成都看女性输卵管通而不畅泡泡咨询

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 成都看女性输卵管通而不畅龙马健康
Bessel van der Kolk sat cross-legged on an oversize pillow in the center of a smallish room overlooking the Pacific Ocean in Big Sur. He wore khaki pants, a blue fleece zip-up and square wire-rimmed glasses. His feet were bare. It was the third day of his workshop, “Trauma Memory and Recovery of the Self,” and 30 or so workshop participants — all of them trauma victims or trauma therapists — lined the room’s perimeter. They, too, sat barefoot on cushy pillows, eyeing van der Kolk, notebooks in hand. For two days, they had listened to his lectures on the social history, neurobiology and clinical realities of post-traumatic stress disorder and its lesser-known sibling, complex trauma. Now, finally, he was about to demonstrate an actual therapeutic technique, and his gaze was fixed on the subject of his experiment: a 36-year-old Iraq war veteran named Eugene, who sat directly across from van der Kolk, looking mournful and expectant.从不大的房间望出去,大瑟尔地区太平洋的风光尽收眼底。贝塞尔·范德科尔克(Bessel van der Kolk)盘腿坐在房间中央的超大号靠枕上。他戴着方形金丝眼镜,身穿蓝色拉链式绒头织物衫和卡其布裤子,赤着脚。这天是他主办的“创伤记忆与自我恢复”(Trauma Memory and Recovery of the Self)研讨会的第三天,约30名研讨会参与者(均为创伤受害者或创伤治疗师)沿着房间的四壁围成一圈。他们也都赤脚坐在舒适的靠枕上,手里拿着笔记本,眼睛盯着范德科尔克。两天来,他们聆听他讲解了创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD)及其鲜为人知的同类——复杂创伤(complex trauma)的社会历史、神经生物学和临床现状。现在,他终于将向他们演示实际的治疗技术。范德科尔克将目光落在自己的实验对象尤金(Eugene)的身上。这是一名36岁的伊拉克战争退伍军人,此刻他正坐在范德科尔克的对面,面带悲伤,又充满期待。Van der Kolk began as he often does, with a personal anecdote. “My mother was very unnurturing and unloving,” he said. “But I have a full memory and a complete sense of what it is like to be loved and nurtured by her.” That’s because, he explained, he had done the very exercise that we were about to try on Eugene. Here’s how it would work: Eugene would recreate the trauma that haunted him most by calling on people in the room to play certain roles. He would confront those people — with his anger, sorrow, remorse and confusion — and they would respond in character, apologizing, forgiving or validating his feelings as needed. By projecting his “inner world” into three-dimensional space, Eugene would be able to rewrite his troubled history more thoroughly than other forms of role-play therapy might allow. If the experiment succeeded, the bad memories would be supplemented with an alternative narrative — one that provided feelings of acceptance or forgiveness or love.像过去一样,范德科尔克的治疗从讲述自己的亲身经历开始。“我的母亲对我毫无教养和疼爱之心,”他说。“但我却能让自己体会到在她关爱和抚育下成长的全部感受,并让它们成为我的‘记忆’。”因为他做过一项非常特别的练习,他解释道,而这也正是现在尤金将要尝试的。具体的做法是这样的:在场的人们将应尤金的要求扮演各种特定的角色,从而帮助他重现那段深深困扰他的创伤。他将对着这些人表露他的愤怒、悲伤、悔恨和迷茫,而他们则将依据所扮演的角色对他作出相应的回应,或道歉、或宽恕,也可以认同他的感受。通过将自己的“内心世界”投射到三维空间,尤金将得以重塑自己最不堪回首的经历,而且效果会比其他形式的角色扮演治疗更加彻底。如果实验能够成功,那些悲惨的回忆将可以通过另一种方式——一种可以获得认可、宽恕或爱的方式来重新描述。The exercise, which van der Kolk calls a “structure” but which is also known as psychomotor therapy, was developed by Albert Pesso, a dancer who studied with Martha Graham. He taught it to van der Kolk about two decades ago. Though it has never been tested in a controlled study, van der Kolk says he has had some success with it in workshops like this one. He likes to try it whenever he has a small group and a willing volunteer.这种做法被范德科尔克称为“构造”(structure),它还有个名字叫做精神运动疗法(psychomotor therapy)。舞蹈演员艾伯特·佩索(Albert Pesso)创立了该疗法,并在大约20年前教给了范德科尔克。尽管这种疗法未在对照研究中接受过检验,但范德科尔克称,在几次类似的研讨会中,他们已经有过若干成功的先例。无论何时何地,只要他身边聚集了一小群人,而且有人愿意站出来,他都喜欢尝试一下这种疗法。With some gentle prodding from van der Kolk, Eugene told us how he came to be a specialist in the ed States Army, how he spent a full year stationed in Mosul, the largest city in northern Iraq, and how his job involved disposing of exploded bombs. It was a year of dead bodies, he said. He saw, touched, smelled and stepped in more bodies than he could possibly count. Some of them were children. He was only 26.在范德科尔克温和的鼓励下,尤金向我们讲述了他的故事:他怎样成为美国陆军的技术兵;他在伊拉克北部最大的城市苏尔驻扎的那一整年时间,是如何度过的;以及他的工作怎么会涉及处置已爆炸的炸弹。那一年都在和尸体打交道,他说。他目睹、触摸、嗅闻乃至踏过的尸体简直不可胜数,其中有些还是儿童。而尤金当时只有26岁。People turn to grease when they explode, he told us, because their fat cells burst open. He witnessed multiple suicide bombings. Once, he accidentally stepped in an exploded corpse; only the legs were still recognizable as human. Another time, he saw a kitchen full of women sliced to bits. They’d been making couscous when a bomb went off and the windows shattered. He was shot in the back of the head once. He was also injured by an improvised explosive device.尤金告诉我们,当人被炸碎时,脂肪细胞都会爆裂开,于是人就变成了一大团动物油脂。他曾目击过多起自杀式炸弹袭击事件。有一次,他不小心踩在一具爆炸后的尸体上——只有腿部还勉强有点人型。还有一次,他看到一个厨房里,到处散落着女人身体四分五裂的残片——她们正在做古斯米时,一枚爆炸的炸弹震碎了窗户。尤金曾经头部后侧中弹,也曾经因土制的爆炸装置受伤。But none of those experiences haunted him quite as much as this one: Several months into his tour, while on a security detail, Eugene killed an innocent man and then watched as the man’s mother discovered the body a short while later.但这些经历对他的困扰,与下面这件事相比,只是小巫见大巫:在任职几个月后,尤金在一次安保任务中杀死了一名无辜的男子,然后他还眼看着那名男子的母亲在不久之后发现了儿子的遗体。“Tell us more about that,” van der Kolk said. “What happened?” Eugene’s fragile composure broke at the question. He closed his eyes, covered his face and sobbed.“请讲得再详细一些,”范德科尔克说,“发生了什么事?”简单的问题打破了尤金强忍着的镇定。他闭上眼睛,用手遮住脸,开始抽泣。“The witness can see how distressed you are and how badly you feel,” van der Kolk said. Acknowledging and reflecting the protagonist’s emotions like this — what van der Kolk calls “witnessing” them — is a central part of the exercise, meant to instill a sense of validation and security in the patient.“见人看得出你有多么痛心和难过,”范德科尔克说。范德科尔克像这样承认事件主人公的情绪,并对其情绪做出反应,他把这个过程称为“见”,这是练习的核心部分,旨在向患者灌输受到认可的感觉以及安全感。Eugene had aly called on some group members to play certain roles in his story. Kresta, a yoga instructor based in San Francisco, was serving as his “contact person,” a guide who helps the protagonist bear the pain the trauma evokes, usually by sitting nearby and offering a hand to hold or a shoulder to lean on. Dave, a child-abuse survivor and small-business owner in Southern California, was playing Eugene’s “ideal father,” a character whose role is to say all the things that Eugene wished his real father had said but never did. They sat on either side of Eugene, touching his shoulders. Next, van der Kolk asked who should play the man he killed. Eugene picked Sagar, a stand-up comedian and part-time financial consultant from Brooklyn. Finally, van der Kolk asked, Who should play the man’s mother?在此之前,尤金已经拜托了一些小组成员来扮演他故事中的角色。居住在旧金山的瑜伽教练克雷斯塔(Kresta)担任他的“联络人”,就像是一个向导,帮助主人公承受回忆唤起的创伤。联络人通常就坐在主人公的身旁,在需要时提供一只持的手臂或一个可以依靠的肩膀。戴夫(Dave)是虐待儿童案件的幸存者,现在是南加州的一个小企业主。在这里,他扮演的角色是尤金的“理想父亲”,他的任务是对尤金说一些尤金一直期盼能从自己真正的父亲口中听到,但真正的父亲从来没有说过的话。这两个人分别坐在尤金的两侧,手搭在他的肩膀上。接下来,范德科尔克询问尤金希望由谁来扮演那名被自己杀害的人。尤金选择了塞格尔(Sagar),来自纽约布鲁克林区的脱口秀笑星及兼职财务顾问。最后,范德科尔克问道,谁来扮演那男子的母亲?Eugene pointed to me. “Can you do it?” he asked.尤金指着我。“可以拜托你吗?”他问。I swore myself in as the others had, by saying, “I enroll as the mother of the man you killed.” Then I moved my pillow to the center of the room, across from Eugene, next to van der Kolk.“我愿意扮演被害人的母亲,”我学着其他人的样子宣布承担这个任务,然后把自己的靠枕搬到了房间的中央,面对着尤金,挨着范德科尔克。“O.K.,” van der Kolk said. “Tell us more about that day. Tell us what happened.”“好了,”范德科尔克说。“请告诉我们更多关于那一天的事吧,都发生了些什么?”Psychomotor therapy is neither widely practiced nor supported by clinical studies. In fact, most licensed psychiatrists probably wouldn’t give it a second glance. It’s hokey-sounding. It was developed by a dancer. But van der Kolk believes strongly that dancers — and musicians and actors — may have something to teach psychiatrists about healing from trauma and that even the hokey-sounding is worthy of our attention. He has spent four decades studying and trying to treat the effects of the worst atrocities we inflict on one another: war, rape, incest, torture and physical and mental abuse. He has written more than 100 peer-reviewed papers on psychological trauma. Trained as a psychiatrist, he treats more than a dozen patients a week in private practice — some have been going to him for many years now — and he oversees a nonprofit clinic in Boston, the Trauma Center, that treats hundreds more. If there’s one thing he’s certain about, it’s that standard treatments are not working. Patients are still suffering, and so are their families. We need to do better.精神运动疗法目前既没有在临床实践中广泛实施,也没有得到临床研究的持。事实上,大多数执业精神科医生恐怕都不会看它第二眼。它听起来就像做戏,而且还是由舞蹈演员创立的。但范德科尔克相信,舞者——以及乐手和演员——在促进精神创伤的愈合方面可能的确有过人之处,值得精神科医生借鉴,这个方法虽然有些矫揉造作,但仍然值得关注。他花了40年的时间,来研究人们施加在彼此身上最惨痛的暴行,比如战争、强奸、乱伦、拷打,以及生理和心理的虐待所造成的影响,并尝试进行治疗。他撰写了100多篇关于心理创伤的经过同行评议的文章。而且,作为一名训练有素的精神科医生,他的私人诊所每周都接诊数十名患者——其中有些人找他看病已有多年。此外,他还负责着位于波士顿的一家名为“创伤中心”(Trauma Center)非营利性诊所,那里还为另外数百名患者提供诊治。如果有一件事是他可以断言的,那就是:常规的治疗方法不管用。患者们仍然痛苦不堪,他们的家人也不能幸免。我们还需要做得更好才行。Van der Kolk takes particular issue with two of the most widely employed techniques in treating trauma: cognitive behavioral therapy and exposure therapy. Exposure therapy involves confronting patients over and over with what most haunts them, until they become desensitized to it. Van der Kolk places the technique “among the worst possible treatments” for trauma. It works less than half the time, he says, and even then does not provide true relief; desensitization is not the same as healing. He holds a similar view of cognitive behavioral therapy, or C.B.T., which seeks to alter behavior through a kind of Socratic dialogue that helps patients recognize the maladaptive connections between their thoughts and their emotions. “Trauma has nothing whatsoever to do with cognition,” he says. “It has to do with your body being reset to interpret the world as a dangerous place.” That reset begins in the deep recesses of the brain with its most primitive structures, regions that, he says, no cognitive therapy can access. “It’s not something you can talk yourself out of.” That view places him on the fringes of the psychiatric mainstream.范德科尔克尤其对创伤治疗中最常用的两种方法持有异议:认知行为疗法(cognitive behavioral therapy,简称CBT)和暴露疗法(exposure therapy)。暴露疗法是让患者一遍又一遍地面对最困扰他们的问题,直到他们对此变得麻木。范德科尔克把它贬斥为“最不可能治疗”创伤的方法。它的成功率还不到一半,他说,就算“成功”了也无法提供真正的解脱:脱敏与痊愈是两个不同的概念。他对认知行为疗法,也有类似的看法。认知行为疗法试图通过一种苏格拉底式的对话,帮助患者认识到自己的思想与情绪之间的联系调试不良,从而改变患者的行为。“但创伤与认知可没有一丁点儿关系,”范德科尔克说。“真正的问题在于,创伤改造了你的身体,让你觉得这世界很危险。”这种改造源于我们大脑中最原始结构的深处,认知疗法所无法触及的地带。“这不是你劝解自己说几句就可以解决的。”这些观点令他游离出了精神学主流。It’s not the first time van der Kolk has been there. In the early 1990s, he was a lead defender of repressed-memory therapy, which the Harvard psychologist Richard McNally later called “the worst catastrophe to befall the mental-health field since the lobotomy era.” Van der Kolk served as an expert witness in a string of high-profile sexual-abuse cases that centered on the recovery of repressed memories, testifying that it was possible — common, even — for victims of extreme or repeated sexual trauma to suppress all memory of that trauma and then recall it years later in therapy. He’d seen plenty of such examples in his own patients, he said, and could cite additional cases from the medical literature going back at least 100 years.范德科尔克并不是第一次陷入这种境地。20世纪90年代初,他是记忆抑制治疗(repressed-memory therapy)的一名主要的拥护者。该疗法后来被哈佛大学的心理学家理查德·麦克纳利(Richard McNally)称为“自脑叶切除术时代以来降临到心理健康领域的最大灾难。”在当时的一系列引人注目的性虐待案件中(均与恢复受抑制的记忆密切相关),范德科尔克担任了专家人,作称遭受极端或反复性创伤的受害者有可能——甚至普遍——会压抑自己关于那些创伤的所有记忆,直至多年后在治疗中才回想起来。他表示,在自己的患者中见过很多这样的例子,此外,他还能从医学文献中找出此类案例,至少可以回溯100年。In the 1980s and ‘90s, people from all over the country filed scores of legal cases accusing parents, priests and day care workers of horrific sex crimes, which they claimed to have only just remembered with the help of a therapist. For a time, judges and juries were persuaded by the testimony of van der Kolk and others. It made intuitive sense to them that the mind would find a way to shield itself from such deeply traumatic experiences. But as the claims grew more outlandish — alien abductions and secret satanic cults — support for the concept waned. Most research psychologists argued that it was much more likely for so-called repressed memories to have been implanted by suggestive questioning from overzealous doctors and therapists than to have been spontaneously recalled. In time, it became clear that innocent people had been wrongfully persecuted. Families, careers and, in some cases, entire lives were destroyed.20世纪80年代和90年代,全美各地涌起了一股性虐诉讼的风潮,人们纷纷指控父母、牧师和日托务人员犯下了恐怖的性犯罪,并声称,他们是在治疗师的帮助下才刚刚想起来的。一时间,法官和陪审团都被范德科尔克等人的言说了。他们直觉感到,人的心灵确实会找一种途径来屏蔽过度痛苦的经历。但随着指控变得越来越稀奇古怪——譬如被外星人绑架或神秘的撒旦邪教之类——持这一理论的声音日渐衰弱。大多数心理学研究专家认为,与其说是受害者自发地回忆起了这些所谓的“被压抑的记忆”,可能性要大得多的是,过分狂热的医生和治疗师的暗示性提问在他们的头脑中植入了这样的故事。随着时间的推移,事实逐渐浮出水面:的确有无辜的人被错误地起诉了。他们的家庭、事业、甚至在某些情况下整个生活,都被毁于一旦。After the dust settled in what was dubbed “the memory wars,” van der Kolk found himself among the casualties. By the end of the decade, his lab at Massachusetts General Hospital was shuttered, and he lost his affiliation with Harvard Medical School. The official reason was a lack of funding, but van der Kolk and his allies believed that the true motives were political.待这场日后被称为“记忆之战”的争论尘埃落定之后,范德科尔克自己也付出了代价。90年代末,他在马萨诸塞州总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)的实验室被关停,还失去了在哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)的职位。官方给出的理由是资金不足,但范德科尔克及其持者认为,真正的动机是政治因素。Van der Kolk folded his clinic into a larger nonprofit organization. He began soliciting philanthropic donations and honed his views on traumatic memory and trauma therapy. He still believed that repressed memories were a common feature of traumatic stress. Traumatic experiences were not being processed into memories, he reasoned, but were somehow getting “stuck in the machine” and then expressed through the body. Many of his colleagues in the psychiatric mainstream spurned these ideas, but he found another, more receptive audience: body-oriented therapists who not only embraced his message but also introduced him to an array of alternative practices. He began using some of those practices with his own patients and then testing them in small-scale studies. Before long, he had built a new network of like-minded researchers, body therapists and loyal friends from his Harvard days.范德科尔克将自己的诊所并入了一家规模更大的非营利组织中。他开始募集慈善捐款,并将关注的目标集中在创伤记忆及创伤治疗之上。他仍坚信,记忆抑制是创伤应激的一个普遍特征。范德科尔克解释道,创伤经历并没有被加工成记忆,而是莫名其妙地“卡壳”了,日后才在躯体上表现出来。精神病学的主流研究者大多都对这些理论嗤之以鼻,但范德科尔克在另一个群体中找到了更愿意接受它们的人:身体导向治疗师们不仅欣然接纳了他的观点,还向他介绍了一系列替代疗法。他开始使用其中一些疗法来尝试治疗自己的患者,并在小规模的研究中对他们加以测试。不久,他就与志同道合的研究人员、身体治疗师以及他在哈佛时结交的忠实伙伴建立起了一个新的关系网络。The group converged around an idea that was powerful in its simplicity. The way to treat psychological trauma was not through the mind but through the body. In so many cases, it was patients’ bodies that had been grossly violated, and it was their bodies that had failed them — legs had not run quickly enough, arms had not pushed powerfully enough, voices had not screamed loudly enough to evade disaster. And it was their bodies that now crumpled under the slightest of stresses — that dove for cover with every car alarm or saw every stranger as an assailant in waiting. How could their minds possibly be healed if they found the bodies that encased those minds so intolerable? “The single most important issue for traumatized people is to find a sense of safety in their own bodies,” van der Kolk says. “Unfortunately, most psychiatrists pay no attention whatsoever to sensate experiences. They simply do not agree that it matters.”这群人秉持着一个简洁有力的观念:精神创伤的治疗应该通过身体而不是通过心理进行。很多病例中,受到严重侵犯的是患者的身体,是他们的身体辜负了他们的期望——腿跑得不够快,手臂抗拒得不够有力,呼救的声音还不够大,以至于他们未能逃脱魔爪。如今,同样是他们的身体屈于哪怕最轻微的压力之下——一听到汽车防盗器的鸣叫声就会慌忙躲闪,每见到一个陌生人就觉得那是一个蓄势待发的攻击者。如果容纳思想的躯体如此不堪重负,那他们的心灵又怎么可能会痊愈?“对于创伤受害者而言,唯一最重要的问题就是要让自己的身体找到安全感,”范德科尔克说。“不幸的是,大多数精神科专家对感官体验都不屑一顾。他们根本就不觉得这有什么重要。”That van der Kolk does think it matters has won him an impressive and diverse fan base. “He’s really a hero,” says Stephen Porges, a professor of psychiatry at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. “He’s been extraordinarily courageous in confronting his own profession and in insisting that we not discount the bodily symptoms of traumatized people as something that’s ‘just in their heads.’ ”范德科尔克对身体感受的重视为他赢得了背景各异的众多粉丝。“他是一个真正的英雄,”北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校(University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)的精神病学教授史蒂芬·波格斯(Stephen Porges)表示。“他一直表现出大无畏的态度,挑战自己的学术圈子,并始终坚持不应简单地认定创伤受害者存在身体症状‘仅仅是脑筋出了问题’。”These days, van der Kolk’s calendar is filled with speaking engagements, from Boston to Amsterdam to Abu Dhabi. This spring, I trailed him down the East Coast and across the country. At each stop, his audience comprised the full spectrum of the therapeutic community: psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, art therapists, yoga therapists, even life coaches. They formed long lines up to the podium to introduce themselves during coffee breaks and hovered around his table at lunchtime, hoping to speak with him. Some pulled out their cellphones and asked to take selfies with him. Most expressed similar sentiments:连日来,范德科尔克的日程表被约得满满的,演讲地点从波士顿到阿姆斯特丹,再到阿布扎比。今年春天,我跟随他的脚步,走遍了东海岸和全美各地。每到一站,捧场的观众均遍及治疗领域的方方面面:精神科医生、心理学家、社会工作者、艺术治疗师、瑜伽治疗师,乃至生活教练。在讲座的中间休息时间,他们排成长队逐一到讲台上去做自我介绍,午餐时还会在他的桌子附近徘徊,希望能和他搭话。一些人掏出手机,想要与他合影留念。很多人表达了诸如此类的观点:Thank you so much for what you said about this treatment, that therapy, those studies.非常感谢您宣讲了关于这种治疗、疗法或研究的信息。Your research on cutting, child sexual abuse, family violence confirms what I have seen in my own patients, or experienced myself, for decades now.您关于自我割伤、儿童期性虐待和家庭暴力的研究实了过去几十年来我从自己的患者或者亲身经历中所见的事实。Can you help me?您可以帮助我吗?Van der Kolk’s entire life has been a study in human trauma. He was born in The Hague in the summer of 1943, three years into the German occupation of the Netherlands and one year before the great Dutch famine, when a military blockade cut off food and fuel shipments to the country’s western provinces and more than 20,000 people starved to death. His father was imprisoned in a Nazi work camp. According to van der Kolk family lore, his mother had to ride her bike to the hospital when she went into labor with him, and his first birthday cake was made of tulip bulbs because there was hardly any flour.范德科尔克自己的整个人生就好像一项关于人类创伤的研究。1943年的夏天,他在海牙出生。这是德国占领荷兰的第三年,次年,军事封锁切断了通往荷兰西部省份的粮食和燃料补给,导致逾2万人饿死,史称“冬季饥荒”。他的父亲被囚禁在纳粹集中营里。按照范德科尔克家族中的传说,他的母亲快要分娩的时候不得不自己骑自行车到医院,而他的第一个生日蛋糕是用郁金香球茎做的,因为当时基本上没有面粉。He was a weak and scrawny boy, but daring nonetheless. Ask him about his childhood, and he will tell you about playing amid the bombed-out ruins of his native city. Nearly everyone around him was deeply traumatized. His neighbors on either side were Holocaust survivors. His mother did not enjoy motherhood; she was pulled out of school at 14 to care for her father and then pulled away from a satisfying career to assume her wifely duties. By the time Bessel, her middle child, was old enough to know her, she had grown bitter and cold. His father was an executive at Royal Dutch Shell, and despite being a devout Protestant and dedicated pacifist, he suffered violent rages and inflicted them on his children. In his new book, “The Body Keeps the Score,” which comes out this fall, van der Kolk mentions being locked in the basement as a little boy for what he describes as “normal 3-year-old offenses” and hating himself for being too puny to fight back.范德科尔克是一个骨瘦如柴的孱弱男孩,但这丝毫没有减损他的勇敢。如果问起他的童年往事,他会告诉你在故乡城市遭受轰炸后的废墟上玩耍的故事。他周围几乎每个人都遭受了深深的创伤。左右的邻居都是犹太人大屠杀的幸存者。他的母亲一点也不乐意当妈妈;14岁的时候她就辍学照顾自己的父亲,之后又被迫离开了自己喜爱的职业以承担身为人妻的责任。在家里的第二个孩子贝塞尔懂事之前,她的性格已经变得刻薄而冷漠。范德科尔克的父亲是荷兰皇家壳牌集团(Royal Dutch Shell)的高管。尽管他是一名虔诚的新教徒,也是忠实的和平主义者,但盛怒之下他也会在孩子们身上泄愤。在秋天将要面世的新书《身体记得》(The Body Keeps the Score)中,范德科尔克提到,当他还是个小男孩时,曾经因为“正常的3岁孩子都会惹的祸”而被关在地下室里,只能怨恨自己太弱小,无力反抗。As a teenager, he began traveling on his own. He liked to hitchhike into France. On one such trip, as he passed a monastery, he heard the chanting of monks and was so taken with the sound that he asked the driver to let him off there. He spent the rest of that summer, and the following Easter break, and the summer after that, at the monastery contemplating monkhood. The abbot took a liking to him and promised that if he joined the order, they would send him to Geneva for medical school. “I seriously considered it,” he told me. But in the end, a youthful thirst for adventure beat out any yearning he might have felt for quiet meditation, and he chose the University of Hawaii instead. “I still have some spiritual feelings,” he says. “I believe that all things are connected. But organized religion gives me the creeps.”十几岁的时候,他开始独自旅行。他喜欢搭便车到法国去。在一次这样的旅行中,他在途经一所修道院时听到修道士们诵经的声音,并为之深深打动,于是请求司机让他在那里下车。他在那所修道院度过了当年夏天剩下的所有时间,然后是次年的复活节假期,以及之后的又一个夏天,甚至考虑要不要成为一名修道士。修道院院长对他很有好感,并承诺如果他加入修会,他们就送他到日内瓦读医学院。“我认真考虑过这个提议,”他告诉我。但最终,年轻的心对冒险的渴望战胜了他对安静冥想的向往,于是他选择了夏威夷大学(University of Hawaii)。“我仍然有一些精神感应,”他说。“我相信万事万物都彼此关联。但组织有序的宗教让我浑身发毛。”And so in 1962, he came to the ed States and made his way from the University of Hawaii to the University of Chicago to Harvard Medical School, where he posed to science and medicine all of his many questions about the horrors of human nature and the miracles of human resilience. “The human species is messed up,” he says. “We make the same mistakes over and over, and I’m deeply curious about why that is. Why do we keep doing things that we know are horrible and will have terrible consequences?”就这样,1962年,范德科尔克来到了美国,并先后就读于夏威夷大学、芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)和哈佛医学院。在这里,他将自己关于人性中恐怖的一面,以及人类神奇的适应和恢复能力的许多问题,摆在了科学和医学面前。“人类这个物种可真是一团糟,”他说。“我们总是一遍又一遍地犯同样的错误。我真好奇这究竟是为什么。为什么我们明知道会酿成大祸,惹来不可收拾的后果,却还是会一意孤行?”One of van der Kolk’s first jobs out of school was as a staff psychiatrist at the Veterans Affairs clinic in Boston; he arrived there in 1978, in time for the influx of Vietnam veterans. “The waiting list to see a doctor was a mile long,” he says. “And the clinic’s walls were pocked full of fist imprints.”离开学校后,范德科尔克的头几份工作里包括在退伍军人事务部下属的一家波士顿诊所担任精神科医师。他入职时正值1978年,越战老兵洪水一般地涌来。“等候看诊的队伍足有一英里长,”他说。“诊所的墙上到处是被拳头打出来的印记。”The first thing van der Kolk noticed about his new patients was how utterly stuck in the past they were. Even the older veterans from World War II seemed to vacillate between one of two states: immersion in their wartime experiences or lifeless disengagement. In Rorschach tests, every inkblot was a dead baby, a fallen comrade or nothing at all. It was as if war had broken the projector of their imaginations, he says, and their only options were to play one reel over and over or turn the machine off altogether.在这些新患者身上,范德科尔克首先注意到的一件事是,他们都将自己完全困在过去里。即使是那些从二战战场上归来的老一批的退伍军人也常常在两种状态之间摇摆:或是沉溺于战争经历中无法自拔,或是看破红尘四大皆空。在罗夏测试(Rorschach test)中,他们不是把墨迹看成死去的婴儿或倒下的战友,就是觉得什么都不像。仿佛是他们脑海中的投影仪被战争弄坏了,范德科尔克说,于是他们只能选择把一卷影像翻来覆去地看,或者干脆把机器彻底关掉。The second thing that struck van der Kolk was how the men managed their own conditions. Almost all of them claimed that highly risky behaviors were capable of yanking them into the present in a way that no form of therapy could (one patient, for example, rode his Harley at breakneck speeds whenever he felt himself swirling into a rage or disconnecting from his surroundings). Van der Kolk’s treatment — the only thing he had been taught in medical school — involved getting the men to talk. In both group and one-on-one sessions, he would ask them about their horrible memories, nightmares and troubles at home. But talking didn’t seem to help; in some cases, he thought, it made things worse.令范德科尔克感到震惊的第二件事是这些人控制自己状况的方式。几乎所有人都声称,与任何形式的治疗相比,高风险的行为更可能将他们拉回现实(例如,一名患者称,每当觉得自己快要暴跳如雷或者游离于现实之外时,他就骑着哈雷托车玩儿命地飙车)。范德科尔克的治疗手段——也就是医学院唯一教他做的——是让这些人敞开心扉,多多交谈。在小组和一对一的治疗会话中,他都会询问他们很多问题,关于那些可怕的回忆、关于梦魇以及在家里遇到的麻烦等等。但谈话似乎并没什么帮助;甚至在某些病例中,他觉得适得其反。Van der Kolk scoured the clinic’s medical library for books on shell shock and combat fatigue — anything that might help him better understand what he was seeing or give him some clue about how to treat it. Post-traumatic stress disorder was not yet a recognized condition. Then he came across a book at Harvard’s Francis A. Countway medical library, “The Traumatic Neurosis of War.” It was published in 1941, just before shellshocked American veterans would return from World War II. In its pages, van der Kolk found the first seeds of an idea that would ultimately shape his career: The nucleus of neurosis is physioneurosis. In other words, he thought, the root of what would eventually be called PTSD lay in our bodies.范德科尔克翻遍了诊所的医学图书馆中关于炮弹休克症(shell shock)和战斗疲劳症(combat fatigue)的书籍,寻找可能帮助他更好地了解患者症状的任何信息,或者有助于他进行治疗的任何提示。在那个时代,创伤后应激障碍还未被公认为一种疾病。后来,他在哈佛的弗朗西斯·A·康特韦医学图书馆(Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine)里发现了一本书:《战争的创伤性神经官能症》(The Traumatic Neurosis of War)。该书出版于1941年,正好是在饱受炮弹休克症困扰的美国老兵从第二次世界大战中归来之前。在这本书中,范德科尔克找到了一些最初的灵感。这些灵感最终指明了他职业生涯的方向:神经官能症的核心在于躯体性神经官能症。换句话说,他认为,日后所称的PTSD的根源深埋在人类的身体之中。This meshed perfectly with what van der Kolk was seeing in his patients. In addition to their nightmares and hallucinations, many of them had a host of physical ailments, including headaches, fatigue, digestive troubles and insomnia. When he tried accessing their traumas in therapy, they often became jittery, broke into cold sweats or shut down. The book, van der Kolk said, did not offer any suggestions for treatment, but it did give him a starting point. In the two decades that followed, he made a careful study of all his patients’ physiological symptoms. And in 1994, not long before his Harvard lab was shuttered, he wrote a paper in The Harvard Review of Psychiatry summarizing all he had learned. Traumatic stress, it seemed, triggered a cascade of physiological catastrophes that affected almost every major system in the body.这与范德科尔克在患者身上的所见所闻完全吻合。除了噩梦和幻觉,许多患者还遭受着众多生理症状的折磨,包括头痛、疲劳、消化系统疾患和失眠等。当他在治疗中试图触及他们的创伤时,他们往往一下子就变得如同惊弓之鸟一般,浑身冷汗涔涔或者将自己完全封闭起来。范德科尔克表示,虽然这本书并没有提供任何治疗建议,但给了他一个起点。在接下来的20年里,他仔细研究了他所有患者的生理症状。1994年,就在他在哈佛的实验室被关闭前不久,他撰写了一篇论文总结了自己的所有发现,并发表在《哈佛精神病学》(The Harvard Review of Psychiatry)上。创伤应激似乎可以触发一连串的生理性灾难,几乎影响到身体的所有主要系统。Eugene was on military leave in San Francisco, about halfway through his tour of duty, when he first realized something was wrong. The bay was cool and breezy; people were walking around in parkas and hoodies. But he was sweating profusely. He thought his months in the desert had maybe activated some weird sweat gene that needed time to turn itself off. He figured it would pass eventually. It didn’t. By the time he came home for good, sweat was the least of his problems. He was seeing dead bodies on the side of the road. And he could not stop going to the bathroom. At his first post-military job in the corporate offices of a large bank, he went to the bathroom so often that he was sure his co-workers wondered what was wrong with him.尤金第一次意识到自己出了问题时,他的役期差不多已经过半,当时正在旧金山军事休假。海湾天气凉爽,微风拂面;四周漫步的人们都身着风雪大衣和连帽衫。但他自己却满头大汗。他一度以为这是因为数月来自己在沙漠中的生活,激活了某些与出汗有关的奇特基因,需要过一段时间它们才会自行关闭。他估计慢慢就会好起来的。但事实并非如此。等他彻底退役回家时,他才发现,出汗只是个最最微不足道的问题。他出现了幻视,看到路边堆积着尸体。他需要不停地去卫生间。他退伍后的第一份工作是在一家大的总部办公室任职,由于他去洗手间太过频繁,他敢肯定同事们都怀疑他有毛病。The military had little to offer. “They are not even trying to help,” he would tell friends and relatives. “You say, ‘I have horrible diarrhea, and I can’t stop going to the bathroom.’ And they say, ‘Stop going to the bathroom.’ Or you say, ‘I have a horrible time with the subway; the noise just terrifies me.’ And they say, ‘Well, New York is pretty noisy.’ ” One doctor prescribed an anti-anxiety medication, but it was so strong that Eugene started walking into walls. He tried talk therapy and group therapy. Neither did anything to relieve the uncomfortable tingling up his spine or the constant feeling that he was about to be attacked from behind.军队帮不上什么忙。“他们甚至根本没有尝试过提供帮助,”他这样告诉亲戚朋友们。“你跟他们说,‘我腹泻很严重,简直离不开卫生间。’结果他们回答,‘那就别去卫生间。’你跟他们抱怨,‘我很怕乘地铁;那些噪音让我惊恐万分。’他们却说,‘没错,纽约是怪嘈杂的。’”曾有一位医生给他开了些抗焦虑的药物,可是那药效果太过猛烈,以至于尤金开始犯迷糊,走着走着都会撞到墙上。他也尝试过谈话治疗和团体治疗。但这些都未曾缓解他不安的惊惧,也没能消除他总感觉随时会被人背后偷袭的那种恐慌。He was nearly a full decade into this private war by the time he came to sit across from van der Kolk in the room overlooking the Pacific and to tell a group of strangers how he killed an innocent man.在这场“与自己的战争”中,他几乎已经孤军奋战了整整10年,直到此刻——他来到这个俯瞰太平洋的小房间里,坐在范德科尔克的对面,向一群陌生人坦承,自己怎样杀死了一个无辜的人。Mosul reminded Eugene of a movie, he said: an old western in which the bad guys take over some small town, and all the townsfolk hide indoors and tumbleweed blows across the screen. In this movie, though, the bad guys were crazy terrorists who not only fired on Eugene and his team constantly but also strapped explosives to themselves, wandered into residential areas and detonated.在苏尔的经历让尤金想起了一部电影,那是个很老的西部片,他说,坏人们占据了小镇,所有的居民都躲在屋里,关门闭户,银幕上只有大风卷着草团吹过。不过,在尤金的故事里,坏人们是疯狂的恐怖分子,他们不仅不断地朝尤金和他的队伍开,还会往自己身上绑上炸药,潜入居民区然后引爆。Eugene was on the security detail for a bomb patrol when a man drove up without yielding for inspection. Eugene signaled to him to stop, but the man kept his foot on the gas. Eugene signaled a second time, and a third.当时尤金正在一个炸弹巡逻队中执行安保任务,一名男子驾车而来,却拒绝接受检查。尤金做手势叫他停车,但该男子仍旧将脚踩在油门上。尤金第二次对他示意,然后是第三次。Stop. Stop. Stop.停车。停车。停车!The man kept driving. So Eugene opened fire. His team searched the car afterward but found no bombs. As Eugene left the scene, he saw the man’s mother. She ran over to the car, distraught.但那名男子仍在向前开。于是尤金开了。事后,他的小队搜查了那辆车,却没有发现炸弹。正当尤金要离开现场时,他看到了那名男子的母亲。她向汽车跑去,悲痛欲绝。As he told us this, Eugene stared into the empty space between him and van der Kolk. His face was red and contorted, and it was easy to imagine that he was not so much remembering what happened as reliving it. I wondered what torments had led him to submit to such an experiment. I wondered how it could possibly work.讲到这里,尤金的目光落在他和范德科尔克之间的虚空里。他脸色通红表情扭曲,很容易想象,他在回顾那段情节时,记忆并不十分清晰。我暗想要怎么样的痛苦,才会迫使他愿意参加这么一项实验,更好奇这种治疗到底怎么能产生效果。“What do you want the mother to know?” van der Kolk asked. Again, Eugene covered his face and broke into loud sobs.“你想让那位母亲知道些什么?”范德科尔克问道。尤金再次捂住了脸,大声哭泣起来。“I’m sorry,” he said. “I’m so, so sorry. There are not words for how sorry. . . .” He buried his face in his hands again. “Do you want to look at her?” van der Kolk asked. Eugene couldn’t seem to speak, but he lifted his head and squinted at me with one eye. It was too much. He tucked his chin into his chest, wracked by sobs.“对不起,”他说。“我真的非常,非常抱歉。我无法用语言来表达我的歉意……”他又把脸埋在掌心里。“你想看着她吗?”范德科尔克又问。尤金一时说不出话来,但他还是抬起头,用一只眼睛飞快地瞟了我一眼。只是这已经超出了他所能承受的限度。他埋下头,哭得不能自已。“The witness sees how truly sorry and how upset you are,” van der Kolk said. I kept my eyes focused on Eugene, so I didn’t see van der Kolk’s face. But Kresta would later tell me that watching him was like watching a wizard or a magician or a superfast computer. She could see him tracking Eugene’s facial expressions, tone of voice and changes in posture and responding to each in microseconds, posing a question or remarking “the witness sees.”“你真心的悔恨和难过,见人都看到了,”范德科尔克说。我一直凝视着尤金,所以我看不到范德科尔克的表情。但后来克雷斯塔告诉我,看着他,就好像是看着一个巫师或魔法师,又或者像一台超高速电脑。她留意到,他一直密切关注着尤金的面部表情、语调和姿势中的变化,并在几微秒内就对它们作出相应的反应,时而提出问题,时而旁白“见人看到了”。Van der Kolk instructed me in a low, steady voice. “Tell him that you forgive him,” he said. “Tell him you understand that it was a crazy time, and you know that he didn’t mean to do what he did. He was very young, and both of you were trapped in the same hell. Tell him you forgive him. And that you are O.K. now.” I repeated the words. I tried to make them sound genuine. I found myself hoping, fervently, that Eugene could hear me.范德科尔克以低沉平稳的声音指示我。“告诉他,你原谅他,”他说。“告诉他你明白那时候是非常时刻,你知道他不是故意的。他还很年轻,你们都同样被困在地狱中饱受折磨。告诉他你原谅他,你现在已经没事了。”我重复着这些话,尽力让它们听起来发自肺腑。我发现自己热切地盼望尤金能够把我的话听进心里。For a man who speaks to more than 15,000 people a year, van der Kolk has a surprisingly hard time projecting his voice. His thick Dutch accent is easy enough to decipher if you’re sitting right next to him, but it is difficult to penetrate from even a few feet away. As is often the case, the first audience comment at a recent lecture he gave in Philadelphia was “We can’t hear you!” Van der Kolk asked a sound technician to turn up the volume and promised the 200 or so attendees that he would speak as loudly as he could. There were some grumbles, even from people in the front row, who still couldn’t hear him. But van der Kolk is effusively charming and, as usual, managed to win the group over quickly.说起来令人难以置信,作为一个每年听众总数可达1.5万以上的人,范德科尔克并不擅长演讲。他带着厚重的荷兰口音,如果你就坐在他旁边的话倒是也不难听懂,但哪怕只隔开几英尺远,你就会觉得不知所云了。所以情况经常会像他在费城的最近一次讲座这样,听众们对他的第一条是:“我们听不清!”范德科尔克请求音效师帮他调高音量,并向与会的200来人承诺,他会尽可能地大声。但还是有听众们听不到他在说什么,即使有些人已经是在前排,于是颇有些抱怨的声音。但范德科尔克总是那么热情洋溢,令人倾倒。与往常一样,他很快就征了听众。“Everybody hunch their backs forward and droop their heads, like this,” he said, demonstrating. “Now try saying: ‘Oh, I’m feeling great! I’m very happy today!’ ” The audience laughed. “See, it’s impossible to feel happy in that position.” To drive the point home, he asked us to do the opposite: sit upright, assume cheerful expressions and then try to feel bad.“请大家弓起后背并低头,就像这样,”他一边说一边亲身示范。“现在请试着说:‘哦,我感觉好极了!我今天非常开心!’ ”场下出现了笑声。“你看,在这种姿势下,你是不可能感到幸福的。”为了彻底表明自己的观点,他让我们摆出相反的姿势:坐直身子,展现欢快的表情,然后试着去感觉难过。The mind follows the body, he said.心随体转,他说。Trauma victims, van der Kolk likes to say, are alienated from their bodies by a cascade of events that begins deep in the brain with an almond-shaped structure known as the amygdala. When faced with a threat, the amygdala triggers a fight-or-flight response, which includes the release of a flood of hormones. This response usually persists until the threat is vanquished. But if the threat isn’t vanquished — if we can’t fight or flee — the amygdala, which can be thought of as the body’s smoke detector, keeps sounding the alarm. We keep producing stress hormones, which in turn wreak havoc on the rest of our bodies. It’s similar to what happens in chronic stress, except that in traumatic stress, the memories of the traumatic event invade patients’ subconscious thoughts, sending them back into fight-or-flight mode at the slightest provocation. Therapists and patients refer to this as being “reactivated.” In the short term, patients avoid the pain it causes by “dissociating.” That is, they take leave of their bodies, so much so that they often cannot describe their own physical sensations. This happens a lot in therapy, van der Kolk says.范德科尔克总喜欢说,创伤受害者的精神与身体脱节了,而这是由大脑深处被称为杏仁核的结构开始的级联反应造成的。在遇到威胁时,杏仁核会激发出“战或逃”反应,其中涉及大量激素的释放。这种反应通常会持续到威胁消除为止。但如果威胁一直没有消失——如果我们不能反抗也不能逃跑——那么杏仁核这个“人体的烟雾探测器”就会不停地拉响警报。于是我们就不断地制造应激激素,进而大肆破坏我们身体的其余部分。这与慢性应激的过程非常相似,区别只在于在创伤应激中,关于创伤事件的记忆侵入了患者的潜意识中,哪怕是最轻微的刺激都会令他们回到“战或逃”模式。治疗师和患者将其称为被“激发”。短期内,患者会通过“游离于世外”的方式来回避它所引发的痛苦。也就是说,他们会将自己的精神从躯体上抽离开,以至于无法准确地描述自己的身体感觉。这在治疗中屡见不鲜,范德科尔克说。In the long term, they become experts in self-numbing. They use food, exercise, work — or worse, drugs and alcohol — to stifle physical discomfort. The longer they do this, the more difficult it becomes to remain present in any given moment. “That’s why the guy at the end of ‘The Hurt Locker’ is so utterly incapable of playing with his kid,” van der Kolk says.长此以往,他们往往会成为自我麻木的高手,用食物、运动、工作——或者是更糟糕的毒品和酒精——来遏杀身体上的不适。这样做的时间越长,他们就越难以在哪个时刻不游离。“这就是电影《拆弹部队》(The Hurt Locker)结尾时那人根本无法与自己的孩子一起玩耍的原因,”范德科尔克说。The goal of treatment should be to resolve this disconnect. “If we can help our patients tolerate their own bodily sensations, they’ll be able to process the trauma themselves,” he says. In his own patients, particularly those suffering from treatment-resistant PTSD, yoga has proved an especially good way to do this. So has emotional freedom technique, or tapping. With a therapist’s guidance, the patient taps various acupressure points with his or her own fingertips. If done correctly, it can calm the sympathetic nervous system and prevent the patient from being thrown into fight-or-flight mode. Ultimately, van der Kolk supports almost any therapy that involves paying careful attention to patients’ physiological states, like psychomotor therapy, or getting up and moving around through theater, dance and even karate. For patients with acute PTSD from isolated traumatic memories (think car accidents or single-episode assaults), van der Kolk is a fan of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, or E.M.D.R., in which a therapist wiggles fingers back and forth across the patient’s field of vision and the patient tracks the fingers while “holding in mind” the traumatic memory. Proponents say the technique enables patients to process their traumas so that they pass into memories and stop invading the present. Van der Kolk likes to point out that he came to the technique as a skeptic. “It’s this weird treatment,” he said. “You ask people to remember what happened to them, and you wiggle your finger in front of their eyes and have them follow it. Crazy.” More than 60,000 therapists around the world have now been certified in E.M.D.R., though the practice remains controversial, with critics and supporters debating the validity of each new study. Van der Kolk places his faith in what he sees in his own patients, he says. For them, E.M.D.R. has been a godsend.治疗的目标应该是解决这种脱节问题。“如果我们能够帮助患者耐受自己的身体感觉,他们就可以自己处理所受到的创伤,”范德科尔克解释道。在他自己的患者,尤其是那些难治性PTSD患者中,瑜伽在这方面的效果被明尤其值得称道。情绪释放术(emotional freedom technique)又被称为穴位,效果也不错。在治疗师的指导下,患者们使用自己的指尖点按不同的穴位。如果方法正确,它可以平复交感神经系统,防止患者陷入“战或逃”模式。归根结底,范德科尔克对所有密切关注患者生理状态的疗法几乎都抱着持的态度,如精神运动疗法、起立并在剧场中漫步、舞蹈,乃至空手道。对于从孤立的创伤记忆(如车祸或一次性的袭击)中罹患急性PTSD的病人,范德科尔克也很赞成采用眼动脱敏与再加工疗法(eye movement desensitization and reprocessing,简称EMDR)。在这种疗法中,治疗师在患者的视野前来回晃动手指,并要求患者一面将“思绪停留”在创伤记忆上,一面用目光追随着治疗师的手指。持者称,这项技术可促使患者加工创伤事件,并将其转化为过去的记忆,从而使它们不再侵犯当前的日常生活。范德科尔克很喜欢指明的一点是,最初接触这项技术时,他也是满腹狐疑。“这真是种古怪的治疗,”他说。“你教人们记起自己的遭遇,还在他们的眼前晃动手指,让他们的眼睛跟着转。这太疯狂了。”目前,世界各地已经有超过6万名治疗师获得了EMDR治疗认,但人们对这种疗法一直存在争议,批评者和持者对每一项新研究正确与否都争论不休。范德科尔克说,他更相信从自己患者身上观察到的结果。对于他们而言,EMDR简直是天赐的福音。Van der Kolk’s most vocal critics tend to have the same complaint: He overstates his case. There is far less evidence for therapeutic tapping or theater or massage therapy than for cognitive behavioral therapy or even exposure therapy. And while the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Defense have begun studying the benefits of yoga and E.M.D.R., van der Kolk’s own studies have been criticized for a lack of rigor and small sample sizes; there were just 88 people in his 2007 study of E.M.D.R. and 64 people in his 2014 study of yoga. “Anyone is going to tell their therapist that they’re doing better if they like their therapist,” says Patricia Resick, a clinical psychologist and researcher in the use of C.B.T. for post-traumatic stress at Duke University. “You need an independent assessor.” There is a standard in the field, Resick says, speaking broadly of his methodology. “If he wants to be taken seriously, he has to do studies that live up to that standard.” (Van der Kolk points out that his E.M.D.R. and yoga studies both had blind raters.)范德科尔克最为人诟病的地方似乎集中于一点:他过分夸大了自己病例的代表性。有关治疗性穴位点按、剧院疗法以及疗法的据都远远少于认知行为疗法,甚至还比不上暴露疗法。虽然美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)和国防部都已经开始研究瑜伽和EMDR的效益,但批评者指出,范德科尔克自己的研究缺乏严谨性,样本也过小;他2007年的EMDR研究只涉及了88人,2014年的瑜伽研究也只入组了64人。“只要喜欢自己的治疗师,任何人都乐意告诉他们自己的感觉越来越好,”杜克大学(Duke University)的临床心理学家、研究使用认知行为疗法治疗创伤应激的帕特里夏·雷斯尼克(Patricia Resick)说。“你需要独立的评估。”在谈到范德科尔克的大致研究方法时,雷斯尼克表示,该研究领域自有其标准。“如果他希望人们把他当回事儿,他就需要完成符合这一标准的研究。”(对此,范德科尔克指出,他的EMDR和瑜伽研究均设有不知情的评价者。)Van der Kolk has also been charged with oversimplifying neuroscience to support his clinical work. He likes to divide the brain into distinct regions — rational and emotional — that he says are “not all that connected to one another.” He says the techniques he favors are capable of accessing the emotional brain, where the amygdala resides, whereas C.B.T., exposure therapy and talk therapy aren’t necessarily capable of doing so. Van der Kolk has scores of fMRI scans showing that when faced with a trauma — or in the case of PTSD, with a traumatic memory — the prefrontal cortex becomes muted, the speech center becomes muted and the amygdala becomes hyperactive. But a vast majority of neurobiologists say the so-called rational and emotional brains are much more integrated than his model suggests. In fact, the two communicate regularly through a multitude of circuitous loops that researchers have only just begun to map. And the scans that van der Kolk uses offer a bird’s-eye view of the brain — too sweeping to justify such detailed inferences. “He has a lot of interesting and important ideas, but the relatively weak connection to the brain detracts from his message,” says Joseph LeDoux, a neuroscientist at New York University. “This happens in a lot of fields now. Everybody wants to use the brain to justify certain things. But sometimes what the brain does is more important than how it does it.”此外,也有人指责范德科尔克将神经科学过度简单化,以持自己的临床工作。他喜欢将大脑划分为理性与感性两个截然不同的区域,用他的原话说是:“它们的相互联系并非那么紧密。”他声称自己所热衷的技术可以作用于杏仁核所在的“情绪脑”,而认知行为疗法、暴露疗法和谈话治疗却未必有这神通。范德科尔克手中有大量的功能性磁共振成像扫描资料显示,在面对创伤时(对于PTSD患者则是面对创伤记忆时),前额叶皮层、语言中枢都沉寂下来,而杏仁核却变得异常活跃。但绝大多数的神经生物学家都认为,所谓的理性脑和情绪脑并非如他的模型显示的那样彼此孤立,而是一个更为融合的有机体。实际上,它们经常通过众多迂回曲折的神经回路彼此通讯,而科研人员在这方面的研究才刚刚起步。范德科尔克所使用的扫描图提供的是大脑活动的概况,要是想解释如此细节的问题,它们未免太过笼统。“他提出了很多十分有趣也非常重要的想法,但与脑部的关联并不紧密这一点是一大败笔,”纽约大学(New York University)的神经科学家约瑟夫·勒杜(Joseph LeDoux)说。“这种现象在当今的很多领域都层出不穷。每个人都希望扯上大脑来明些什么。然而有时候,大脑能做什么比它是怎么做的更加重要。”Some of van der Kolk’s closest colleagues have suggested that his exaggerations are by design. It’s not so much that he abhors conventional therapies or thinks his own methods are ironclad. It’s that he is trying to persuade people to be more open-minded. Indeed, when I pressed him on C.B.T., he acknowledged that it might have some uses, perhaps for anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder. And despite his contention that Prozac is less effective than E.M.D.R. at treating PTSD, he is not antimedication.范德科尔克的一些最亲密的同事指出,他的夸张其实是刻意为之。他并没有那么厌弃传统疗法,也并不认为自己的方法无懈可击。他只是试图说人们保持一种更加开通的态度。事实上,当我就认知行为疗法追问他时,他承认这种疗法在焦虑症或强迫症的治疗中大概还是可以派上用场的。而且,虽然他认为百忧解(Prozac)治疗PTSD的效果不如EMDR,但他并不是绝对地反对用药。But there is a larger issue, too. “Testing a therapeutic technique is not like conducting a drug trial,” says Frank Ochberg, a professor at Michigan State University and clinical psychiatrist who specializes in PTSD. “With a drug trial, everyone gets the exact same pill or the exact same placebo. With therapy, you can’t separate the tools from the person using the tools. There’s no good experimental technique for measuring a therapist’s kindness, wisdom or judgment.”不过,还有一个更大的问题。“测试治疗技术与进行药物试验不同,”密歇根州立大学(Michigan State University)的教授、专门从事PTSD研究的临床精神病学家弗兰克·欧什格(Frank Ochberg)说。“在药物试验中,所有受试者得到的是完全相同的药丸或完全一样的安慰剂。而对于治疗技术而言,就无法将工具与使用工具的人割裂开来。目前还没有足够成熟的实验技术来衡量治疗师的友善程度、智慧或判断力。”For his part, van der Kolk says he would love to do large-scale studies comparing some of his preferred methods of treatment with some of the more commonly accepted approaches. But funding is nearly impossible to come by for anything outside the mainstream. In the wake of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, he says, he was invited to sit on a handful of expert panels. Money had been designated for therapeutic interventions, and the people in charge of parceling it out wanted to know which treatments to back. To van der Kolk, it was a golden opportunity. We really don’t know what would help people most, he told the panel members. Why not open it up and fund everything, and not be prejudiced about it? Then we could study the results and really learn something. Instead, the panels recommended two forms of treatment: psychoanalysis and cognitive behavioral therapy. “So then we sat back and waited for all the patients to show up for analysis and C.B.T. And almost nobody did.” Spencer Eth, who was then the medical director of behavioral health services at St. Vincent’s Hospital in Manhattan, gathered data on the mental-health care provided to more than 10,000 Sept. 11 survivors. The most popular service by far was acupuncture. Yoga and massage were also in high demand. “Nobody looks at acupuncture academically,” van der Kolk says. “But here are all these people saying that it’s helped them.”至于范德科尔克,他表示自己很希望能进行一些大规模的研究,将他比较偏爱的治疗方法与已经获得普遍接受的其他一些方法进行比较。只是,想要做些主流之外的事情,几乎是不可能弄到资助的。他回忆道,在9·11恐怖袭击之后,他曾应邀参与四五个专家小组。他们已经拿到了一笔指定用于治疗干预的经费,于是负责人征求他们的意见,问他们应该拿这些钱来持哪些治疗。对范德科尔克来说,这是一个千载难逢的好机会。我们确实不知道什么方法可以最大限度地为人们提供帮助,他对小组成员这样说道。那我们为什么不彻底放开成见,资助所有的疗法呢?这样我们就可以研究所得的结果,从中真正获得一些知识。可惜事与愿违,专家小组推荐了两种形式的治疗:精神分析和认知行为疗法。“于是我们坐等患者来接受分析和认知行为治疗。结果几乎是无人问津。”斯潘塞·艾斯(Spencer Eth)当时在曼哈顿的圣文森特医院(St. Vincent’s Hospital)行为健康务部门担任医疗主任,他搜集了关于1万多名9·11幸存者接受心理健康医疗务的资料。截至目前,最受欢迎的务是针灸,瑜伽和的呼声也甚高。“没人把针灸抬入学术的大雅之堂,”范德科尔克说。“但所有这些人都说它很有用。”Van der Kolk is always evaluating his own clinical experiences for clues to what works best. “Maybe I should have done E.M.D.R. with Eugene instead of that structure,” he said not long after the California workshop. “I’m not sure how much good it will do.”一直以来,范德科尔克都在借助评估自己的临床经验来寻找最佳疗法的蛛丝马迹。“或许我该对尤金用EMDR,而不是构造练习,”在加州的研讨会后不久,他对我说。“我不太确定它会有多大效果。”Back at the Trauma Center in Boston, van der Kolk and his colleagues are working on what he sees as the next step: redefining trauma itself. “We have a tendency now to label everything as PTSD,” he says. “But so much of what we see is the result of long-term, chronic abuse and neglect. And that produces a different condition than one-off, acute traumatic incidents.” Van der Kolk and his colleagues call this chronic form of traumatic stress “developmental trauma disorder”; in 2010, they lobbied unsuccessfully to have it listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition separate from PTSD. They’re hoping that with more data, they might finally prevail. Formal acceptance, van der Kolk says, is the key to getting support.回到波士顿的创伤中心,范德科尔克及其同事们正投身于他信奉的下一步研究:重新定义创伤本身。“如今我们总是倾向于把什么都贴上PTSD的标签,”他说。“但是,我们今天所见的很多症状都是长期、慢性的虐待和忽视的结果。由此产生的疾病与一次性的急性创伤事件有所不同。”范德科尔克及其同事们将这种创伤应激的慢性形式称为“进行性创伤障碍(developmental trauma disorder)”。2010年,他们曾经试图游说 《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)的编制机构将其从PTSD中分离出来,作为一种单独的疾病列入,但未能成功。他们希望在更多数据的持下,最终将得偿所愿。来自官方的正式接受是争取持的关键,范德科尔克说。“There’s a grant to give more than million to help survivors of the marathon bombing,” van der Kolk mentioned one afternoon. “That’s psychotic. Yes, it was horrible, and yes, those people are suffering and deserve help. But we have tens of thousands of children being traumatized every day, right in the same city — a couple million across the country — and no one is offering to help them.” I asked why he thought that was. He told me about Pierre Janet, a psychiatrist at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 19th-century Paris. Janet published the first book on what was then called hysteria but which we now refer to as PTSD. He, too, became enmeshed in a dispute with his peers. He, too, was forced out of his laboratory.“帮助波士顿马拉松爆炸案幸存者的专项拨款达800万美元以上,”范德科尔克在一天下午提到。“简直是精神错乱!没错,爆炸案非常可怕,而且,那些人也的确备受煎熬,值得救助。然而,就在这同一座城市里,每天都有数以万计的儿童遭受创伤,如果把统计范围扩展到全美,这个数字可达两百万,却没有人向他们伸出援手。”我问他认为其中的原因何在。他对我讲述了19世纪巴黎萨伯特慈善医院(Salpêtrière Hospital)的一名精神科医生皮埃尔·雅内(Pierre Janet)的故事。雅内出版了第一本关于当时被称为“歇斯底里”的PTSD的著作。他也陷入了与同行的争论之中,也被迫离开了自己的实验室。“There’s this cycle of knowing and forgetting,” van der Kolk told me. “We discover trauma. And then when we see how horrifying and how inconvenient it is, we turn on the concept and peel off the messengers.” Without missing a beat, he segued from Janet to World War I and World War II, explaining how the military establishments in both Europe and the ed States stigmatized shell shock and combat fatigue, for fear that they would undermine the war effort. It’s willful amnesia, he said, and he had plenty of more recent examples. Just a few years ago, he interviewed a group of foster children at a ed States Senate hearing on the state of foster care. “Afterward, I’m sitting with the kids,” van der Kolk said. “And a judge walks past us on his way out, and he says to the kids: ‘You’re all doing so great! Look how terrific you all are!’ And I say, ‘Well, no, why don’t you ask them how they’re doing?’ These are kids that have suffered significant abuse and neglect. A couple of them are suicidal. They have substance-abuse problems. One of them cuts herself. But the judge didn’t want to hear about that any more than we want to hear about what really happens to soldiers when they’re off at war.”“这是一种认识和遗忘的循环,”范德科尔克告诉我。“我们发现了创伤。然后,当我们认识到它有多么可怕和多么令人为难时,我们会转而攻击这个概念,并排斥将这个概念带给我们的人。”他继续不厌其详地对我讲述从雅内到第一次世界大战再到第二次世界大战的历史,并解释了欧洲和美国的军事权威部门是如何抹黑炮弹休克症和战斗疲劳症的,因为他们害怕它们会削弱战斗力。这是故意的失忆,他说,并且举出了大量近期的例子。就在几年之前,他在联邦参议院关于寄养情况的听会上问询了一批寄养儿童。“后来,我跟孩子们坐在一起,”范德科尔克说。“一名法官在出门时从我们身边走过,他对孩子们说,‘你们做得非常棒!非常了不起!’于是我说,‘哦不,你为什么不问问他们到底好不好?’这些都是遭受了严重的虐待和忽视的孩子,其中有几个人有自杀倾向,还有人存在物质滥用的问题,一个女孩子喜欢拿刀割伤自己。但法官并不想听到那些,就像在战争结束后,我们一点也不关心士兵们究竟怎么样了。”Before enlisting in the Army, Eugene earned a bachelor’s degree in art history from the American University of Paris. Now he’s an antique art dealer. He lives in Queens with his wife and 3-year-old daughter but often goes into Manhattan to meet clients and visit galleries. I met him for coffee on the Upper East Side a couple of months after van der Kolk’s workshop. I wanted to know how he felt about the exercise now that some time had passed. Did he think it had any impact on his PTSD?在从军之前,尤金在巴黎美国大学(American University of Paris)拿到了艺术史学士学位。现在,他是一名古董艺术品经销商。他与妻子和3岁的女儿住在皇后区,经常到曼哈顿去见客户或拜访画廊。在参加范德科尔克的研讨会几个月之后,我约他在上东区喝咖啡。我想知道,经过一段时间之后,他现在对“架构”练习的感觉如何。他觉得这对PTSD有效果么?What intrigued him most, he said, is how well it worked in the moment. Whatever spell van der Kolk cast lingered into the next day, so that Eugene really saw me, a complete stranger, as the object of his guilt. “I was terrified of you,” he told me. It wasn’t until the following day, when van der Kolk had me forgive him a second time, that the spell finally broke and he was able to face me as just another workshop participant. “It reminded me of that movie ‘The Master,’ with Philip Seymour Hoffman,” he said. “When Amy Adams asks Joaquin Phoenix, ‘What color are my eyes?’ and he says, ‘Green,’ and she says, ‘Turn them blue,’ and you see them change color. It really reminded me of that.”最令他着迷的,是这种练习的效果立竿见影,尤金说。范德科尔克的“咒语”的魔力直到第二天也没有消退,这让尤金真的将我,一个完全的陌生人,当成了他心怀愧疚的对象。“我很怕你,”他告诉我。然后又过了一天,范德科尔克让我第二次对他表示原谅,那咒语才最终被打破,他终于能够面对我,将我还原为研讨会的普通参与者而已。“这让我想起了菲利普·塞默·霍夫曼(Philip Seymour Hoffman)主演的电影《大师》(The Master),”他说。“埃米·亚当斯(Amy Adams)问华金·菲尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix),‘我的眼睛是什么颜色?’他回答,‘绿色。’她又说,‘请把它们变成蓝色,’然后你就看到那眼睛真的变色了。真的,这确实让我想起了那一幕。”For a while at least, he said, he felt better. He recalled driving down the Pacific coast with his wife the day the workshop ended and noticing how weird it was not to feel stressed out. For weeks he was able to drive and use the subway with no trouble. “It felt like it sort of repaired my perception somehow,” he said. “I used to always feel paranoid — like, I’d get freaked out going to my doctor because there were all these security guards in the waiting room — and for a while that was lifted.”他说,至少有一段时间,他感觉好多了。他回忆起研讨会结束那天,他开着车带着妻子沿着太平洋海岸向南行驶,很惊异地发现自己似乎不再被压得喘不过气来了。在几个星期里,他可以毫无障碍地驾驶汽车和乘地铁。“就好像是我的感知功能不知怎的就给修好了,”他说。“我以前总是很疑神疑鬼——比如,就因为候诊室里面有保安,出去看医生都会吓坏我。但这种念头有一阵子没有出现。”But some of those effects were starting to fade. He was having headaches and memory problems again, and he was trying to figure out what triggered the relapse. He thought it had something to do with a painting he saw. He attended an Asian art fair earlier in the week, and an Arab dealer was selling some contemporary paintings; most of them were of soldiers, but one was of a woman. She looked like me, he said. He remembered staring at it and freezing up. The next day at a client’s house, he misplaced his briefcase. “It was like I threw it out the window,” he said. He spent 20 frantic and embarrassing minutes searching the house in a sweaty panic before he finally found it, right where he’d left it, near a window by the door.然而,其中的一些疗效开始消退。头痛和记忆问题再次缠上了他,他试图找出是什么触发了复发。他认为这可能跟自己看到的一幅画有关。本周早些时候,他出席了一场亚洲艺术览会。一名阿拉伯经销商在销售一批当代绘画作品,其中大部分以士兵为题材,只有一幅画表现的是一名女子。尤金说她看起来很像我。他记得自己盯着它,一动也动不了。第二天,在客户的家里,他不知道把自己的公文包塞到哪儿去了。“简直就像我把它从窗户里扔出去了似的,”他说。整整20分钟,他狂躁而窘迫地搜索房子的每一个角落,浑身大汗,恐慌不已。最后他终于找到了包——就在他原先放的地方,门旁边的窗户附近。Still, he was feeling hopeful. Van der Kolk had suggested some other possible approaches at the end of the workshop. He was planning to try E.M.D.R. next.尽管如此,尤金表示,他还是挺乐观的。在研讨会结束时,范德科尔克还建议了其他一些可以采取的治疗方法。下一步,他打算尝试一下EMDR。I asked him how he felt sitting across from me now. He said that he had to go to the bathroom and that his face felt numb around one eye. Ever since the exercise, the area around his right eye — the one he’d squinted at me with — went numb whenever he got nervous. He said he didn’t know why exactly, but he was sure it had something to do with the exercise itself. “I’ve been ing everything I can get my hands on,” he said. “It definitely helped, more than anything else I’ve tried so far. But I still have no idea what he did to me.”我问他此时此刻坐在我对面的感觉如何。他说,他还是得去趟洗手间,而且,他觉得一只眼睛周围有些麻木。自从进行了“架构”练习后,他一紧张,右眼周围就会发麻——就是他瞟过我的那只眼。他说自己也不知道这是怎么了,不过他确信这与练习本身有关。“我一直在阅读能弄到的所有资料,”他说。“它绝对管用,起码,比我之前试过的所有东西都管用。只是我还没想通其中的玄机。” /201409/329198Stop for a moment and ask yourself if there was ever a time (or times) you’ve arrogantly said or thought: “I’m too smart for this.” If you’re someone who always believed that you’re Mr. Smarty Pants, you may want to take a step back and contemplate. That kind of thinking can work against you in life and in work.停下来扪心自问:你有没有高傲地自认为“太聪明”?如果你向来自恃聪明,或许该认真反省了。这种心态对生活和工作非常不利。So while it’s difficult to face the truth, let’s entertain the possibility that you may not be as smart as you think you are. Read on and check if you have the following signs:面对现实并不容易——为什么说你没有自认为的那样聪明?或许以下就是原因。请往下读,看看你是否也有这些表现吧:1. You’re more of a talker than a listener你爱倾诉,不擅倾听And that’s putting it nicely.一语点中要害。You like the sound of your own voice, with or without you knowing it. People don’t come to you to talk about their problems or even celebrate their successes because you always end up talking about your own problems and successes.不管是否意识到,你都喜欢表达自己。跟你在一起,别人根本就无法倾诉烦恼或庆贺成功,因为你一直在滔滔不绝谈论自己的烦恼或成功。If this sounds like you, consciously decide to listen and focus on the what the person is saying the next time you’re in a conversation with someone. Don’t try to upstage them, just listen.如果你是这种人,那么下次跟人交谈时,请下意识学着倾听、去关注别人在讲什么吧。不要总是抢着说话,请倾听!2. You show off only the good stuff and make some up你只炫耀好的一面,还会编造一些You hide your true personality. You fake it. Big time. While it’s good to always be at your best when meeting important people, you take it to a whole other level: You lie so that people have a better impression of you.你隐藏自己的真实性格,常常戴着面具。虽然约见重要人物时,展现自己最好的一面也无可厚非,但你会因此得寸进尺:为了给人留下好印象,你不停撒谎。Smart people value truth and know better than to hide for the sake of looking good. Showing only your good side and adding some special effects will tire you in the long run.聪明的人看重真实,不会为了看上去优秀而伪装自己。炫耀自己好的一面并加以粉饰,长此以往只会让你疲惫不堪。3. You’re always in the middle of a storm你总处在风暴中心You always find yourself in the middle of conflict. And when you think back on it, you either caused that conflict or you added fuel to the flames.你总陷入矛盾焦点。仔细回想,你发现:要么是你引发了矛盾,要么是你煽了风点了火。Smart people, on the other hand, either don’t get involved when there’s nothing they can do or do their best to help end the conflict. Try to do the same.相反,如果无济于事,聪明的人会避免牵扯进去;如果可以帮助,他们会尽量平息矛盾。请学着点吧。4. You discourage people instead of lifting them up你不鼓励别人,反倒打击别人You discourage people, not just by saying so outright but also by not giving them the time of day. In a way, you’re telling them that their ideas or their problems are not worth your time or your (perceived) intelligence.你说话露骨,不给人留余地;你总打击别人。你说别人的想法或问题太弱智,根本不值得你动脑筋。Smart people help encourage others by actually paying attention. They listen (note the first sign) and share what they know. If big shots like Richard Branson and Adm. William McRaven, commander in the U.S. special forces, can take the time to answer letters from kids, you can spend a few minutes encouraging people.聪明的人会实实在在关心鼓励别人。他们倾听(见第1条)并分享自己的心得。像理查德-布兰森、美国特种部队指挥官威廉-麦克纳文这样的大人物都还费心回信给小朋友,你为何不能花几分钟鼓励他人呢?5. You prefer lowbrow entertainment你喜欢低俗You don’t challenge yourself with difficult subjects and are content to stick to entertaining yet hardly thought-provoking ing material. You also spend hours watching bad reality TV.你宁愿读那些毫无意义的东西,也不肯尝试了解稍有深度的领域。你老追着看糟糕透顶的电视真人秀。Real smart people thrive on ing books and watching films that spark their creativity and make them think and question. A few hours of intellectual ing could open up your horizons so give it a shot. You can start by listening to audiobooks if the thought of ing thick books is daunting to you.真正聪明的人选择能激发创造力、发人深省的书籍或电影。阅读有深度的书籍可以开阔眼界,请尝试一下吧!如果一想到大部头书籍就头疼,你可以先听听有声书。6. You’re always so busy你总是忙忙碌碌Your work life consists of you running around like a headless chicken. There always seems to be a problem that takes up most of your work day. You also find yourself doing all the work, all the time.你工作起来总像只没头苍蝇似的到处瞎忙。好像每天都有费神耗时的烂摊子要收拾,你无时无刻不在应付杂七杂八的任务。Learn how to delegate and ask for help. It’s a little arrogant of you to think that you can do everything for everyone. Make it a point to rest and spend time on things that matter in life, not just work.学着分配任务、寻求帮助吧。觉得自己能单匹马包揽所有活计?太高估自己了!别只忙于工作,也要会休息,花时间做点真正有意义的事情。You may have been praised a lot when you were a child, a teen, or a college student because of your high grades and other academic achievements. That’s great. Ego boosts now and then are healthy and needed. But strive for more than just accolades.当你还是个孩子或学生时,因为考了高分或学业喜人,常常受人称赞,确实很不错。现在自我膨胀了,渴望更大了,但决不能仅仅流连于夸赞之辞啊。If you truly want to be smart but find yourself guilty of the signs above, now’s the chance to make a change. Be a smarter, better version of you.如果你愧然发现自己也有以上表现,但你又真心希望变得聪明,那么,现在就抓住机会去改变吧。做更聪明、更美好的自己! /201311/265465

Pete Frates can no longer speak. But in the last two and a half weeks, a posted on Facebook by Mr. Frates, a 29-year-old former college baseball player, has inspired people like Bill Gates, LeBron James, Chris Christie and Taylor Swift to dump a bucket of ice on their heads and speak out for his cause.大学时曾是棒球运动员的皮特·弗雷迪斯(Pete Frates)再也没办法讲话了。但在过去的两周半时间里,29岁的他上传到Facebook上的一段视频,促使比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)、勒布朗·詹姆斯(LeBron James)、克里斯·克里斯蒂(Chris Christie)和泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift)等人将一桶加了冰的水从头顶浇下,并且发声持他的目标。The “Ice Bucket Challenge” has lit social media on fire, raising both money and awareness for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. About 30,000 Americans now have the disease, which attacks nerve cells and ultimately leads to total paralysis, though the mind remains sharp. Life expectancy is typically two to five years from the time of diagnosis.“冰桶挑战”这项活动在社交媒体上火了起来,既为肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症(amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,简称ALS)的研究筹集到了资金,又增强了人们对这种病的认识。这种疾病通常被称作葛雷克氏症(Lou Gehrig’s disease)。目前,美国大约有3万人患有ALS,这种病会攻击神经细胞,最终会导致患者彻底瘫痪,但患者的思维仍会保持敏捷。确诊后,患者的寿命通常只有两到五年。(患者俗称“渐冻人”。——译注)The stunt goes like this: People make a of themselves dumping a bucket of ice water on their heads, post it on Facebook, Instagram or other social media sites, and then challenge friends to do the same within 24 hours or donate 0 to ALS. (Many do both.)这项活动是这样的:人们将自己把一桶冰水从头顶浇下的过程拍摄成视频,并上传到Facebook、Instagram或其他社交媒体网站上,然后向朋友发起挑战,让对方在24小时之内做同样的事情,否则就捐100美元(约合620元人民币)用于ALS研究。(很多人既接受挑战,也捐了款。)People have shared more than 1.2 million s on Facebook between June 1 and Aug. 13 and mentioned the phenomenon more than 2.2 million times on Twitter since July 29, according to those sites. Donations to the ALS Association have spiked. As of Sunday, the association said it had received .3 million in donations since July 29, compared with .7 million during the same period last year. It said there were about 260,000 new donors. (With a spate of celebrities and business executives joining in over the past few days and pledging contributions, that number is expected to rise.)从6月1日到8月13日,人们在Facebook上分享了120万个视频。同时,自7月29日以来,这一现象在Twitter上被提到了超过220万次。上述数据分别来自这两家网站。ALS协会(ALS Association)收到的捐款也大幅增加。该协会表示,从7月29日到周日,收到了1330万美元捐款,而去年同期,该协会收到的捐款仅有170万美元。ALS协会称大约有26万名捐赠者是新增的。(鉴于过去几天里,大量名人和企业高管也参与进来并承诺捐款,这一数字预计会上升。)The Ice Bucket Challenge had been making the rounds on the Internet for several weeks before it was tied to ALS. Matt Lauer, the host of N’s Today Show, had water poured over his head on July 15 after being challenged by the golfer Greg Norman.在和ALS联系在一起之前,冰桶挑战活动就已经在互联网上流传了数周。7月15日,在被高尔夫球手格雷格·诺曼(Greg Norman)点名后,N节目《今日秀》(Today Show)的主持人马特·劳尔(Matt Lauer)让人将冰水从他头顶泼下。Mr. Lauer said that he would donate money to the Hospice of Palm Beach County. He challenged Brian Williams, Martha Stewart and Howard Stern.劳尔表示,将捐款给棕榈滩县安养院(Hospice of Palm Beach County)。他向布莱恩·威廉姆斯(Brian Williams)、玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)和霍华德·斯特恩(Howard Stern)发出了挑战。In late July, Mr. Frates learned about the challenge from his friend Pat Quinn, a New Yorker who also has ALS, and wanted to turn the trend into a fund-raiser for the disease.7月底,弗雷迪斯从纽约的朋友帕特·奎因(Pat Quinn)那里了解到了这项挑战活动。奎因也是一名ALS患者。弗雷迪斯想把这个潮流转变成一项针对ALS的募捐。Mr. Frates nominated himself for the challenge. Instead of having ice water poured on his head — “ice water and ALS are a bad mix,” he said on his Facebook page — he posted a of himself bouncing his head to “Ice Ice Baby,” the 1989 hit song by the rapper Vanilla Ice. He challenged some friends, and the stunt sp quickly through Boston circles, then across the web until last week when a parade of boldfaced names joined in. (Last week, Mr. Frates again took the challenge, this time having ice dumped on his head at Boston Red Sox’s Fenway Park.)弗雷迪斯点名让自己接受该挑战。在弗雷迪斯上传的视频中,他没有让冰水从头顶淋下——他在Facebook上写道,原因是“ALS患者遇到冰水会有不好的后果”——而是跟着说唱歌手瓦尼拉·艾斯(Vanilla Ice)于1989年推出的热门歌曲《冰酷宝贝》(Ice Ice Baby)的节奏点头。他向一些朋友发出了挑战,这种做法很快便在波士顿多个圈子传开,后来又在网上迅速流传。一众名人上周也加入了进来。(上周,弗雷迪斯再度接受挑战。这一次,在波士顿红袜队[Boston Red Sox]的芬威球场[Fenway Park]里,他让人将冰水从自己的头顶浇下。)“Did we ever imagine the level of awareness or the money that is coming in? In our dreams we did,” said Mr. Frates’s mother, Nancy Frates.“我们以前想象过,人们对这种病的了解,会达到现在的程度吗?想过会有源源不断的捐款吗?想过,但是在梦里,”弗雷迪斯的母亲南茜·弗雷迪斯(Nancy Frates)说。There has been a backlash. Some have criticized the campaign for so-called slacktivism, where people will click and post online for social causes with little actual impact on the cause. “There are a lot of things wrong with the Ice Bucket Challenge, but the most annoying is that it’s basically narcissism masked as altruism,” said Arielle Pardes, a writer for Vice. On Slate, Will Oremus urged people to take the “no ice bucket challenge” and just donate the money.这场风潮也受到了非议。一些人批评,这场风潮只是“懒人公益行动”(slacktivism),人们只是为一项目标在网上点点按钮、发发帖子,但对这项事业本身并没有多少实际帮助。Vice的作者爱丽尔·帕尔戴斯(Arielle Pardes)说道,“冰桶挑战里有很多不妥当的地方,但是最令人反感的一点是,它基本上是把自恋包装成了利他行为。”在Slate网站上,威尔·奥尔穆斯(Will Oremus)敦促人们参加“不玩冰桶”的挑战,直接捐钱。Ms. Frates said that her son, the former captain of the Boston College baseball team, had been “living the life” when he called a family meeting in 2012. He revealed his illness and said that he did not want to whine, but would instead use the diagnosis as an opportunity to positively affect other people’s lives.南茜·弗雷迪斯说,她曾在波士顿学院(Boston College)棒球队当过队长的儿子,此前一直“过着充实的生活”,直到他在2012年召集了一次家庭会议。他袒露了自己的病情,但说自己不想抱怨,而是会把自己的诊断当做一个机会,努力为别人的生活带来积极的影响。The disease has progressed quickly in the past six months. Mr. Frates has lost the ability to move his arms and legs and now communicates through eye-gaze technology, his mother said. He was married last year to Julie Frates, whom he met eight months before he learned that he had ALS. They are expecting a baby in September.过去六个月里,病情发展很快。弗雷迪斯的母亲说,弗雷迪斯已经无法移动胳膊和腿,现在只能通过跟踪眼球运动的技术与人沟通。去年,弗雷迪斯与朱莉·弗雷迪斯(Julie Frates)结婚,两人是在他得知自己患有ALS的八个月前相识的。他们的孩子将于今年9月降生。In a last December, Mr. Frates said: “The story right now goes: You’ve got ALS, have it for a little while, a long while, but either way, the end is always the same. ALS always wins. So in order to rewrite the end of it, we need to raise awareness, money.”在去年12月的一段视频中,弗雷迪斯说:“现在的故事都是这样的:得了ALS,无论患病的时间是长是短,最后的结局都是一样的。ALS总会打败你。所以,为了改写故事的结局,我们需要提升公众的关注,也需要筹钱。” /201408/323329

It#39;s not often a tomato is described as so sweet #39;whenever people see it they just want to hug it#39; - but this was no ordinary piece of fruit.一颗普通的番茄,尤其是在没有被切开的时候,形状很少能“有爱到让人一见就想要拥抱它的地步”。The heart-shaped tomato was grown by retired dagger maker, Rod Matless, who said he was shocked when he noticed it in his greenhouse while inspecting his latest produce.然而这颗由退休的匕首制造商罗德·麦特里斯种出来的心形番茄却与众不同。罗德说他是在自己的温室种植园里查看收成时看到它的,当时他也吃了一惊。Mr Matless, 69, who suffered a heart attack a few years ago, was so taken aback by thephenomenal fruit that he decided to sell it at auction and donate the proceeds to the British Heart Foundation.今年69岁的罗德几年前患上了心脏病,这颗心形的番茄令他联想到了心脏,因此他决定将这颗番茄进行拍卖,并将拍卖所得款项捐给英国心脏基金会。The 2.26oz tomato was bought for #163;16 on eBay by a woman from Wales - who said she planned to give it to someone special.这颗重约2.26盎司(约64克)的心形番茄在易趣网上被来自威尔士的一位女士以16英镑(约162元人民币)的价格拍下,她说她要把这颗番茄送给特别的人。Mr Matless, of Wymondham, near Norwich, said: #39;It was a bit of an obvious thing to do I suppose.罗德住在诺威奇附近的怀蒙丹,他说:“我觉得这是一件显而易见的事情。”#39;I spent a couple of days thinking about it and I wasn#39;t really sure, but this seems like a good use.“虽然我想了好几天仍然不太确定,但还是觉得这样做应该不错。”#39;I hope it will do someone somewhere a bit of a good.#39;“我希望这颗番茄能给其他人带来好运。”He added: #39;It#39;s very sweet - whenever people see it they just want to hug it.#39;他补充说:“它看起来非常有爱,谁见到它都会想要拥抱它的。”But with the tomato#39;s freshness a key factor, enthusiastic gardener Mr Matless was up against the clock to deliver it to its new owner before rot set in.但是由于保持番茄新鲜非常关键,所以为防止这颗番茄坏掉,热情的罗德分秒必争地将它送到了它的新主人那里。He said: #39;I didn#39;t want to send someone something horrible. I probably could have raised a bit more money with more time but I was worried about it.罗德说:“我以前是匕首制造商,但我其实不想给人可怕的东西。可能我赚了不少钱,但我会有点不安。”#39;It will certainly make a nice present for a loved one.I hope that they like it and I#39;m glad I got to help.#39;“而这颗心形番茄对有爱的人来说一定是个很好的礼物。我希望其他人能喜欢它,我也很高兴能帮到他人。”#39;It#39;s all been very good fun and I#39;ve really enjoyed growing this very special tomato.#39;“这件事情整个都令人很愉快,而且我真的很享受种植这颗心形番茄的过程。”The French once called tomatoes #39;pomme d#39;amour#39;, meaning love apple, but some say this is because they believed it was an aphrodisiac and had little to do with its shape.法国人曾经把番茄称作“pomme d#39;amour”,意思是爱情苹果。但是有人说这样称呼并不是因为它的形状,而是法国人觉得它是一种促进情欲的药剂。 /201409/329852They say opposites attract - and an amorous tabby cat and a horse go a way to prove the theory.人们都说“异类相吸”——这只多情的斑纹猫和这匹马的故事恰恰明了这一理论。The two animals, who live on a farm in Belgium, were filmed sharing an intimate moment of affection together.这对动物生活在比利时的一个农场上,人们将它们充满爱意的亲密瞬间拍摄成了一小段视频。The friendly feline is seen sat on the wall of a stable enclosure rubbing up against the horse, who peers over the barrier.在视频中,猫咪坐在马厩的围墙上,友好的磨蹭着从马厩里探出脑袋的小马。Both seem happy and relaxed in each other#39;s company.The tabby is heard purring and swirling its tail around, as it gives the horse some loving.两只动物相互依偎,都显得非常幸福而且惬意。猫咪在向小马示爱的时候,人们可以听到它在打呼噜,看到它转着自己的尾巴。Many have deemed the clip #39;cute#39; and #39;adorable#39;.许多人都认为这一小段视频非常“可爱”,“萌;意十足。 /201407/315428

Loulou de la Falaise was a French icon and an enduring muse to Yves Saint Laurent. With her unstudied style and indefatigable spirit, she also represented everything that is brilliant about fashion.卢卢·德·拉·法莱斯(Loulou de la Falaise)是一位法国偶像,也是伊夫·圣·罗兰(Yves Saint Laurent)长久的灵感缪斯。她自然的风格、不知疲倦的精神代表着时装界的各种精。Much has been written about the heady, hedonistic Paris fashion scene of the 1970s and #39;80s, and much of it is true. But of all the characters who animated those nonconformist, wildly indulgent, hyperinventive years, Loulou de la Falaise, who died in 2011 at the age of 64, was the star. Celebrated for inspiring and accessorizing Yves Saint Laurent#39;s couture and y-to-wear collections for almost three decades, she is the subject of ;Loulou de la Falaise,; a new book by Ariel de Ravenel and Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni.关于20世纪七八十年代冲动兴奋、快乐至上的巴黎时装界,人们已经写了很多,其中很多都是真实的。是许多人共同造就了那个不墨守成规、疯狂放纵、极具创意的年代,而卢卢·德·拉·法莱斯则是其中最耀眼的明星。她于2011年去世,享年64岁,人们认为,在将近30年的时间里,她给伊夫·圣·罗兰的高级定制和成衣系列带来灵感,并为其设计配饰。阿里尔·德·拉夫纳尔(Ariel de Ravenel)和娜塔莎·弗雷泽-卡瓦索尼(Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni)的新书《卢卢·德·拉·法莱斯》讲述正是她的故事。From 1975 to 1990, I lived and worked in Paris as a reporter for Women#39;s Wear Daily, where I had a ringside seat to Loulou#39;s transformation from the haute-bohemian daughter of a French marquis and the eccentric British model Maxime de la Falaise into Saint Laurent#39;s trusted muse and a designer in her own right. For those of us who watched her at work and play, she was not simply Yves#39;s most colorful collaborator, but one of the most vivid female fashion personalities since Coco Chanel.从1975年至1990年,我在巴黎生活、工作,任《每日女装》(Women#39;s Wear Daily)的记者,近距离地看着卢卢从一位法国侯爵和古怪的英国模特马克西姆·德·拉·法莱斯(Maxime de la Falaise)放荡不羁的女儿蜕变为圣·罗兰最信任的缪斯,以及一位独立的设计师。对我们这些目睹她工作和游戏的人来说,她不仅是伊夫最为多姿多的合作者,而且是可可·香奈儿(Coco Chanel)之后时装界最活跃的女性人物之一。Upbeat, savvy, beautiful and boyishly slim, she looked like a Saint Laurent fashion sketch. How she put herself together was even more remarkable: When she arrived at about 9 a.m. every day to the YSL couture studios on Paris#39;s Right Bank, it was an event. The pants, jackets, skirts, blouses, dresses, stockings, shoes, shawls, bags and jewelry that she assembled and donned each morning in her 14th Arrondissement apartment were unlike anything anyone else in Paris wore, or had ever seen. Heiresses, countesses, models, movie stars and scores of fashion editors wanted to look like Loulou. Whether she was channeling an 18th-century Indian princess, a pre-Soviet Russian peasant or a 20th-century East Village flower child, her getups went beyond costume. They looked fresh, contemporary. She didn#39;t dress up to wow the paparazzi (although she was photographed countless times), but rather to delight herself, surprise her friends and, most crucially, impress Yves.乐观,聪慧,美丽,男孩子似的苗条——她看起来像圣·罗兰的时装草图。她的着装方式更是引人注目:大约每天上午9点她到达巴黎右岸伊夫·圣·罗兰的高级定制工作室,那绝对是个重要时刻。每天早上她在第14区自己的公寓里搭配起来的裤子、上衣、半身裙、衬衫、连衣裙、长筒袜、鞋子、披肩、手包和珠宝跟巴黎任何其他人穿的或见过的都不一样。女继承人、女伯爵、模特、电影明星和很多时装编辑都想模仿她。不管她是模仿18世纪的印度王子、前苏联时代的俄罗斯农民还是20世纪东村鼓吹爱与和平的嬉皮士,她的打扮都超越了装。它们看起来新鲜、时尚。她打扮不是为了赢得仔队的喝(虽然她被偷拍了无数次),而是为了让自己高兴,让朋友惊讶,最重要的是,给伊夫留下深刻印象。Loulou, Yves and my editor at WWD, John Fairchild, were great buddies. A mutual admiration society of three fashion titans, they also challenged and teased each other mercilessly. I can#39;t remember a single season over two decades that John and I didn#39;t meet at the YSL headquarters to take photos of a new y-to-wear collection in progress, inspect a sketch of a couture gown or watch a model being fitted for a tuxedo jacket and pants. At work, Loulou and Yves weren#39;t very chatty; they communicated in a sort of code. The way she flicked her hair back, extinguished a Camel or uncrossed her colt-like legs sent a signal to Yves, who watched her constantly. He would then pick up a pencil, pause, adjust his glasses, and Loulou would get whatever message he was sending back to her. When she laughed — heartily and from the throat — everyone in the room cracked up too. It was hard not to want to do what Loulou did. At times, the normally self-possessed, sometimes imperious John was so smitten that he couldn#39;t speak.卢卢、伊夫和我在《每日女装》的编辑约翰·费尔柴尔德(John Fairchild)是好朋友。这三位时装界巨星互相仰慕,但也会无情地互相质疑、取笑。二十年来,每一季约翰和我都会在伊夫·圣·罗兰的总部碰头,给制作中的新成衣系列拍照,审视高级定制礼的草图,或者观看模特试穿无尾礼和裤子。工作时卢卢和伊夫不怎么说话,他们像是在用一种密码进行交流。她把头发向后撩起,掐灭骆驼牌香烟或者把交叉起来的小马似的双腿放下来——这些都是在给时常看她的伊夫发信号。然后他会拿起铅笔,停一下,扶一下眼镜——卢卢能领会他返回的任何信号。她大笑的时候——是真诚的,从嗓子里发出的笑声——房间里的每个人都会跟着笑。你很难不去模仿卢卢做过的事。有时,通常很冷静、有时有点专横的约翰会因为不能说话而感到受打击。I wonder if Loulou#39;s charm was rooted in her odd sense of self. At once disciplined, rambunctious, confident and vulnerable, I suspect that she wasn#39;t totally convinced of her power or beauty. She was impish and fun, never condescending or snappy. She looked artistic, and sounded worldly and intelligent in either English or French. She loved all-night parties, didn#39;t exercise and smoked like a San Bernardino wildfire, but then so did everyone else in Paris those days. Ditto for the drinks and drugs, which were also pretty ubiquitous in those stylish Parisian circles.And although she excelled at socializing with Rothschilds and the Rolling Stones, she seemed happier when she was with Yves, her reserved husband Thadée Klossowski de Rola — a writer and son of the painter Balthus — and their daughter, Anna. Their wedding party, in June of 1977, was staged on an island in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. Several hundred guests arrived in a fleet of flower-garlanded boats. Loulou wore a deep delphinium blue outfitwith a headdress sprouting stars and a crescent moon.我不知道卢卢的魅力是否源于她对自己的奇怪感觉。她既自律又难以驾驭,既自信又脆弱,我怀疑她对自己的力量或美貌不完全自信。她顽皮风趣,从不居高临下或者发脾气。她看起来很风雅,不管说英语还是法语,听起来都世故而聪明。她喜欢整晚参加派对,从不运动,抽烟抽得很凶,但那时候巴黎所有人都这样。在当时的巴黎时尚圈,酒和毒品也很常见。虽然她擅长与罗思柴尔德家族和滚石乐队打交道,但她似乎在和伊夫、她内敛的丈夫撒德·克洛索斯基·德·罗拉(Thadée Klossowski de Rola)——作家,他的父亲是画家巴尔蒂斯(Balthus)——和他们的女儿安娜(Anna)在一起时更快乐。1977年6月,他们在巴黎布洛涅森林公园的一个小岛上举行了婚礼。几百名客人坐着一群装饰着花环的小船前来。卢卢穿着深翠雀蓝套装,头饰上有星星和新月。As Loulou and Thadée got older, they spent more and more time in Italy at his family#39;s sparsely furnished castle. Toward the end of her life, she became an avid gardener, tending the property at their French country house in Boury-en-Vexin. During her last few years, she designed a collection of jewelry for Oscar de la Renta and a line of clothing and accessories for HSN. Thadée stayed home and wrote — he was always the grounded one, Loulou the live wire. Even though she#39;s gone, she#39;s as electrifying now as ever.卢卢和撒德年老以后,更多的时间在撒德家族装修简单的意大利城堡里度过。晚年,她热衷于园艺,喜欢打理他们位于法国韦克桑布里的乡间别墅的花园。最后几年,她为奥斯卡·德拉伦塔(Oscar de la Renta)设计了一系列珠宝,还为购物网站HSN设计了一系列装和配饰。撒德待在家里写作——他总是脚踏实地,她总是活泼好动。虽然去世了,但她仍然一如既往地令人振奋。 /201409/326814;McResource Line; — McDonald#39;s#39; employee-only resource and advice site — has been dispensing a hot mess of helpful tips in recent months: From advising workers to get a second job, to suggesting they sell their stuff for quick cash, to reminding them to tip their nannies and pool boys generously this holiday season.“McResource Line”是仅向麦当劳员工开放的资源与建议交流网站,近几个月来该网站发布了多条热门建议,包括鼓励员工找兼职,建议他们卖掉自己的东西换成现金,还提醒他们假期里要记得大方地给保姆及游泳池杂工小费。Its latest recommendation, however, may be its most useful yet: Lay off the fast food.但最近的一条也许是所有建议里面最有用的了:别吃快餐了。An image posted on the site labels a McDonald#39;s-like meal of hamburger, fries, and a coke as an ;unhealthy choice,; and warns employees against consuming such foods, which are ;almost always high in calories, fat, sugar, and salt.;在该网站发布的一张图片中,麦当劳式的汉堡、薯条及可乐的套餐被打上“非健康选择”的标签,称其“几乎都是高热量、高脂肪,糖份、盐份也非常高”,还呼吁员工不要吃此类食品。;It is hard to eat a healthy diet when you eat at fast-food restaurants often,; the site goes on to say. ;Many foods are cooked with a lot of fat, even if they are not trans fats. Many fast-food restaurants do not offer any lower-fat foods. And most fast food restaurants do not offer many fresh fruits and vegetables.;“如果你经常在快餐店里吃饭,那么你很难保持一个健康的饮食习惯。”该网站称。“在制作快餐时一般都会放很多动物油,尽管这些油并不是反式脂肪。大多快餐店一般没有低脂肪的食品,也没有什么新鲜的水果和蔬菜。”So what can employees do to eat healthier? For one thing — stay away from McDonald#39;s.所以员工们怎样才能吃得更健康呢?一个选择就是——远离麦当劳。;In general,; the site suggests, ;eat at places that offer a variety of salads, soups, and vegetables.;“一般来说,多去那些有多种沙拉、汤以及蔬菜的餐馆吃饭。” 该网站建议。None the less, the company said it was ;looking into the matter.;但麦当劳公司声称其将会“调查此事”。 /201312/270369

Like many 12-year-old girls, McKenzie Carey loves to dance. And though McKenzie has a rare genetic disease that keeps her in a wheelchair, she has a devoted dance partner in her father, who#39;s waltzed her through many local pageants.和许多12岁女孩一样,麦肯齐·凯利热爱跳舞。尽管麦肯齐因身患罕见的基因疾病而无法离开轮椅,但她忠诚的舞伴——她的父亲还是带她在本地的许多舞蹈比赛上跳起华尔兹。McKenzie has mitochondrial disease, a debilitating condition that deprives the body of energy and damages cells in the heart, liver, skeletal muscles, respiratory systems and brain.麦肯齐患有线粒体疾病,这种疾病会让人丧失大量能量,并损伤心脏、肝脏、骨骼肌、呼吸系统和大脑等部位的细胞,从而使人衰弱。#39;Dancing with daddy makes her feel like she’s on top of the world,#39; her father, Mike Carey, told Today.com.她的父亲麦克·凯利告诉Today.com:“和爸爸一起跳舞让她觉得无比幸福。”#39;Pageants give her the same opportunity as other children and show people that she can accomplish anything with a little bit of help,#39; her mother, Tammy Carey, added. #39;I just want the judges to look at her, not her wheelchair.#39;“舞蹈比赛给了她和其他孩子同样的机会,让她能够在人们面前展示:只要一点点帮助,她就能完成任何事。” 她的母亲塔米·凯利补充道,“我只希望裁判们能看她,而不是她的轮椅。”Ms Carey began entering McKenzie in pageants when she was five but it wasn#39;t until 2010 that her father began joining her onstage.凯利夫人在麦肯齐5岁的时候开始替她报名参加舞蹈比赛。2010年起,麦肯齐的父亲开始和她一起在舞台上跳舞。#39;My wife was sitting in the audience and was so stressed about McKenzie, so I decided to do something a little crazy,#39; Mr Carey told Today.com.凯利先生告诉Today.com:“我太太和观众坐在一起,因为麦肯齐而非常紧张。因此我决定做件有点疯狂的事。”#39;I took McKenzie up on stage and did a wheelie with her wheelchair. Then I spun her around, picked her up and started doing a freestyle dance. The crowd went wild and gave us a standing ovation!#39;“我带着麦肯齐走上舞台,用她的轮椅做了一个抬头特技(类似托车抬起前轮)。接着我旋转她,抱起她,跳起自由式舞蹈。观众们变得疯狂起来,为我们起立鼓掌。”McKenzie has competed in more than 100 pageants, and won about 20. The family is currently preparing for a national pageant in Nebraska.麦肯齐参加了100多场舞蹈比赛,赢了大约20场。凯利一家现在正在准备在内布拉斯加州举行的一场全国比赛。#39;If I get one person [inspired], it made the whole song and whole thing worthwhile,#39; Mr Carey told ANews.com. #39;It’s like an unspoken message. This dance is alike an unspoken testimony and shows bond and love between a father and daughter.#39;“如果我能让一个人感动,那整首歌整件事就是值得的”,凯利先生告诉ANews.com,“这就像无声的讯息。这舞是父女间爱与牵绊的无声宣言。”The Careys have set up a GoFundMe page to raise money for McKenzie#39;s medical treatments, and have aly seen ,000 donated to the cause.凯利一家制做了GoFundMe网页来为麦肯齐的治疗募捐。目前已收到8万6千美元的捐赠。#39;As a mother of a special needs child, there is nothing I won#39;t do to help improve my daughter#39;s quality of life,#39; Ms Carey wrote on the fundraising site.“做为一名有特殊需要的儿童的母亲,为了改善我女儿的生活质量,没有什么是我不能做的,”凯利夫人在募捐网站上写道。#39;She is such an inspiration to everyone she meets.#39;“她感动了每一个见到她的人。” /201407/309302Trypophobia is a revulsion and fear of objects with clusters of small holes – think beehives, ant holes, and in particular lotus seed heads.“密集恐惧症”就是指对有密集小孔的物体感到恶心和恐惧,类似物体有蜂窝、蚁窝,尤其是莲蓬。The name for this phobia was only coined in 2005, but there are a surprisingly huge number of people who suffer from this strange fear. Unfortunately for sufferers of this phobia, the Internet has found much joy in photo shopping lotus-pod designs onto various body parts. Google if you dare.这种恐惧症在2005年才作为一个新名词诞生,但患症人群却数量庞大。对患症人群而言不幸的是,网络上到处都是“蜂窝化”的人体影像处理。不信可以谷歌一下。British academics Arnold Wilkins and Geoff Cole, who claim to be the first to scientifically investigate trypophobia, believe the reaction to be based on a biological revulsion, rather than a learned cultural fear. In an article, they discussed that the reaction is based on a brain response that associates the shapes with danger. The type of shapes that elicit a reaction were stated to include clustered holes in skin, meat, wood, plants, wounds and bubbles and that observing these shapes made some individuals state that they felt that their skin is crawling, shudder, feel itchy, experience panic attacks, sweat, palpitate and feel physically sick. Some stated reasons behind this fear are that the holes seem ;disgusting and gross; or that ;something might be living inside those holes;.自认第一个通过科学研究调查密集恐惧症的英国学者阿诺德? 威尔金斯和吉尔夫?科尔认为,这样的反应时基于生理上的反应,而并不是文化上的恐惧。在一篇文章里他们讨论认为,这样的反应来自于大脑对于形状和危险的联结。能激发这样反应的一般都有很多密集的小孔,比如皮肤、肉类、木头、植物、伤口和泡沫。对于一些人来说,看这样形状的物体会让他们觉得皮肤正在蠕动、战栗,觉得痒痒的,有时还会恐慌、出汗、悸动并且身体不适。有人认为出现这种恐惧的原因是这些洞看起来很恶心,感觉会有生物在里面活动。 /201409/329833

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