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5.Images5.图像法This is the most effective way to remember a person’s name. If you meet John Key, imagine his face with a big key right in the center of his face. If you meet someone called Patty Grant, you can try to remember a meat patty wrapped in wads of cash. I will leave it up to your own imagination if you meet Bob Johnson. Another way to do this is to find an association between this person and someone else you know – imagine them shaking hands or standing next to each other.这是记忆人名最好的方法。如果你遇到了王麻子,想象一下他脸上有一片麻子,这都取决于你的想象。还有一个方法是寻找这个人和另外你认识的人之间的关联——想象他们在握手或者站在对方的旁边。4.Visualize4.想象This is a very ancient technique of memorization called Loci. In this method you imagine a location (something easy like your home) and you place the objects you need to remember in to a different part of the room. The famous Cicero had this to say:这是一个非常古老的记忆方法,称之为位置。这种方法中,你想象一个位置(很容易想的位置,比如你家),你需要记住房间里不同位置的东西。著名的西塞罗说:“One must employ a large number of places which must be well-lighted, clearly set out in order, at moderate intervals apart, and images which are active, which are sharply defined, unusual, and which have the power of speedily encountering and penetrating the mind.”For example, if you need to remember a list of vegetables, put each vegetable in a different place in the room. When you need to recall the list, move in your mind through each location in the room and see what you put there. If you find this one especially helpful, you can expand on it by adding additional floors to your location.“一个人必须有一大块空间,它光线充足,有适当的大小,还必须有积极地清晰的、不寻常的图像,还有可以迅速使用、有洞察力的大脑。”例如,你需要记住蔬菜清单,把每一种蔬菜放在空间里不同的地方。当你再要列清单时,通过空间里每一个区域,转动你的大脑,就能想到你把它放在了哪。如果你发现这种方法很有用,你还可以在你的区域中增加更多的地方。3.Story Method3.故事法This one can be very fun. Make up a story and include all of the things you need to remember in it. The story can be totally ridiculous. Let’s say you need to remember to buy a bucket, a dozen apples, a hairbrush, and some kitty litter, you might make a story like this:这种方法很有趣。编一个故事,包含了你需要记住的所有东西。这个故事可以非常无厘头。比如你要记得去买一打苹果,一个梳子,一个猫窝,你可以编一个这样的故事:After Jane emptied the kitty litter from Felix’s dirtbox in to the red bucket, she gave him a good brushing with his new hairbrush while she ate an apple for lunch.It is not the most thrilling or original story, but it can be very effective in helping you to remember your list.当韩梅梅帮住李雷把脏的猫窝清理干净后,韩梅梅给李雷一个新的梳子,而李雷请韩梅梅吃了一打苹果。这不是一个惊险刺激的故事,但它能帮助你记忆你的清单。2.Mnemonics2.助记术A mnemonic is a word or short phrase that you can use to remember something because it is like a key to the rest of the information. For example, if you learned music as a child, you probably remember the phrase: “every good boy deserves fruit” – each word stands for a note on the musical staff – EGBDF. No doubt you were also taught a mnemonic to remember the colors of the rainbow as well.助记术是一种记忆方法,它就像是剩余信息的核心。例如,如果你给小孩子教音乐,你可能会记住:“every good boy deserves fruit”——每一个字母都是一个乐谱——EGBDF。毫无疑问,你记住虹颜色的符号也很好。Another slight variation is to use a phrase: desert and dessert: the sweet one has two sugars. We also use this to remember daylight savings time: Spring forward, fall back.另一个细微的变化是用于短语:desert(沙漠)和dessert(甜点): the sweet one has two sugars. (甜的东西有两块糖)。我们用这种方法记住夏令时:春来秋去。1.Senses1.感官If you have to remember a word, try remembering it with your other senses. For example, if you have to remember to buy soap, try to conjure up an image of soap and whilst doing so, imagine what it smells like. You can also use your other senses in the same way: to remember to buy an alarm clock, remember the sound it makes when it goes off in the morning.如果你需要记住一个单词,试着记住它其他的感觉。例如,如果你需要记住买肥皂,试着想象使用肥皂的画面,想象它的味道。你也可以用同样的方法记住买闹钟,记住它每天早晨叫醒你时的声音。All of the items on this list can be used on their own, or in conjunction with the others to help you improve your memory. The more you practice these tips, the better you will become.所有这些方法你都可以试着使用,或者让其他人帮助你提高你的。这些技巧你尝试的次数越多,你的记忆里就会越好。翻译:HackerGaming 来源:前十网 /201510/403180。

The rise of the Mongols and Genghis khan united the tribes : 1) The origin of the Mongols : the Mongols was an old ethnic group in the North of China, and it was called Mengwushiwei in the Tang Dynasty, a branch of Shiwei tribes.蒙古族的兴起与成吉思汗统一各部:①蒙古族的由来。蒙古族是我国北方一个古老的民族,唐朝时称“蒙兀室韦”是室韦诸部的一。They lived in the Ergun River valley and in the 8th century they began to move to the West.他们原住在额尔古纳河流域,8世纪时开始西迁。At that time there were many tribes, of which the bigger ones were Tartar, Kelie, Naiman and Wanggu etc.当时蒙古草原上有许多部落,较大的有塔塔儿、克烈、乃 蛮、汪古等部。Mongol was only the title of a tribe. When it united all the tribes, Mongol became the general name for all the tribes on the prairie.蒙古原是一个部落的名称,后来蒙古统一各部以后,它就成为草原各部的通称。2) Genghis khan united the mongolian tribes: from the 10th century the mongoLian tribes and clans began to be under the control of Liao and Jin.②成吉思汗统一蒙古各部。10世纪开始,蒙古各部先后受辽、金控制。12世纪时,随着社会生产力的发展和外部影响的加强,蒙古的部落氏族制度 开始瓦解,贫富分化激烈,出现了部落贵族、牧民和奴隶。When it came to the 12th century, with the promotion of the productivity and the increase of the fluence, the Mongolian tribes and clans began to separate and the intense polarization of rich and poor emerged, and then the tribe nobles, shepherds and the slaves came into being.蒙古各部首领为了掠夺奴隶、牲畜和牧地,进行了无休止的战争。The tribes had the endless war to plunder slaves, livestocks and the pastures.蒙古部孛儿只斤氏的贵族铁木真,在长期的征战中壮大了自己的力量,统一了蒙古各部。Tiemuzhen, the noble of Borzhiqin of the Mongols developed his power greatly in the long-term war and united the MongoLian tribes. In 1206, the leaders of all the MongoLian tribes had a meeting and elected Tiemuzhen the Great Han and honored him Genghis khan and then the Mongolia khanates was founded.1206年,蒙古各部首领召开大 会,推举铁木真为大汗,尊称成吉思汗,建立了蒙古汗国。West and South expeditions of the Mongols : After the foundation of mongolia khanates, Genghis Khan and his followers launched large-scale wars.蒙古的西征和南下:蒙古汗国建立后,成吉思汗及其子孙发动了大规模的战争。First, Genghis Khan led the troops on a Western expedition himself from 1219 to 1225 and occupied the middle Asia and the Southern Russian pasture.首先,1219年到1225年成吉思汗亲自帅军西征,占领中亚西亚和南俄罗斯草原。Then he had the Southern expedition and conquered Xia in 1227 and Jin in 1234.继而南下,1227年成吉思汗帅军灭夏,1234年灭金。In the year of 1260, Ku-blai inherited the Han and changed the reign title into Yuan and Kublai was Yuan Shizu (the first king of the Yuan Dynasty).1260年,忽必烈继承汗位,1271年改国号为元,即元世祖。Yuan Shizu continued to go to South and attacked the Southern Song Dynasty and occupied many places of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.There he was resisted heavily by the soldiers and people of the Southern Song Dynasty.元世祖继续南下进攻南宋,占领长江中下游许多地方,但遭到南宋军民的英勇抵抗。In 1279, the Southern Song Dynasty was conquered and the Yuan Dynasty united China.1279年,南宋灭亡,元朝统一了中国。The importance that Yuan united China:That Yuan united the country ended the situation that Song,Xia and Jin’s co-existence and laid a foundation for Yuan, Ming and Qing dyasties long-term unification of more than 600 years.元朝统一中国的历史意义:元朝的统一,结束了辽、宋、夏、金等政权长期并立的局面,从而奠定了元、明、清600多年的长期统一的基础。The appearance of the united feudal empire promoted and strengthened inter-ethnic ties of e-conomy and culture, and made the multinational country more prosperous.大统一的封建帝国的再现,促使国内各民族之间的经济文化联系进一步加强,促使多民族国家进一步繁荣。The u-nification was also a process that rulers of all ethnic groups collaborated.元朝统一的过程,也是各族统治者合流的过程。After the Mongols occupied the central plain, they adopted the administration of the Hans and the other ethnics, the “Han Laws” and had formed an allied government with the dominance of the Mongol aristocracy, including the Han landlords.蒙古贵族进占中原地区后,吸收汉族和其他各族地主参政,采用“汉法”,形成了以蒙古贵族为主,包括汉族地主在内的联合统治。 /201602/426217。

Shen Nong and Huang Di were the representatives of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.在“三皇五帝”中最具有代表性的部落联盟领袖是神农和黄帝。Shen Nong, also called Yan Di, lived in the Jiang River valley and his surname was Jiang.神农又称炎帝,居于姜水流域,以姜为姓。He is credited with the invention of farming and medication. He invented the wooden plow and taught people the art of agriculture. By experimenting with various plants, he discovered medicinal herbs and taught people how to treat diseases.他是农业生产和医药的发明者,用木制作耒耜,教人民耕种;又曾尝百草,发现药材,教人治病。Huang Di , also called Xuan Yuan or You Xiong, lived in the Ji River valley, and his surname was Ji.黄帝又称轩辕氏、有熊氏,居于姬水流域,以姬为姓。He is resourceful in invention as well as in war and is credited with the invention of many things, like carts and boats, clothes, houses, writing, and silkworm breeding and silk weaving.他不但在军事上足智多谋,而且还是个伟大的发明家。人们认为车船、衣、房子、文字、养蚕织布等都是他发明的。Wars urged the mixture and the assimilation of different tribes and eventually formed a tribal alliance of Huang Di and Yan Di ; Huang Di became the chief.各部落联盟之间的战争催化了部落之间的融合,最终形成了中原地区炎帝、黄帝两大部落联盟的统一,黄帝成为最高领袖。Tradition has it that Chinese civilization originates from the era of Huang Di and Yan Di,for they are the ancestors of Chinese people,that is why the Chinese call themselves the descendants of Yan and Huang.传说中国文明起源于炎帝和黄帝时代,因此“炎帝、 黄帝”被奉为中华民族的祖先,这就是现在中国人自称是炎黄子孙的由来。Huang Di has been immortalized by the famous battle of Zhu Lu, where he used a compass to locate his chief enemy Chi You and defeated him. Chi You was killed in the battle, and this victory is believed to have prepared the way for a permanent Chinese settlement in the Middle Kingdom.黄帝因涿鹿之战而名垂千古。在作战过程中,他用指南针找到了敌军的首领蚩尤,并击败他,后蚩尤被杀。这场战争的胜利为中华民族定居中原铺平了道路。Abdication : Hundreds of years after Sheng Nong and Huang Di, it is the period of Abdication in Chinese history.部落联盟领袖的禅让制度:神农、黄帝时代数百年之后,是中国历史上的“禅让时代”。At that time, Yao, the chief of the tribal alliance on the central plain, was old, and he selected Shun as his successor after a careful observation. With the consent of all chieftains, Shun was placed to the throne.当时中原地区部落联盟领袖尧已年老,经过慎重考察,选择舜为继承人,四岳十二牧(部落领袖)同意,尧将部落联盟领袖职务传位给舜。Following suit, Shun passed the throne to Yu.舜老,又得四岳十二牧同意,传位给禹。Abdication is the traditional election system in the time of tribal commune, historically called the Age of Abdication.这种职位禅让的做法乃是氏族公社选举制的传统,史称“禅让时代”。 /201510/407399。

Rise of Confucianism as Main State Ideology独尊儒术Confucianism rose as the main state ideology during the time of Emperor Wudi in the Western Han Dynasty (206B.C.----8A.D.).儒家思想在西汉(公元前206年至公元8年)武帝时期成为了国家的主流意识。In the Qin Dynasty (221—206B.C.), Legalism served as the state ideology秦朝时(公元前221年至公元前206年),法家思想是国家的主流思想。and at the beginning of the Han Dynasty (206B.C.—220A.D.), Laozi’s theory that was more moderate and humane was put into practice.在汉朝(公元前206年至公元220年)初期,更为温和和仁慈的道家思想被实施。However, Laozi’s thoughts did not fit Wudi’s political ambition to consolidate his position and strengthen his power when he became the emperor.但是,在武帝执政时,道家思想与他渴望巩固个人地位和加强个人统治的政治野心不符。In 140 B.C, Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu admonished the ruler to establish Taixue (an academy) to educate the crown prince and to produce elite for governmental offices.公元前140年,儒学学者董仲书劝武帝建立太学(一种机构)来教导皇家子弟并为政府机构提供精英人才。He did an excellent job in answering questions raised by Wudi.他完美地回答了武帝提出的问题。Wudi was deeply impressed and attached great importance to Confucians and some were even assigned to the high positions of minister.武帝对此印象深刻,因此重视儒学,有些儒学学者还被任命为高级官员。In Dong Zhongshu’s words, the ruler should pay supreme tribute to Confucianism while rejecting all other schools of thought.董仲书说,当权者应该独尊儒术,罢黜。From then on, all government officials were required to learn and study the Confucian Classics and laws were interpreted accordingly.从那时起,所有的政府官员都被要求学习儒家经典,法律也相应地作出解释和说明。The orthodox Confucianism helped to establish the ideological foundation in the feudal society of China.传统儒家思想帮助中国封建社会创建了思想基石。 /201510/397346。

My clothes: ‘They wear me, in a way’我的衣:“在某种程度上,他们在穿我”Robert is 6ft 7in tall. A giant, without his heels. Very tall men are often intimidating; they use their height to enforce their status, to tell us how tough they are. Not Robert.罗伯特身高六尺七。不穿高跟鞋也是个巨人。非常高的人总是让人害怕,他们能够利用身高来强调身份地位,告诉我们他们有多强壮。但罗伯特不是。There is no obvious fight in him. Instead he plays with femininity, with fun, with ideas of home and away. He’s wearing a floral pinny, like an English country mum. He has some spring-like sprigs in his hair. These are domestic, rural, female references. But his top ventures further afield: there’s a palm tree, a turquoise sea, a sunny sky. Robert’s chest has gone on holiday abroad. And what of his shawl and trousers? Both a beautiful bright coral, they remind me of churidars under a tunic, a scarf for all occasions, of India, of South Asia, even further away than the seaside above his waist. 他身上没有明显的斗志。相反他具有女性的柔弱,趣味,有着家和远方的想法。他穿着用花装饰的围巾,像一位英国农村的母亲。他头发上有一些像春天的卡子。它们是家庭,农村和女性的象征。但是他朝着最高挑战又进了一步:一颗棕榈树,一片青绿色的海和晴朗的天空。罗伯特的胸部是海外度假的场景。那他的围巾和裤子呢?两个都是美丽闪光的珊瑚,它们使我想起束腰外衣下的印度长裤,想起一块适用于任何场合的围巾,想起印度,想起南亚,甚至想起他腰上方的海滨。Then there are his feet. Glitter fluff socks, suede court shoes, slightly wobbly stance. Robert’s feet are awkward, turned in, as easily embarrassed as a child. It’s as though he’s playing a part with his feet. As though the way he holds them was suggested by the shoes.接下来是他的脚。闪烁绒毛的袜子,绒面的球场鞋,微微歪斜的姿势。罗伯特的脚很笨拙,向内弯,像孩子一样局促不安。看起来好像他在和自己的脚玩耍。似乎他穿鞋的姿势是由鞋决定的。Robert’s clothes look cheap. They’re found or swapped rather than bought, which means their value is not in how much they cost but in how they are used. He uses them beautifully, with a quiet delight. He is one of the most unusually dressed people we’ve had in this column, but he isn’t wearing his clothes with show-off pride or check-me-out attitude. He’s just wearing them, like the rest of us do jeans and a sweatshirt. There is so much that’s unusual about Robert’s outfit, but the most remarkable thing about it is how he makes it all look so casual.罗伯特的衣看起来很廉价。它们不是买来的而是找来或交换来的,这意味着觉得它们价值的不是花费多少成本而是如何使用。他带着不起眼的愉悦,美妙地使用它们。他是这个专栏穿着最不寻常的人之一,但是他并没有炫耀似的骄傲或是想要被注意的态度。他只是穿着它们,就像我们穿牛仔裤和运动衫一样。罗伯特的饰有很多不寻常的地方,但最值得注意的是他如何让它们看起来那么随意。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201603/430233。