疆同类产品价格为799美元。小米计划于5月25日发布其首款无人机。DJI was unfazed. Spokesman Wang Fan said it commanded a strong lead over the rest of the industry and superior value. “Price was never our greatest point of appeal,” he said. “Xiaomi’s new product, regardless of its price, will not have an impact on our sales.”大疆对此并不感到担忧。大疆发言人王帆表示,大疆遥遥领先于业内其他企业,品牌价值也高人一头。他说:“价格从来都不是我们的最大卖点。小米的新产品无论价格定在多少,都不会影响我们的销售。”The global consumer drone market is expected to reach .19bn by 2024, said a new report by US-based consultancy Grand View Research. While still largely novelty items, this year’s projected sales of 4m are expected to quadruple to 16m by 2020, Bloomberg said.总部位于美国的咨询公司大观研究(Grand View Research)发布新报告称,到2024年,全球消费类无人机市场的规模预计将达41.9亿美元。彭社(Bloomberg)表示,尽管无人机在很大程度上还是一种新鲜事物,但到2020年时,无人机销量预计会达到1600万架,相对于今年400万架的预期销量等于是翻了两番。Xiaomi is just one of a number of prospective entrants looking to tap into this market and emulate DJI’s success.小米只是考虑进军这一市场并赶超大疆成就的众多潜在玩家之一。That would help it offset flagging phone sales. Xiaomi said in January it sold more than 70m phones in 2015, up from 61m the year before. But that missed both its original target of 100m and its midyear revised goal of 80m.进军无人机市场将有助于小米抵消智能手机销售不振的影响。今年1月,小米表示2015年它售出了逾7000万部手机,高于上一年的6100万部。但这一数字既未达到其最初设定的1亿部的年销售目标,也未达到其年中修订后的8000万部的年销售目标。Analysts, however, reckon drones will fail to turn around Xiaomi’s fortunes, particularly given the limited market size. “There are several zeros between the drone market and the market for smartphone,” said Bryan Ma, analyst at IT consultancy IDC in Singapore.分析师们认为,无人机不会扭转小米的运势——尤其是考虑到无人机市场规模不大。IT咨询公司IDC驻新加坡分析师马伯远(Bryan Ma)表示:“无人机市场比智能手机市场小好几个数量级。” /201605/446133

学习记忆易受创,短期压力勿小觑Short-term stress lasting as little as a few hours can impair brain-cell communication in areas associated with learning and memory, University of California, Irvine researchers have found.It has been known that severe stress lasting weeks or months can impair cell communication in the brain's learning and memory region, but this study provides the first evidence that short-term stress has the same effect."Stress is a constant in our lives and cannot be avoided," said Dr. Tallie Z. Baram, the Danette Shepard Chair in Neurological Sciences in the UC Irvine School of Medicine and study leader. "Our findings can play an important role in the current development of drugs that might prevent these undesirable effects and offer insights into why some people are forgetful or have difficulty retaining information during stressful situations."In their study, Baram and her UC Irvine colleagues identified a novel process by which stress caused these effects. They found that rather than involving the widely known stress hormone cortisol, which circulates throughout the body, acute stress activated selective molecules called corticotropin releasing hormones, which disrupted the process by which the brain collects and stores memories.Learning and memory take place at synapses, which are junctions through which brain cells communicate. These synapses reside on specialized branchlike protrusions on neurons called dendritic spines.In rat and mouse studies, Baram's group saw that the release of CRH in the hippocampus, the brain's primary learning and memory center, led to the rapid disintegration of these dendritic spines, which in turn limited the ability of synapses to collect and store memories.The researchers discovered that blocking the CRH molecules' interaction with their receptor molecules eliminated stress damage to dendritic spines in the hippocampal cells involved with learning and memory.In addition, the authors replicated the effects of stress on dendritic spines by administering low levels of synthetic CRH, and watching how the spines retracted over minutes. "Fortunately, once we removed the CRH, the spines seemed to grow back," Baram said.Baram also noted that there are compounds under development that show the ability to block CRH receptors, and that this study can play a role in the creation of therapies based on these compounds to address stress-related learning and memory loss.The study appears in the March 12 edition of the Journal of Neuroscience. Yuncai Chen, Celine Dubé and Courtney Burgdorff of UC Irvine also participated in the study, which was supported by the National Institutes of Health. 加州大学欧文分校研究人员发现,即使只是几小时的短期压力也扰乱脑细胞间的正常运作,而这些运作正关系到学习和记忆。我们知道,持续长达几周甚至几个月的强大压力会对大脑学习和记忆区域的神经细胞传导造成损害。但是这次实验第一次发现,短期压力也会产生同样的破坏力。加州大学欧文分校医学院神经科学Danette Shepard 主席,这次研究的领导者,Tallie Z. Baram士说道:“我们的生活中到处都存在着压力,躲也躲不了。我们这次的研究成果将起到非常重要的作用。根据这些研究成果,我们可以制造新的药物以减轻不良影响,并且深入探究有些人为什么在压力下容易健忘或者出现问题。”在这次研究中,Baram及他的同事还发现了一个新细节,而压力正是通过这个途径来产生副作用的。他们发现,影响学习和记忆的并不是由人们熟知的遍布全身的激素皮质醇造成的,而是强大的压力激发了一部分分子(促肾上腺皮质激素),由它所释放的荷尔蒙扰乱了大脑收集、储存信息的过程。当神经元的突触(两个神经元之间或神经元与效应器细胞之间相互接触、并借以传递信息的部位)传递信息时,人们才能进行学习和记忆。这些突触存在于神经元的突出(树突刺)这样的特殊神经元分上。在鼠科动物试验中,Baram研究组发现海马体(大脑皮质的一个内褶区,进行学习和记忆的地方)中促肾上腺皮质激素的释放迅速破坏了树突刺,这样便影响了突触对信息的收集和储存。研究还发现,用促肾上腺皮质激素受体分子阻止激素之间的相互作用可以消除压力对海马体细胞树突刺的伤害。除此之外,研究者们还通过注射少量的合成促肾上腺皮质激素模拟压力对树突刺的影响,观察树突刺在几分钟内收缩的状况。Baram说:“幸运的是,当我们移除促肾上腺皮质激素的时候,树突刺又恢复了原来的样子。”Baram还提到他们正在研究一种物质,它能阻止促肾上腺皮质激素受体的运作,而且这次研究为一种全新疗法的发明奠定了良好的理论基础。这种疗法以正在研究的物质为基础,且能处理由压力导致的学习及记忆损害的问题。这篇报告刊登在3月12日《神经科学杂志》上,加州大学欧文分校的Yuncai Chen, Celine Dubé 和 Courtney Burgdorff也参与了此次研究。此次研究由美国国立卫生研究院赞助持。 /200803/31404


  小游戏挑战你我地理IQOne of the most popular games on the Internet right now is about as low-tech as a high-school social studies quiz.The free game, Traveler IQ Challenge, has become an unlikely hit by getting players to locate Kinshasa, Moscow and other cities and attractions by clicking on a crude, two-dimensional world map, and scoring them based on the speed and accuracy of their responses. Created as a marketing gimmick in June by TravelPod, a travel Web site owned by Expedia, Traveler IQ now has more than four million people a month who play it on sites across the Internet, including Facebook's popular social network.Traveler IQ is part of a wave of what's known in the industry as 'casual' games -- low budget, easy-to-play titles like card games and puzzles -- that lack the visual flare of slick new products for the Xbox 360 and other game consoles. Traveler IQ is also tapping into a renewed interest in geography, stimulated by new technologies like GPS satellite-based navigation devices and Google Earth, a program from Google that lets users browse a three-dimensional model of the planet.'I'm addicted,' says John Riccitiello, chief executive of game publisher Electronic Arts of Redwood City, Calif. Mr. Riccitiello says his overall Traveler IQ ranking got as high as 11th in the world at one time, but his standing dropped as more people began playing the game, sinking to 204,184th. 'Once something gets really popular, you realize what a dolt you are,' says Mr. Riccitiello, who travels about 175,000 miles a year.Traveler IQ Challenge was inspired by games played by Luc Levesque, a Canadian programmer and traveler who founded TravelPod. When he was on train trips across Turkey and driving for days to reach remote salt flats in Bolivia, Mr. Levesque, 32 years old, would randomly name a country and one of his travel companions would attempt to name another country or capital city that starts with the third letter of the previous country's name.The idea for an online geography game occurred to Mr. Levesque in May when Facebook of Palo Alto, Calif., opened its site so independent software developers could create games, music and other simple applications that its huge audience could post on their personal Web pages. Two programmers created the game for TravelPod in just under three weeks for an amount Mr. Levesque won't disclose, but which is likely less than ,000 at standard salaries for engineers.The game was designed to funnel users to TravelPod.com, an ad-supported Web site that lets travelers set up blogs chronicling their trips. 'We've seen huge increases in registrations and traffic,' says Mr. Levesque, who adds that the Ottawa, Ontario, company could eventually put ads directly inside the game. More than 1.6 million people have installed the game on their Web pages on Facebook. Most of the players of the game now come through other sites that have the program on their pages, including the CBS show 'The Amazing Race.'Traveler IQ starts out asking users to locate some of the better known cities and attractions in the world, like London, giving users a limit of about 10 seconds to pinpoint them on a map. The locations quickly get harder with cities like Ashkabat, Turkmenistan. The game tells users how close, in kilometers, they got to the actual locations and scores them accordingly, with more points awarded for shorter distances.Andrew Bridges, an attorney at a San Francisco law firm who has traveled extensively around the world, the game is one of a number of new technologies that help stimulate his interest in distant locales. For fun, he says he'll see how fast he can manually zoom in to find a monument like the Acropolis in Athens using Google Earth.Jerome Dobson, a geographer at the University of Kansas in Lawrence who doesn't play the game, says new technological applications like Traveler IQ are helping to revive geography after a decades-long decline in the teaching the subject in U.S. schools. Issues like climate change, globalization and the war in Iraq are also encouraging interest in far flung places. Mr. Dobson, also the president of the American Geographical Society, an association of geographers and geography enthusiasts, says writer Ambrose Bierce said around the time of World War I that ''War is God's way of teaching Americans geography.' 'Still, studies suggest there's a ways to go before the public improves its grasp of geography. A survey from early last year sponsored by the National Geographic Society found that only half of young American adults, ages 18 to 24, could locate New York state on a map. Six out of 10 couldn't find Iraq on a map of the Middle East.Travel IQ provides its own report card, of sorts, on geographical skills. Among those who use the game on Facebook, Tata Consultancy Services, a technology consulting firm based in India, had the lowest average Traveler IQ among workplaces, at least until the rankings were updated during the middle of this week. Mike McCabe, a spokesman for Tata Consultancy Services in the U.S., in an email called the findings 'interesting' and said the company will consider them when training its staff, though he said, 'Engineering skills and an overall cultural understanding of the company and its customers' are higher priorities at Tata than geography. 如 今在互联网上最火的一款游戏,其技术含量却与高中生的社会学科测试相差无几。这是一款名为《旅行者IQ大挑战》(Traveler IQ Challenge)的免费游戏。游玩家在一张二维地图上寻找金沙萨、莫斯科或其他城市及景点的所在位置,然后根据答题的速度和准确度来评分。怎么看这都不像是款会大受欢迎的游戏。但Expedia Inc.旗下的旅游网站TravelPod出于营销目的在6月份推出这款小游戏以来,其每个月的在线玩家人数已经突破400万,其中甚至包括 Facebook之类流行社交网站的用户。《旅行者IQ大挑战》在业内被称作“休闲”游戏,像卡片游戏和谜题游戏也属于这种类型,其特点是开发成本低,易于上手,画面也不像为Xbox 360等游戏机开发的新游戏那般绚烂华丽。而另一方面,随着全球卫星定位系统(GPS)导航设备及Google Earth等新技术的应用,人们对地理知识又开始感兴趣起来,于是便有了《旅行者IQ大挑战》的成功。Google Earth是谷歌公司(Google Inc.)推出的一款电脑软件,用户可以在地球的三维模型上进行地理搜索。美国游戏发行商电子艺界 (Electronic Arts Inc.)的首席执行长约翰#8226;里奇泰洛(John Riccitiello)称,我已经沉溺于这款游戏难以自拔。他表示,自己的全球排名一度到过第11位,而随着越来越多的人开始玩这款游戏,他的排名已经掉至第204,184位。这位每年行程达17.5万公里的高管称,一旦某样东西真正流行起来,你才知道自己有多么弱智。这款游戏的创意来自TravelPod网站创始人、加拿大程序员卢克#8226;莱维克(Luc Levesque)玩的一种游戏。当32岁的莱维克坐火车横越土耳其,或驱车去玻利维亚偏远的盐沼旅游时,会时不时与同伴玩一种单词接龙游戏,规则是用头一个国家或城市地名的第三个字母作为下一个地名的开头字母。今年5月份Facebook开放其网站,允许数量庞大的用户在个人网页上公布独立软件开发者制作的游戏、音乐和其他简单的应用软件。于是莱维克便有了制作一款在线地理知识游戏的想法。他聘请了两名软件开发人员用三周时间制作了这款游戏。虽然他没有透露成本几何,但一般情况下的报酬应该不到3万美元。莱维克制作这款游戏的初衷是想引导用户登录他的网站TravelPod.com。这个网站是靠广告收入维持运营,旅游爱好者可以在网站建立客来记录自己的旅行。莱维克称,网站的注册人数和点击量大幅增长。他表示,最终有可能通过游戏直接投放广告。目前已有超过160万人在Facebook的网页上安装了这款游戏,不过大部分玩家都是从其他网站上下载的,就连哥伦比亚广播公司(CBS Corp.)的“惊险大挑战”(The Amazing Race)节目网页也提供这款游戏的下载。《旅行者IQ大挑战》按照由易到难的顺序,一开始会让玩家用10秒钟左右在地图上找出伦敦之类的比较知名的城市或景点,很快接下来的提问会越来越难,例如找出土库曼斯坦的首都阿什哈巴德 (Ashkabat)。然后游戏会告诉玩家自己的离城市的实际地点偏离了多少,并给予相应的评分,偏差越小则得分越高。经常周游世界各地的旧金山律师安德鲁#8226;布里奇斯(Andrew Bridges)表示,这款游戏和其他的几种新技术手段调动起了他对千里之外地点的好奇。他表示,想看看自己在Google Earth上能用多快的时间找到雅典卫城之类的某处名胜,这是件好玩的事情。堪萨斯城大学(University of Kansas)地理学者杰罗姆#8226;多布森(Jerome Dobson)虽然没玩这款游戏。但他认为,数十年来地理课在美国学校教育中的份量不断下滑,而包括这款游戏在内的新科技手段有助于推动地理学科的复兴。像气候变暖、全球化和伊拉克战争之类的事件,也在唤起人们对遥远地区的兴趣。身为美国地理学会(American Geographical Society)主席的多布森引用美国知名作家安布鲁斯#8226;毕尔斯(Ambrose#8226;Bierce)在第一次世界大战的话称,战争就是上帝让美国用来学会地理的。美国地理学会是一个由地理学者和地理爱好者组成的团体。但研究表明,让美国普通大众提高地理知识还很有长的路要走。美国国家地理学会(National Geographic Society)去年初组织的一项调查显示,美国18岁至24岁的青年成人只有一半能在地图上找出纽约所在,60%的人在中东地图上找不到伊拉克。《旅行者IQ大挑战》还会定期公布关于地理知识的各类成绩排行榜。至少本周更新之前,在Facebook上玩此游戏的人中,平均地理IQ最低的单位是印度高科技行业咨询公司──塔塔咨询务公司(Tata Consultancy Services)。该公司驻美国发言人迈克#8226;麦克白(Mike McCabe)在一封电邮中称,这项统计很“有趣”。他表示,公司会在培训员工时考虑这点。但他称,相对于地理知识,公司更重视工程技能,以及对公司及客户文化的总体理解。 /200803/32071。

  So it begins. Nobody thought it would happen this fast, and now we are preparing to take a leap into the unknown. Not Brexit but Crispr gene-editing, a DNA-changing technology that can supposedly cure mice of liver disease and muscular dystrophy, render human cells resistant to HIV and create fungus-resistant wheat.就这么开始了。没人想到这件事来得这么快,现在我们正准备跃入未知之中。这里说的不是英国退欧,而是“成簇规律间隔短回文重复序列”(Crispr)基因编辑,一种据信能够治愈小鼠的肝病和肌营养不良,让人类细胞对艾滋病毒(HIV)产生抗性,培育出抗真菌小麦的DNA改造技术。It has also been touted as a means of remaking humanity — and now it is about to progress from Petri dishes into people. An influential advisory panel at the US National Institutes of Health has unanimously approved the first clinical trial to use Crispr genome-editing (also known as gene-editing) on humans, to reboot immune cells in cancer patients. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania will target patients with multiple myeloma, melanoma or sarcoma. The team will remove a class of immune cells called T-cells from patients, edit the genes of those T-cells so they are better able to “lock on” to tumour cells, and then restore the altered T-cells back into the bloodstream.该技术也被吹捧为一种再造人类的手段,现在这种技术即将从培养皿走向人类。美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)一个有影响力的顾问组已一致批准第一项对人类使用Crispr基因组编辑(也称基因编辑)技术,以“重启”癌症病人免疫细胞的临床试验。宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)的研究人员将以多发性骨髓瘤、黑色素瘤或肉瘤患者为对象。该团队将从患者体内取出被称为T细胞的一类免疫细胞,对这些T细胞的基因进行编辑,使它们能更好地“锁定”癌细胞,然后将这些修改过的T细胞重新导入患者的血液循环系统。With luck, the genetic edits should boost the patient’s immune system. The study, now expected to receive the blessing of federal regulators, will be funded by a cancer institute founded by Sean Parker of Napster and Facebook fame.幸运的话,基因编辑应该能促进患者的免疫系统。预计将获得联邦监管机构的批准的这项研究,将由曾经创立Napster、并担任Facebook首任总裁的肖恩#8226;帕克(Sean Parker)创办的一个癌症研究所资助。The aim of this first in-human trial of Crispr is not to enhance therapeutic outcomes but to prove its safety. Other genetic technologies of great pro-mise cast long shadows. Gene therapy, which involves inserting copies of missing or defective genes into a patient, usually using a virus as a carrier, was nearly derailed at the turn of the millennium , when a child with a severe immune disorder developed leukaemia as a direct result of the treatment.这个对人体进行的第一项Crispr实验的目的,不是为了改善治疗结果,而是为了明其安全性。其他曾经大有希望的基因技术投下了长长的阴影。向患者体内注入缺失或者缺陷基因的副本(通常使用病毒作为载体)的基因疗法,在世纪之交的时候几乎遭到毁灭性打击,当时这种疗法直接导致一名患有严重的免疫紊乱症的儿童罹患白血病。The viruses chosen as carriers in some early trials wrought unforeseen damage. As a result the first European treatment using gene therapy, which has been around since 1990, was licensed only in 2012.在一些早期的试验中,被选为载体的病毒造成了无法预见的伤害。其结果是,基因疗法虽然从1990年起就存在了,但欧洲第一例使用这种疗法的治疗在2012年才获得许可。With gene-editing, the unintended consequence that most terrifies genetic researchers is “off-target effects”, in which untargeted genes are inadvertently snipped, deleted or altered. The technology uses enzymes to search for particular sequences of DNA — but, just as it is possible for a search facility in word-processing software to pick out a string of letters in an unexpected place, the enzymes might similarly latch on to the wrong stretch of DNA.就基因编辑而言,最让基因研究人员感到惊恐的意外后果是“脱靶效应”,也就是非靶向基因被不慎剪断、移除或者修改。基因编辑技术利用酶来搜寻特定的DNA序列,但就像文字处理软件的搜索功能可能在意想不到的地方挑出一串字符那样,酶也可能以类似的方式附着于错误的DNA片段。The risk, at least in this trial, is minimised by the gene-editing being done outside the body, allowing researchers to check the T-cells have been appropriately amended before being put back into the patient. Still, once the cutting enzyme is unleashed, there is a possibility it could continue operating inside the body to uncertain end.至少在这次实验中,这种风险被最小化——通过从人体外进行基因编辑,研究者能在检查T细胞已被适当地修改之后,再将其导入患者体内。话虽如此,一旦剪切酶被释放出来,其依然有可能在人体内发挥不确定的作用。By next year we should have a hint of whether gene-editing really can fix deficient DNA in people. And that is when things get serious: why stop at correcting the human genome? Why not beautify it? That thought is preoccupying those in the field, who raised concerns at a Washington summit in December, organised by scientists from the UK, China and the US. Among those attending was Yale University’s Daniel Kevles, a historian of the eugenics movement.到了明年,我们应该就能对基因编辑是否真的能修复人的缺陷DNA有所了解。这就是事情开始变严重的地方:为何要止步于修正人类基因组呢?何不对其进行美化?这种想法让该领域的人士忧心忡忡,在去年12月由英国、中国和美国科学家组织、在华盛顿举行的一次峰会上,他们提出了这种担忧。与会者包括来自耶鲁大学(Yale University)的优生运动历史学家丹尼尔#8226;凯夫利斯(Daniel Kevles)。The thing about Crispr genome-editing is this: it is fast, cheap and easy to do. Many countries, especially those that see themselves as future torchbearers for technology, such as China, are forging ahead; China holds the first claim to creating a (non-viable) gene-edited embryo. Regulation is patchy.Crispr基因组编辑有这样一个特点:这种技术快速、廉价和易行。许多国家,尤其是那些视自身为这些技术未来旗手的国家,比如中国,正在大力推进;中国是第一个声称对(无法存活的)人类胚胎进行过基因编辑的的国家。相关法规还不健全。No country endorses a genome-edited human embryo being implanted and being brought to term. Even so, gene-editing technology makes the prospect of a homo perfectus just slightly more probable — and, as a species, we have yet to fully grasp the implications of this brave and perfectly edited new world.目前没有哪个国家批准将经过基因组编辑的人类胚胎植入母体直至足月分娩。即使如此,基因编辑技术略微提高了实现“完美的人”(homo perfectus)的可能性——作为一个物种,我们还没有完全想好这个经过完美编辑的大胆新世界会有什么影响。 /201607/455306

  With big handbags becoming a key fashion accessory(1) for working women, health experts are warning they can also become a key health concern.Bags for women have become bigger and heavier as designers combine briefcases with handbags and straps(2) have become longer but the extra leverage has many patients complaining of neck, shoulder and back problems."I see so many women with neck pains and headaches and what I usually do is look for their purse and pick it up," said Jane Sadler, a family practice physician on the medical staff at Baylor Medical Center in Garland, Texas."We take it over to the scale and weigh it and usually they're anywhere from 7 to 10 pounds (3.1-4.5 kgs)...We're really going to see women with more and more problems later on if we continue the big purse craze."William Case, a physical therapist(3) in private practice in Houston, said an aggravated(4) neck or shoulder can lead to upper back problems, meaning pain may then be felt while working at a computer or playing sports.He urged designers "to place a cute, educational caution tag on all bags to inform of potential neck and shoulder dangers."Above all, he recommended correct posture while carrying bulky(5) purses, keeping the head and shoulders aligned(6) upright. Patients should also frequently change the size and weight of purses carried."The extra-large purses are quite phenomenal. They look beautiful when the women wear them, but I don't know how aware they are of the potential problems," Case said."The trend is either very large or very small. People go to the gym, they have an extra pair of shoes, they have their make-up, so there's more stuff to carry around," said Ellen Campuzano, president of the Committee for Color and Trend, a fashion forecasting service.Traditionally women adopted better postures for carrying loads, such as baskets on heads or strapping a papoose(7) across the back, but placing objects on one shoulder was one of the least efficient ways of carrying a load."This causes a great imbalance. You only have to see people carrying bags in shopping centers, looking hunched(8) up like Quasimodo(9)," he said."If it (a big bag) is a fashion accessory, then occasional(10) and symbolic(11) use is fine. If not, then keep it light." 大手提包逐渐成为职业女性主要时尚配件之一,但是健康专家提醒它们同时也是主要健康隐患之一。设计师喜欢将公文包、手提包结合在一起并搭配长长的提带,结果是包包们越来越大、越来越重。超负荷使人们开始抱怨颈部、肩部和背部的不适。德克萨斯加兰贝乐诊疗中心家庭医生Jane Sadler说:“很多女性抱怨脖子和头疼,我通常会看看她们的手提包,然后掂量一下。”“我们将包放在秤上称重,通常它们都有7到10磅(3.1-4.5公斤)…如果大包热还不退烧的话,女性会遇到更多问题。”休斯顿私人理疗师William Case说,颈肩疾病持续恶化会导致上半后背问题,那样在操作电脑或者运动时候会感到疼痛。他建议设计师们在所有的包包上都挂一个可爱的指导标签,注明潜在颈肩隐患。综上所述,他建议女性们使用正确的姿势,保头与肩膀处于同一直线。患者还应经常变换包包的大小和重量。Case说:“超大的提包很抢眼。女性搭配它们都很漂亮,但是我不确定她们都能意识到潜在问题。”时尚预测务机构颜色时尚委员会主席Ellen Campuzano说:“特大和特小都有可能成为流行风尚。人们得去健身,需要一双替换鞋,还有很多化妆品,总之人们要随身带的东西越来越多。”传统妇女的负重姿势更为科学,例如用头顶篮子或者将孩子绑在背上,只用一只肩膀负重的方法是最缺乏效率的。他说:“这引起严重的不平衡。你只要看看在商场购物的人们,他们像钟楼怪人一样弯腰驼背。”“如果大包的确是时尚元素,那就分场合、象征性地搭配就好。如果不是,越轻越好。” /200805/39174赞扬比加薪更重要It is often said that politeness costs nothing. In fact, it seems that a little more courtesy could save businesses pound;5billion every year.Frequently hearing the phrase "thank you" or "well done" means the same to staff as a modest pay rise, researchers say.Praise and encouragement also makes employees more likely to work hard and stay in their jobs, saving on the cost of finding replacements.A third of 1,000 workers surveyed by consulting firm White Water Strategies said they did not get thanked at all when they did well - and a further third said they were not thanked enough.In both cases, staff said they felt undervalued, meaning they were less likely to exert themselves and were more likely to look for employment elsewhere.The net result is around pound;5.2billion in lost productivity from employees who would raise their game if they felt more appreciated, White Water claimed.According to the company, praising staff has the same motivational kick as a 1 per cent pay rise - and works out much cheaper for bosses.Three out of four employees said that regular acknowledgement by their bosses was important to them, but only a quarter said they were actually given as much praise as they felt they needed.The survey found that those in blue-collar and manual jobs were less likely to be given any recognition for doing well.In regional terms, Scottish staff felt most undervalued. Four out of ten workers said they were never thanked and eight out of ten said they would like more praise.However, workers in the North-East are less impressed by being buttered up by the boss, as only 69 per cent said they felt the need to be told "well done" regularly.Older employees and women need the most reassurance, according to psychologist Averil Leimon, a director of White Water Strategies.She said that words of praise did more than create a pleasant place to work - they could even boost profits. 俗话说“礼多无所失(却得到一切)”。事实表明,对员工以礼相待每年能为公司节省50亿英镑的出。研究人员称,对于员工而言,经常听到“谢谢”或“做得好”等礼貌之辞与适度加薪具有同样意义。此外,赞扬和鼓励也能提高员工的工作积极性、并有利于稳定军心,从而能节省招聘成本。怀特#8226;沃特战略咨询公司对一千名员工开展了一项调查。调查结果显示,三分之一的受访员工称,即使他们工作表现出色,也没得到过老板的一句“感谢”;另有三分之一的人认为自己没有得到足够的感谢。这两类员工都觉得自己没得到足够的重视,这意味着他们的工作积极性很可能会降低,而且换工作的可能性增大。怀特#8226;沃特公司称,员工工作效率低下造成了约52亿英镑的损失。但如果员工感到倍受赏识,他们的工作积极性就会提高。怀特#8226;沃特公司称,赞扬员工与1%的加薪具有同样的激励作用,而且这对于老板来说也更加划算。调查显示,四分之三的员工称,经常得到老板的认可对于他们来说很重要;而仅有四分之一的人认为自己得到了应有的认可。调查发现,“蓝领”及手工劳动者的出色工作表现很少得到老板的认可。从地区来看,苏格兰员工最缺乏认可感。40%的员工称,他们从未得到过感谢,80%的人希望自己能得到更多表扬。然而,英国东北部地区的员工则没那么需要老板的赞扬,仅有69%的人希望老板经常表扬他们“干得好”。怀特#8226;沃特战略咨询公司总监、心理学家艾弗尔#8226;勒蒙说,年龄较大的员工和女性最需要这样的安慰。她说,老板赞扬员工不仅能让工作氛围更加愉快,甚至能提高公司的经济效益。 /200803/30496

  金钱可以“买”到快乐?Money can buy happiness, but only if you spend it on someone else, researchers reported.Spending as little as $US5 a day on someone else could significantly boost happiness, the team at the University of British Columbia and Harvard Business School found.Their experiments on more than 630 Americans showed they were measurably happier when they spent money on others -- even if they thought spending the money on themselves would make them happier."We wanted to test our theory that how people spend their money is at least as important as how much money they earn," said Elizabeth Dunn, a psychologist at the University of British Columbia.They asked their 600 volunteers first to rate their general happiness, report their annual income and detail their monthly spending including bills, gifts for themselves, gifts for others and donations to charity."Regardless of how much income each person made, those who spent money on others reported greater happiness, while those who spent more on themselves did not," Dunn said in a statement.Dunn's team also surveyed 16 employees at a company in Boston before and after they received an annual profit-sharing bonus of between $US3000 and $US8000."Employees who devoted more of their bonus to pro-social spending experienced greater happiness after receiving the bonus, and the manner in which they spent that bonus was a more important predictor of their happiness than the size of the bonus itself," they wrote in their report, published in the journal Science.They gave their volunteers $US5 or $US20 and half got clear instructions on how to spend it. Those who spent the money on someone or something else reported feeling happier about it."These findings suggest that very minor alterations in spending allocations -- as little as $US5 -- may be enough to produce real gains in happinesson a given day," Dunn said. 研究人员日前称,金钱可以买到快乐,但前提是你得把钱花在别人身上。英国哥伦比亚大学和哈佛商学院的研究小组发现,每天只需为别人花5美元,就能大大提升快乐感。研究人员对630多名美国人所做的实验表明,即使实验对象认为为自己花钱会更快乐,但实际结果显示,他们为别人花钱时其实更加快乐。英国哥伦比亚大学的心理学家伊丽莎白#8226;杜恩说:“我们试图明‘人们的花钱方式与挣钱多少至少同等重要’。”研究人员让600名志愿者评价自己的总体幸福感,报告年收入以及详细的月出情况,包括应付账单、为自己及他人购买礼物出以及慈善捐献。杜恩在一份声明中说:“无论他们挣多少钱,为别人花更多钱的人称自己的快乐感增强,而为自己花较多钱的人则没有这种感受。”杜恩的研究小组还对波士顿一家公司的16名员工领到年终奖之前和之后的情况进行了调查,年终奖金额从3000美元到8000美元不等。研究人员在研究报告中提到:“这些员工领到奖金后,将较多钱花在别人身上的人快乐感更强,他们配这笔钱的方式比奖金本身的多少对快乐感的影响更大。”该研究报告在《科学》期刊中发表。研究人员向志愿者们分发了5美元至20美元金额不等的钱,并向其中一半人说明了该如何花这些钱。结果发现,将钱用于别人或其它事情的人感到更快乐。杜恩说:“这些研究结果表明,每天只需稍稍改变出分配——哪怕为别人花5美元,就能得到更多快乐。” /200803/32585

  美国学生与中国学生教育的十大区别1、考上大学 美国学生为了能从大学毕业,上了大学才开始好好学习,中国学生为了考上大学而拼命学习,上了大学就不再好好学习。(注:美国大学“宽进严出”;中国大学“严进宽出”) 2、向老师发问 在课堂上,美国学生为了装懂而向老师发问,还认为坐的横七竖八才能更好与老师交流。 中国学生则为了装懂而不向老师发问,还认为坐的端端正正是对老师的尊敬。 3、解题方法 如果老师给出同一道题目:“现在是12点整,时针和分针正好重合,请问要经过多长时间时针和分针才能再次重合?”老师语音刚落,美国学生的反应是不约而同的拨动腕上的手表,用这种其实很聪明的“笨方法”,看时针和分针什么时候才能再次重合。而在场的中国学生立即拿出纸和笔,埋头列出一大堆公式并开始计算。 4、受教育方式 美国学生的受教育方式是“放羊”,十分轻松,所以他们大多数喜欢异想天开,想象力无比丰富。 中国学生的受教育方式是一种“填鸭”,辛苦的很,题海战术他们不怕,怕就怕那种脑筋急转弯的问题,因为有的时候,他们确实转不过弯来。 5、数学头脑 美国学生一般不大有数学头脑,不得不长期依赖电子计算器。 中国学生都是数学天才,口算心算水平一流。 如果中国学生告诉美国学生,我们能够不用计算机做四位数的乘除法,甚至能够徒手开平方根,那美国学生看中国学生的眼神,肯定像看见了撒谎的小木偶的长鼻子一样。 6、零用钱 美国学生的父母说:“我们不得不通知你,你这个月的零用钱已经超出预算了。去,把车库打扫一下,把游泳池刷一刷,或把家里打扫一遍,我们就可以在给你一些零用钱。” 中国学生的父母说:“零用钱用完了吗?没钱就自己到抽屉里去拿。” 7、旅游 美国学生对自己的父母说:“我已经攒够钱了,我要去旅游了。” 中国学生对自己的父母说:“我要去旅游了,请给我一笔钱。” 8、女朋友 美国学生把女朋友带回家自豪的对父母说:“这是我女朋友。” 中国学生面对着自己已经被撬开的日记,看着气急败坏的父母,心虚的说:“我没有早恋·····” 9、新赛车 美国学生喜欢夸耀自己:“瞧,这是我自己组装的新车。” 中国学生喜欢夸耀自己的长辈:“看,这是我爸爸给我买的新车。” 10、自己做主 美国学生的父母对他们说:“亲爱的,你已经长成一个男子汉了,自己的事情应该自己做主,不要老是依赖我们给你提意见。” 中国学生的父母对他们吼到:“放肆!翅膀长硬了是不是?敢把我的话当耳旁风?告诉你,就算你长出胡子,还是我们儿子,还得听我们的。”美国教育体制和中国教育体制的区别中国学校对孩子进行考试,目的是为了发现问题,淘汰之.美国学校对孩子进行考试,目的是为了发现问题,改善之.美国学校的考试机制是学什么,考什么.中国学校的考试机制是考什么,学什么.学什么,考什么,是考试为了教育务.考什么,学什么,是教育为了考试务.这就是中国与美国教育的不同之处! /200803/31608




  Racial Issues 美国种族问题 Once a man had a dream. He dreamed of a land of peace and harmony. He dreamed of a place where people were not judged by their skin color. He dreamed of a country where children of different races could play together. He dreamed of a nation where all people were equal. Some people didn't like his dream. They said it would never happen. Some people applauded his dream. They wanted to make it happen. This noble vision has come true for some. For others, it's still just a fantasy. 从前有一个人, 他有一个梦。他梦到一块和平与和谐的土地。他梦到一个人们不因肤色而被论断的地方。他梦到一个国家不同肤色的小子们玩在一起。他梦到一个国家, 在其中所有的人都是平等的。有些人不喜欢他的梦。他们说这个梦永远不会实现。有些人则对他的梦喝采。他们想实现这个梦。这个崇高的理想对某些人而言, 它还只是一个幻想。 In 1963, this man, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., expressed his vision in the famous speech, "I Have a Dream." But the dream-rooted in the American Dream-wasn't really new. From the beginning, this nation of immigrants welcomed people desiring freedom and a new start. However, the coming together of different races and ethnic groups created some tensions. The early Americans (except for the native "Indians") were almost all white Europeans. As more immigrants arrived, European groups fit into society easily. Others found it more difficult. 这个人, 马丁路德. 金恩士, 在一九六三年的一篇有名的演讲"我有一个梦"当中表达了他的理想. 其实这个根植于"美国梦"的理想, 并不是个完全新潮的主意. 从一开始, 这个由移民所组成的国家, 便欢迎渴望自由和新开始的人来到. 但是, 不同种族的到来亦带来了紧张的气氛. 早期的美国人(除了印地安原住民之外)几乎全是来自欧洲的白人. 当更多的移民抵达时, 欧洲团体较容易适应这个社会, 其它团体则较感困难. Black people were the only "immigrants" who didn't choose to come to America. For hundreds of years, Africans were taken from their homes to be slaves in the New World. Even George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had slaves. The phrase "all men are created equal" didn't apply to blacks in their day. The end of the Civil War finally brought freedom to the slaves in 1865, but blacks still had a lower position in society. Many Southern states practiced segregation to "keep blacks in their place." Blacks and whites went to different schools, ate at different restaurants, even drank from different water fountains. 黑人是唯一非出于自愿而到美国来的"移民". 几百年以来, 非洲人自其家园被迫带到新世界为奴. 即使乔治. 华盛顿和汤玛士. 杰弗逊也曾蓄奴. 那句"人类生而平等"的话, 在他们的时代并不适用于黑人. 一八六五年, 南北战争的结束终于为黑奴带来自由, 但是黑人的社会地位仍然较低. 许多南方的州实行种族隔离政策以使"黑人不会跨越界限". 黑人和白人上不同的学校, 在不同的餐馆吃饭, 甚至连喝水都用不同的饮水机.The Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s helped black people secure many of the rights promised in the Constitution. A 1954 Supreme Court decision ruled that segregation had no place in public schools. Gradually, American education became more fair. In 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus for a white man. Her courage sparked a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, that ended segregation on city buses. Martin Luther King Jr. encouraged black people to use nonviolent means to achieve their goals of equal treatment. Finally, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to stop discrimination in all public places. 一九五O与一九六O年代的人权运动, 帮助黑人得到许多宪法中所保障的权利. 一九五四年最高法院的一个判决, 决定了在公立学校里不准实行种族隔离政策. 渐渐地, 美国的教育制度越来越公平了. 一九五五年, 罗莎. 帕克拒绝在公车上让位给一个白人. 她的勇气激起了阿接巴马州的蒙哥马利市对公车的抵制, 结束了市区公车上的种族隔离制度. 马丁路得. 金恩士鼓励黑人, 使用非暴力方式达到他们追求平等待遇的目标. 最后, 国会在一九六四年通过民权法案, 禁止所有在公共场合的歧视. In spite of the gains of the Civil Rights Movement, racial problems still exist. The laws have changed, but some people-on all sides of the color spectrum-remain prejudiced. Ten-sions sometimes erupt in violence. The 1992 Los Angeles riots sprang from the verdict of a racially-charged court case. Moreover, blacks and whites are not the only racial groups struggling to get along. Multicultural America has numerous minority groups that argue for equal treatment. Some contend that current immigration laws unfairly discriminate against certain racial groups. 虽然民权运动带来进步, 但是种族问题仍然存在. 法律已经改变了, 但是有些人--各种肤色的人--仍然保有歧视的态度. 紧张情形有时会引发暴力. 一九九二年的洛杉矶动乃是因一件因种族问题而起诉法院判决而引发的. 此外, 黑人和白人并不是为和平相处而挣扎的唯一种族团体. 多元文化的美国拥有无数为平等待遇而争论的少数团体. 有些人争论现行的移民法不公平地歧视某些种族团体. Even so, in the past 40 years, race relations in America have greatly improved. Minority groups now have equal opportunities in many areas of education, employment and housing. Interracial marriages are becoming more accepted. Children of different races-and their parents-are learning to play together and work together. Maybe Dr. King's dream will come true after all. 即使如此, 在过去四十年间, 美国种族之间的关系已经大有进步. 少数团体现在在教育, 就业及住屋许多方面已有公平的机会. 异族的通婚已越来越被接受. 不同种族的小孩以及他们的父母亲, 也在学习与其它种族一起游戏和一起工作, 或许金恩士的梦终会实现. /200804/33379

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