原标题: 黄浦褐青色痣多少钱医苑大全

A bigger can?一个更大的罐头?By the end of 2010, Dr Potti had resigned from Duke,到2010年底,Potti士已经从杜克大学辞职,the university had stopped the three trials for good,学校永久停止了那三项临床试验,scientists from elsewhere had claimed that Dr Potti had stolen their data for inclusion in his paper in the New England Journal,另有科学家称Potti士在其在新英格兰杂志发表的文章中窃取了他们的数据,and officials at Duke had started the process of retracting three prominent papers, including the one in Nature Medicine.杜克大学方面也开始撤回他那三篇出名的文章,《自然-医学》的那篇也包括在内。At this point, the NCI and officials at Duke asked the Institute of Medicine, a board of experts that advises the American government, to investigate.到了这时候,国家癌症研究所和杜克大学都请求负责向美国政府提出建议的美国医学协会对此事进行调查。Since then, a committee of the institute, appointed for the task, has been trying to find out what was happening at Duke that allowed the problems to continue undetected for so long,之后,协会的一个专为此事成立的委员会就一直在努力查清是什么使得杜克大学长时间对问题不管不问,and to recommend minimum standards that must be met before this sort of work can be used to guide clinical trials in the future.并建议在今后碰到此类可供指导临床试验的研究时,需要其达到一个最低标准。At the committees first meeting, in December 2010, Dr McShane stunned observers by revealing her previously unpublished investigation of the Duke work.在2010年12月举行的该委员会的第一次会议上,McShane士披露了此前未发表的她关于杜克大学事件的调查,Subsequently, the committees members interviewed Dr Baggerly about the problems he had encountered trying to sort the data.这些材料震撼了在场的学者。结果,委员会的成员询问了Baggerly士关于他在尝试整理那些数据时遇到的问题。He noted that in addition to a lack of unfettered access to the computer code and consistent raw data on which the work was based,他指出,那些急于出版Potti士的论文的杂志不仅没有获得研究结果所涉及的计算机程序代码和可信的原始数据,journals that had ily published Dr Pottis papers were reluctant to publish his letters critical of the work.甚至还不情愿刊登他对于该成果质疑的文章。Nature Medicine published one letter, with a rebuttal from the team at Duke, but rejected further comments when problems continued.《自然-医学》杂志刊登了一篇文章,并附上了来自杜克大学研究组的辩驳,可是当问题继续存在时就拒绝了进一步的。Other journals that had carried subsequent high-profile papers from Dr Potti behaved in similar ways.其他刊载了来自Potti士的高曝光文章的杂志也采取了相似的态度。Eventually, the two researchers resorted to publishing their criticisms in a statistical journal, which would be unlikely to reach the same audience as a medical journal.最后,两位研究员只好把他们的文章发到了一个统计杂志,这就很难被医学杂志的读者群看到了。Two s ubsequent sessions of the committee have included Dukes point of view.委员会接下来的两次会议都包含了杜克方面的观点。At one of these, in March 2011, Dr Nevins admitted that some of the data in the papers had been “corrupted”.在2011年3月的一次会议中,Nevins士承认文章中的一些数据被“玷污”了。He continued, though, to claim ignorance of the problems identified by Dr Baggerly and Dr Coombes until the Rhodes scandal broke,但他声称直到Rhodes丑闻被揭发才得知Baggerly士和Coombes士指出的问题,and to support the overall methods used in the papers—though he could not explain why he had not detected the problems even when alerted to anomalies.而且虽然他没法解释为什么他没能在被指出异常时发现问题,但是他仍然在总体上持文章中采用的方法。At its fourth, and most recent meeting, on August 22nd, the committee questioned eight scientists and administrators from Duke.在第四次,也就是在8月22号举行的最近一次会议上,委员会质问了8位科学家和杜克大学的管理人员。Rob Califf, a vice-chancellor in charge of clinical research, asserted that what had happened was a case of the “Swiss-cheese effect” in which 15 different things had to go awry to let the problems slip through unheeded.Rob Califf, 一位负责临床研究的的副校长,称该事件是一个“瑞士奶酪效应”的例子,它需要15件不同的事都出了错才有可能让问题不被察觉。Asked by The Economist to comment on what was happening,当被《经济学人》的记者问到他关于这件事的评价时,he said, “As we evaluated the issues, we had the chance to review our systems and we believe we have identified, and are implementing, an improved approach.”他说“对这些问题的评估,使得我们有机会重新审视我们的体系,而且我们相信我们已经确认并且在采取改进后的方式了。”The universitys lapses and errors included being slow to deal with potential financial conflicts of interest declared by Dr Potti,校方的过失和错误包括在处理潜在利益冲突时反应迟缓。Dr Nevins and other investigators, including involvement in Expression Analysis Inc and CancerGuide DX, two firms to which the university also had ties.这些冲突方包括Potti士和Nevins士,其他的调查者,还有两家与大学有关系的公司Expression Analysis和CancerGuide DX。Moreover, Dr Califf and other senior administrators acknowledged that once questions arose about the work, they gave too much weight to Dr Nevins and his judgment.除此之外,Califf士和其他高级管理者承认,当出现有关于研究成果的质疑时,他们过分地看重了Nevins士和他的判断。That led them, for example, to withhold Dr Baggerlys criticisms from the external-review committee in .这导致了年他们把Baggerly士的挡在外部评审委员会之外。They also noted that the internal committees responsible for protecting patients and overseeing clinical trials lacked the expertise to review the complex, statistics-heavy methods and data produced by experiments involving gene expression.他们还提到了,负责保护病人和监督临床试验的内部委员会缺乏专业知识来评审由涉及基因表达的实验产生的复杂、侧重统计的方法和数据。That is a theme the investigating committee has heard repeatedly.这是一个调查委员会反复听到的说法。The process of peer review relies on the goodwill of workers in the field, who have jobs of their own and frequently cannot spend the time needed to check other peoples papers in a suitably thorough manner.同行审查制度依靠着内行人的善意,大家都有自己的工作,所以常常不能花足够的时间来对其他人的论文进行恰当细致的检查。Moreover, the methods sections of papers are supposed to provide enough information for others to replicate an experiment, but often do not.而且,文章的介绍实验方法的部分本应该为其他人提供重现实验结果所需的信息,但事实经常不是这样。Dodgy work will out eventually, as it is found not to fit in with other, more reliable discoveries.掺假的研究结果最终会被淘汰,因为它们不能与其他更加可靠的发现相兼容。But that all takes time and money.但是,这些都需要时间和金钱。The Institute of Medicine expects to complete its report, and its recommendations, in the middle of next year.美国医学协会计划在明年年中完成这个报告和相关的建议。In the meantime, more retractions are coming, according to Dr Califf.在此期间,据Califf士说将会有更多论文撤回。The results of a misconduct investigation are expected in the next few months and legal suits from patients who believe they were recruited into clinical trials under false pretences will probably follow.关于此次学术不端的的调查结果预计将在未来几个月内获得,而认为自己被欺诈进入临床试验的病人则可能会在之后提起诉讼。The whole thing, then, is a mess.整件事就是一团糟。Who will carry the can remains to be seen.谁将会承担责任目前还不清楚。But the episode does serve as a timely reminder of one thing that is sometimes forgotten.但是这一连串事件的确及时地提醒了我们一件常常被忽略的事实:Scientists are human, too.科学家也是人。 /201305/242083

Finance and Economics;Global house prices;Downdraft;财经;全球房价; 全球房价日渐衰落;European house prices are finding it harder to defy gravity;欧洲房价难以扭转乾坤;From the late 1990s home prices across the rich world soared relentlessly upward, borne aloft on a gale of cheap capital. In 2006 some overvalued markets began crashing to earth. Until recently, however, the correction seemed remarkably contained. American and Irish home prices plunged, giving up all the gains of the previous decade, but others have fallen far less steeply. Some markets faltered and then stabilised. The latest update of The Economists global house-price indicators hints that this period of post-crisis calm may be coming to an end.上世纪90年代起,发达国家的房价借廉价资本之风冲上云霄,高居不下。2006年部分被高估的楼市开始回落。然而直至近日,回落势头似乎才得以控制。 美国、爱尔兰的住房房价急遽下滑,前十年积攒的楼市盈余全部打了水漂。较前两国而言,其他国家的房价下滑则较为平缓。一些楼市虽起伏不定,随后却能趋于稳定。本刊最新更新的全球房价指数暗示,暴风雨前的宁静期或将告终。Europes gravity-defying act has been the most striking. Most of its largest housing markets—Germany is the big exception—boomed in the early 2000s and stumbled during the crisis. But fortunes have diverged since then. Irish prices plunged and continue to sink. House prices in most other markets are still well above “fair value”, which we define as the long-run average of two measures: the price-to-income ratio, a gauge of affordability, and the price-to-rents ratio, an analogue of the price-to-earnings ratio used to judge the equity value of listed firms. Spanish markets are still overvalued by a quarter on these measures, although prices are falling. In Belgium and France, prices are well above fair value and they continue to rise.欧洲房价跌幅格外惹人注目。除德国之外,多数欧洲大型住房市场无一例外的在21世纪初繁荣,而后受金融危机拖累。各国命运自此分岔。爱尔兰房价急转直下,至今未能刹车。而其余楼市的住房价格却依旧维持在“公平价格”之上。所谓公平价格,即房价对收比和租售比两项指标的长期平均值。其中,房价对收比用于评估评估付能力,而租售比则模拟市盈率以鉴定上市公司股权价值。西班牙房价虽呈下滑趋势,但楼市仍被高估25%。 比利时和法国的房价则远超公平价格,并继续高飞猛涨。Such buoyancy can largely be attributed to a combination of low interest rates and a preponderance of variable-rate mortgages. But from the third quarter of 2011 to the fourth, as recession bit and bond markets wobbled, European house prices came under downward pressure. The pace of depreciation quickened around the periphery of the euro zone. Appreciation slowed in Germany and France. The euro areas downturn probably continued into the first quarter of 2012 and may persist beyond that. Unemployment is rising across the continent and banks are under pressure to shore up balance-sheets (see article). Prices will struggle to rise in such conditions, in over- and undervalued markets alike.楼市呈现如此繁荣景象,很大程度上应归功于低利率和浮息按揭的优势。而在2011年第三季度至第四季度间,经济衰退来袭,债券市场暴跌,欧洲房价不负重压开始跌落。欧元区边缘国家跌幅加速,德法两国涨幅放缓。预计2012年第一季度欧元区将持续萎靡,低迷之势抑或加剧。欧洲大陆失业之风蔓延,肩负平衡资产负债表之压。此般情形之下,无论在楼市被高估与否,房价势必难以反弹。Housing markets have also cooled in far healthier economies. Chinas government spent much of 2011 reining in its scorching housing sector by limiting multiple home purchases, raising interest rates and hiking banks reserve requirements. Soaring prices now look a thing of the past: values were essentially flat in the year to the fourth quarter of 2011. A fragile Europe and a cooling China have taken the wind out of other Asian housing markets. Values continue to rise in Singapore but more slowly than in the third quarter of last year. Australian home values fell faster in the fourth quarter than in the third.一些健康经济体的楼市热浪也已消退。2011年中国政府耗费大量精力通过限制个人购房数,提高利率以及提高准备金标准来压制过热的房价。 如今看来,飙升的房价已呈回落之势:2011年第三季度房价走势基本平缓。 萎靡脆弱的欧洲和日益冷静的中国也削弱了其他亚洲楼市的锐气。新加坡房价持续走高,但涨幅较去年第三季度相比明显放缓。澳大利亚住房价格第四季度的跌幅则大于第三季度。Americas housing-market correction has gone further than most. On our gauge, prices nationally are 19% below fair value. Economic conditions are improving, and the unemployment rate is down sharply from a year ago. Home sales and construction are depressed relative to normal levels but rose substantially in early 2012 from the prior year. Prices keep falling, however. According to the latest release of the Samp;P/Case-Shiller index of home prices, home values in large markets were down by 3.8% in the year to January. That was better than a 4.1% drop in December but still horribly disappointing.美国楼市回落之势最大。本刊指数表显示,全美房价低于公平价格19%。而美国的经济状况日渐转好,失业率也较去年急剧锐减。去年至今年年初住房销量和建筑量虽大幅上升,但与正常水平相对略显萧条。然而房价持续下滑。最新公布的标普住房价格指数显示,今年一月大型楼市房价下降了3.8%。虽比12月下跌4.1%要好,但依旧令人极其失望。Better times are in sight. Buying a house looks like an increasingly good bet compared with renting, according to The Economists calculations. Indeed, rising rents are helping to cut into a backlog of unsold homes; in February, 23% of home sales were to investors, many of whom will switch the properties into rentals.好日子指日可待。本刊预计,买房看上去越来越比租房划算。飙升的租金确实有助于抛售积压房产。今年二月住房销售量中,23%由投资者购买,而其中大部分房产将转用于出租。Canadians have reason to quake at the wrenching correction going on south of the border. House prices in Canada are above their 2007 mark, and appreciation accelerated from the third quarter of 2011 to the fourth. The price-to-rent ratio now indicates that Canadian properties are 76% overvalued, though things look less bubbly on the income measure and Canadian lenders are a far more disciplined bunch than pre-crisis American lenders were. The government hopes to prod markets into a slowdown by toughening financing rules.加拿大人绝对有理由为美国骤然回落的房价担忧。加拿大房价远超2007年水平,2011年第三季度到第四季度间增幅加速。 尽管单用收入衡量,加拿大楼市看似则不那么泡沫,而且加拿大的贷方远比金融危机前的美国贷方有教养,但目前租售比显示加拿大房产被高估了76%。加拿大政府则希望通过强化融资规来刺激楼市放缓。In large, global cities there is another dimension to house-price movements. Where foreign demand is an important part of the local property market, exchange rates matter for affordability, as our analysis of prices adjusted for trade-weighted exchange rates indicates (see chart). Consider London. Homes there may feel as expensive as ever to Britons, but a large sterling depreciation means houses look some 15% cheaper to foreigners now than they did five years ago. Dollar weakness has left New York homes some 30% cheaper for international buyers than in 2006. By contrast, a dearer loonie has driven up Toronto home values by nearly 90% since 2006, compared with a rise of 32% in local-currency terms. The yuans slow but steady rise has magnified appreciation in Shanghai. Small wonder Chinese buyers are so visible in London and Manhattan.国际大都市的房价波动还有一个特点。本刊对房价随贸易加权汇率的变动的分析显示(见上图),若当地房地产市场以国外需求为主,购买力必受外汇汇率的影响。举伦敦为例,在英国人眼中的房价也许与往常持平,但对外国买家而言,英镑的大幅贬值使得英国住房比5年前便宜约15%。美元疲软拖累纽约房价,使其比2006年便宜了近30%,国际买家坐收渔利。 反之,2006年起不断升值的路尼则将多伦多的房价抬升近90%,按本币计算相对上涨32%。受缓慢稳健升值的人民币影响,上海房价涨幅扩大。难怪来伦敦和曼哈顿买房的中国人越来越多。 /201305/239010Dear A Moment of Science, I know that around 250 millionyears ago the Earth was a lot hotter than it is today.亲爱的科学一刻,我知道大约在2.5亿年前,地球要比今天热的多的多。So Imwondering what that meant, exactly?所以,我就在想这到底意味着什么?How did the planet look different than it does today?那时的地球相比今天而言有多大的不同呢?Well, the Earth was different in lots of ways hundreds of millions of years ago.几亿年前的地球与今天相比在很多方面都有所不同。One majordifference linked to warmer global temperatures was that Antarctica was not the icy, barrenwasteland it is today.最主要的一个差异与全球温度有关,那就是南极当时并不像今天这样是一片被冰雪覆盖的荒芜之地。In fact, it was covered by forest.事实上,当时的南极是一片森林。What kind of forest?什么样的森林呢?Thats what scientists are trying to figure out.科学家们也在试图寻找。Fossilized leaf impressions seemto show that mats of leaves once covered the ground.从树叶化石的痕迹来看,当时的地表被层层的树叶所覆盖,That suggests that the trees weredeciduous, meaning that they shed their leaves at the same time.这说明树木会在每年的相同时间内落叶。But fossilized wood from theregion tells a different story.但是该地区的木化石却又说明了另一种情况。Cells in the tree rings show a pattern of growth thats consistent with evergreen trees, meaning trees that dont shed their leaves.年轮的细胞体现出树木的生长方式与常青树相同。也就是说它们不会落叶。So the ancient Antarctic forests were probably a mix ofevergreen and deciduous trees.因此,古代的南极森林可能是一片常青树和落叶树的杂交林。Analysis of carbon molecules in the fossil woods shows something similar.对木化石中碳分子的分析结果也显示有所相似之处。And it also suggests that the forests have some similarities to tropical forests today.同时,分析结果还表明了南极森林和今天的热带雨林也存在一定的相似。Another question is how Antarctic forests dealt with constant daylight half the year and near totaldarkness the other half.另一个问题就是南极森林是如何适应极昼和极夜现象的。Wouldnt that mess with their ability to photosynthesize?这难道不会扰乱它们光合作用的能力吗?More research might reveal the answer.想要找出可能还需要进行更多的研究。201406/308595

Mike: Hi, Amanda. Why dont you sit down and watch this movie with me? It only started about 15 minutes ago.迈克:嗨,阿曼达。为什么你不坐下来,和我一起看这部电影呢?刚放了15分钟。Amanda: I dont know—this movie looks scary! Why is that guys complexion so pale? Why do his eyes look like theyre about to pop out? And why is there so much blood everywhere?阿曼达:我不知道——这部电影看起来很恐怖!为什么那个家伙的肤色那么惨白?为什么他的眼珠子看起来像是要蹦出来?而且为什么到处都是血?Mike: Im not exactly sure whats going on either. I think this group of friends decided to travel to the countryside during their spring break. They end up at this old farmhouse, and apparently there are these zombies that show up at nighttime. I guess its just your typical horror movie plotline.迈克:我也不清楚发生了什么事情。我想这群朋友决定春假期间去乡下旅行。结果他们来到这家农舍,很明显半夜里出现了僵尸。我想这就是你心目中典型鬼片的套路吧。Amanda: I hate scary movies! In fact, I hate all violent movies, and I especially hate ;jump scenes,; when something pops up on the screen suddenly or when theres a sudden loud noise. So basically, watching a horror movie is my worst nightmare.阿曼达:我讨厌恐怖片!实际上,我讨厌一切涉及暴力的影片,尤其讨厌“跳跃的场景”,例如有什么东西突然跳到屏幕上或者突然响起吵闹的噪音。所以基本上,观看恐怖片是最糟糕的噩梦。Mike: To be honest, I dont like horror movies that much either, but sometimes they can be pretty thrilling. And its fun to watch with a pretty girl, too, because then you can put your arm around her to comfort her when she gets scared.迈克:说实话,我也同样不喜欢恐怖片,但有时候会相当刺激。并且与漂亮的女孩子一起观看会很有趣,因为你可以在她受到惊吓需要安慰时搂着她。Amanda: I see what your plan is. Well, sorry to disappoint you, Mike, but I think Id better get going!阿曼达:我明白你在打什么主意。嗯,恐怕要令你失望了,迈克,我想我最好还是离开吧!原文译文属!201304/234234Science and technology科学技术Climate and the solar cycle气候与太阳周期Chilling out in the winter sun冬日下的冷噤Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层变化引起讨厌的严寒THOSE unconvinced—and those seeking to unconvince others—of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis.那些自己不信和那些游说他人不要相信人类活动导致全球变暖的人,常常将其归咎于太阳活动多变。A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case.一项新的研究似乎为此提供了新据:该研究显示欧洲冬日的严寒以及北极地区的温暖也许真与太阳活动有关。In itself, it does not, for the heat in question is being redistributed, not retained.就研究本身而言,它并不能提供新的据,因为所提到的热能是被重新分配而不是滞留固定的。But it does point to two other lessons about climate change:但它的确指出了关于气候变化的另外两个问题:that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by;一是有时候很难获得影响气候变化的因素的切实数据;and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.二是计算机气候模型在探究气候现象方面是十分强大的工具。The suns activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy.太阳活动的盛衰以11年为一个周期,在一个周期内,太阳放射的紫外线的变化幅度要比其放射的能量的变化幅度要大得多。The stratosphere, the part of the Earths atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to particularly sensitive to the cycle.因此,地球大气中吸收最多紫外线的平流层也许对这一周期变化最为敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience,《自然地球科学》杂志刚刚发表的一篇论文上,Sarah Ineson of Britains Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Offices new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.英国气象局的莎拉?伊内森和她的同事们利用SORCE卫星收集的太阳放射的紫外线数据,对比了气象局新建立的改良版气候模型对于紫外线峰值年与低谷年的冬天的处理方式。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler,伊内森士发现,热带平流层在紫外线低谷年的温度偏低,because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank.因为可吸收的紫外线较少,这就使得热带平流层与极地平流层的温差缩小。That changed the way the atmosphere circulated, and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe.这一温差变化会改变大气循环的方式,而低层大气循环方式的改变让冬天北极冷空气更易南下,冰冻北欧大片地区。These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters—which occurred at a time of low solar activity.这些状况与欧洲上两次均发生在太阳活动沉静期的严酷寒冬的状况十分相似。The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada.这种状况下,无论在气候模型中还是现实中,北极和加拿大部分地区都比平常要温暖。In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.相比之下,北欧、俄罗斯大部分地区以及美国小部分地区则比平常要冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before?为何太阳在这方面的影响之前未被发现?To some extent it had. Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns.某种程度上说,的确有前人初见其端倪。早前一个的反映十七、十八世纪偏长的太阳活动低迷期的模型显示了类似的气候变化模式。That models of todays climate had not was, in part,今日的模型未能发现这一影响的部分原因是,because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun.与SORCE卫星收集的最精确数据所计算衍生的数值相比,这些模型对太阳活动周期内紫外线值的变化幅度估计过低。It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.也许就是更切实的数据让这些模型做得更好。This does not mean the question is settled.但问题并没有解决。Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the suns variability, and if they were revised the link might go away.有些科学家认为SORCE卫星的数据有夸大太阳活动变化幅度的嫌疑,如果将数据加以修正,那么太阳活动与气候的所谓联系很可能也不复存在。There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too.还有其他一些理论也致力于找出近期严酷寒冬发生的原因。Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.如研究人员所说,基于这项工作的成果,他们就有可能对寒冬做出更精准的预测。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit.尽管全球变暖使人们将气候模型视为预测工具,但这可不是它们最强大的地方。Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered,它们更精于研究当紫外线等某一变量变化时发生的情况,compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works.并将其与已有数据进行比较,从而了解气候运作机制。This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.此项新研究很好地给我们展现了这一方法的潜能。 /201305/242230And then on Saturdays, he would listen to the Grand Ole Opty that came out of Nashville.然后星期六的时候,他会听从纳什维尔而来的格兰德·奥雷·奥普帝演唱。Some of the people were Ernest Tubb, thats ancient.而有些人是欧内斯特·塔布,年代十分久远。Let me... Let the people know how old I am.让我…让人们知道我有多老。We had a club called the Sub-Debs.我们有一个叫做萨布德布斯的俱乐部。When you feel like youre in love dont just stand there.当你感觉自己恋爱的时候别出现在那里。We used to give teenage parties for all the kids around there, and thats where I met Joe.我们过去常常和所有在那里的孩子们中十几岁的年轻人聚会,而在那里我遇到了乔。I think I was around 17 years old.我想那时自己大约17岁。He would always ask me for a dance when the music was slow.当音乐舒缓下来的时候他总是请我跳舞。When the moon is shining bright.当月亮明亮的时候。He seemed very kind, very sweet.他看起来很善良,很动人。Youre not havin any fun then maybe youre out with the wrong one.你找不到任何乐子那也许是你找错了人。Joseph was in a group.约瑟夫是在一个团体组织当中。Besides me leaving singing with my sister, I started singing with him.除了我和我的唱歌之外,我和他也开始唱歌。And we would sing and harmonise together a lot.而我们一起唱歌合拍很多。Then the children came along and I kept singing.然后孩子们走过来,而我则一直唱歌。2300 Jackson St, in that little house.圣杰克逊2300号,就是那个小房子。I was the only one born in that house.我是唯一一个在那间房子中出生的人。We had two bedrooms in our home.在我们家里有两间卧室。And I and my sisters, Janet and La Toya, slept in the living room. 我和我的们,珍妮和特拉托娅,都睡在客厅里。We had a couch that let out into a bed.我们的一张沙发变成了床。My brothers slept in one room and that room had triple bunk beds.我的哥哥弟弟们睡在一个房间,那个房间有张三重双层床。And they slept on the bunk beds.而他们睡在双层床上。And then my parents slept in the other room.然后我的父母睡在另一个房间。I dont know how I squeezed all of us in that little house.我不知道我们大家是怎么挤在这样一间小房子当中。Having all my children when I was young and having them so close together.当我年轻的时候有了自己的孩子,他们是如此靠近。Every time I would get pregnant, and just, I was afraid to tell Joe.我每次怀的时候,我只是不敢告诉乔。We didnt believe in abortion, so thats why we got so many children.我们不相信堕胎,所以这就是为什么我们有这么多的孩子。The children around our neighbourhood, especially the boys, they were kind of bad, some of them.孩子们在我们的社区,特别是男孩们,他们中的一些人很坏。They would break in peoples cars and do things.他们会对人们的汽车搞破坏及做些别的事情。And our children were never allowed to go out at night or play with those kids.而我们的孩子们不允许晚上出去或和那些孩子在一起。They werent really social with the rest of the neighbourhood.他们真的不是像其他社区一样。They clung to each other, and thats how the Jackson were raised.他们喜欢抓着对方,这就是杰克逊被养大的地方。Poor? I mean, that was a way of life.可怜?我的意思是,那只是一种生活方式。We had plenty of food to eat.我们有足够的食物。We were like all the other kids in the area.我们就像在该地区所有其他的孩子们一样。Michael never thought he was poor when he was young,迈克尔从来没想过在他年轻时的贫穷,because he did not know what poor was. He thought everyone.因为他不知道什么是贫穷。他认为每个人都是这样。 201306/245732

Science and technology科学技术Solar energy太阳能Flower power花朵的能量In matters of clever design, nature has often got there first若论巧夺天工,自然常常更胜一筹A virtuous spiral上面的螺纹看似简单,实际有效SOLAR-POWER stations take up a lot of room.太阳能发电站占地面积巨大,They need either vast arrays of photovoltaic panels, which convert sunlight directly into electricity, or of mirrors,站内大部分的空间被光伏太阳能板或和定向反射镜所占据。前者能将光能直接转换为电能;后者会将太阳热折射到锅炉,which direct it towards a boiler, in order to raise steam and drive a generator.利用锅炉将水加热成蒸汽,驱动发电机组工作,达到热能转化为电能的目的。The space these arrays occupy could often be used for other purposes.这些整齐排列的面板和镜身所占的区域通常能用于其它用途。Two researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have now devised a better and more compact way of laying out arrays of mirrors.麻省理工学院的两位研究员就找出了更好的方法布置定向反射镜排列,不仅能节约出更多的空间,还能提高发电效率。Slightly to their chagrin, however, and somehow appropriately,然而,有点儿让他们懊恼的是,they found when they had done the calculations that sunflowers had got there first.他们计算出的和向日葵花盘型花序上所排列的,大致相同。Alexander Mitsos and Corey Noone started with the observation that existing concentrated solar-power plants,Alexander Mitsos和Corey Noone这两位研究员先从观察运行中的集中型太阳能发电厂入手。as those which drive boilers are known, usually have their mirrors arranged in a way that resembles the seating in a cinema.如大家所知,这些发电厂用太阳能驱动锅炉做功产生热量。通常定向反射镜的安排布置与电影院座椅位置如出一辙。The mirrors are placed in concentric semicircles facing a tower, on top of which the boiler and the turbine sit.高塔处于荧屏所在的中心位置,所有的定向反射镜则以高塔为圆心,呈半圆形分布。That arrangement, however, sometimes results in the mirrors shading each other as the suns position in the sky changes,随着一天中太阳在天空中位置的变换,镜身间会出现相互遮挡的问题。even though the mirrors are usually attached to robotic arms that track the sun as it moves.即使厂家通常会在镜身后部安装能随太阳位置变换而相应变换的机械手臂,但这一问题还是无法解决。According to their report in Solar Energy, Dr Mitsos and Mr Noone found that they could do better.据他们在《太阳能》杂志上发表的文章称,两位研究员认为能有方法解决这一难题。They divided each of the mirrors in a real power plant, PS10, in southern Spain into about 100 pieces.在一家位于西班牙南部的发电站,PS10中,他们把每一片定向反射镜的平面面积分为差不多100块。They then plugged each of those pieces into a computer model that calculated all of the energy losses然后将每一片镜身上的这100多块面积里产生的吸热数据接入电脑,通过电脑程序计算出能量损失总和。by noting points where mirrors were not optimally oriented to the sun and places where they hindered one another by blocking incoming or reflected rays.这包括镜身没能直对太阳造成的损失,以及镜身位置因相互遮挡使折射光线受阻或反射到锅炉的光线受阻时造成的损失。It then rejigged them into a better arrangement.然后再根据数据重新对镜身进行排列组合。Fermats conjecture费马螺线魔力Previous efforts have been directed mainly at stopping the mirrors shading each other, which tends to mean sping them out.在此之前,人们做出了种种努力,但总是在镜身相互遮挡这一问题上束手无策。而对此常会采用的是展开布局,增加排列面积来避免这种情况出现。Dr Mitsos and Mr Noone also wanted to save space.而两位研究员还想节省面积。In trying to do so they stumbled on an unusual arrangement that had the desired effect.为此绞尽脑汁之际,他们无意中发现有一种非常规的排列布局有很好的效果。When they showed this layout to a third researcher, Manuel Torrilhon of Aachen University in Germany,他们将这种布局安排展示给另一位研究者,德国亚琛工业大学的Manuel Torrilhon。he recognised the spiral patterns within it, and this prompted the trio to test a design specifically modelled on nature.后者认为这种设计中有螺线存在,这促使三位研究者以向日葵花盘型花序为蓝本仔细测试设计。That design was a pattern known as a Fermat spiral, in which each element is set at a constant angle of 137° to the previous one.他们采用的设计即费马螺线。即每一个圆在之前一个圆旋转角度为137度时,折线回旋螺线。It is most familiar as the arrangement of the florets that make up a sunflower head.这一排列布置与向日葵花的盘型花序纹路如出一辙。When the three researchers programmed their model to arrange PS10s mirrors in front of the tower in a segment from such a spiral,三位研究者按照计划安排PS10发电厂的镜身位置,在高塔前,将定向反射镜呈部分费马螺线状布局。they both improved the efficiency of the collection process and saved space.结果显示在吸收太阳热量的过程中,效率得以提高,占地面积减少。The improvement in efficiency was, admittedly, quite small,诚然,效率提高非常有限,but the space saving was significant—almost 16%.而空间节省面积却很高,减少近16%。If solar power is to make up much of the worlds electricity output in future, as supporters of alternative energy hope it will,如果太阳能如可替代能源持者所希望的一那样,在未来成为世界电力的重要来源,a lot of land will be needed for the power stations.那么太阳能发电站势必将需要占据更大的面积。Reducing that requirement by a sixth, as this discovery promises, would be a big gain.如果能像此次研究所发现的那样,有希望将定向反射镜所占地面积减少六分之一,那么这将是一个巨大的进步。It would also show that if you look hard enough, there really is nothing new under the sun.同样让我们认识到的是,地球上还有许多未知等待我们认真研究。 /201403/280877Science and technology科学技术Animal behaviour动物行为Planet of the apes猩球探秘Chimpanzees personas seem more complex than peoples猩猩的行为特征,似乎比人类还要复杂HUMAN personalities, it is widely agreed by psychologists, can be measured along five dimensions: extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience.大多数心理学家都承认人类性格特征一共可分为五个维度:外向、易相处、善于动手、神经反应和继承性。One person may be more extrovert than another, less agreeable, more conscientious and so on, and to an extent how well two people will get on can be predicted from how their personalities mesh.甲可能比乙更开朗,或者更勤劳,也可能更固执,等等;就这一点说来,两个人相处是否融洽,取决于二人性格相斥还是相吸。People who dont get on, though, have the option of avoiding each other.甲不愿意和乙共处一室,还有选择的余地。That is not true of animals in zoos.而动物园里的动物却只能逆来顺受,But they too have personalities.但是重点在于动物们也有自己的个性。So, to prevent trouble between members of one species—the chimpanzee—Hani Freeman of Lincoln Park Zoo, in Chicago, has developed a way of assessing those personalities.就拿猩猩来说,为防止其同类间发生擦,来自芝加哥林肯公园动物园的哈尼·弗里曼提出一套得以划定动物性格的方法。In doing so, she sheds an intriguing light not only on chimpanzee psychology, but also on the mental evolution of Homo sapiens.此法一经问世,就像点亮了好奇之灯,不仅照亮了黑猩猩心理学研究之路,对于现代智人心理进化探索的影响也不容小觑。As they report in the American Journal of Primatology, Dr Freeman and her colleagues started by surveying the existing literature on chimpanzee behaviour.弗里曼和她的同事将研究成果刊登在《美国灵长类动物学学术期刊》上面,其中提到他们正是基于现有有关猩猩行为表现的文献而展开探索的。This search threw up 55 terms, ranging from bold and jealous to stingy and sexual, that previous investigators had applied to aspects of chimpanzee character.之前调查人员将黑猩猩性格划分之后,得出了55个术语,包括勇敢、嫉妒、吝啬以及性别差异思维,弗里曼的研究将这55个术语高亮显示。The team then asked five experts—a mixture of scientists and zookeepers, all of whom had had years of day-to-day experiences with captive chimpanzees—to provide their own lists of terms.之后研究小组找来5位专家,其中不乏有科学家,有动物园饲养员,他们都曾与笼子中的动物朝夕相处数年之久。这五位要做的是写下他们自己认为的黑猩猩性格术语。These inquiries collected 71 suggestions, 45 of which overlapped with the 55 from the literature search.他们一共给出71个描述性词汇,其中有45个与文献总结的55个术语重叠。Finally, they compared their results with a review of chimpanzee behaviour carried out in 2008 by a different team. That comparison yielded two further terms.最后,研究小组又与2008年另一针对黑猩猩行为研究小组的结论作对比,结论不过增添了两个新术语。Once Dr Freeman had gone through the accumulated list and merged into one term any set that seemed to mean the same thing, she was left with 41 that seemed robust descriptions of chimpanzee attitudes.弗里曼曾认真研读过这一系列术语表单,然后将可以划为一类的术语总结出来。This done, she gave the list to 17 people who work with chimpanzees on a regular basis at a medical-research facility in Texas, and asked them to rate the 99 chimps there for each of the 41 characteristics.最终她留下了41个能够很犀利的描述猩猩行为的术语。归纳工作完成之后,弗里曼将41个术语的列表交给德克萨斯针对猩猩的定期健康检查研究机构,17名工作人员将用41个术语描述99个黑猩猩。She found that different people rated the same animals in the same way. That suggests their assessments were reliable.弗里曼发现即使是不同的人,对于同一批动物得出的结论仍然是相同的。She also found that scores for particular terms tended to cluster together.也就是说,他们的结论是可靠的。弗里曼还察觉到,一类特殊的词汇总是集中性的出现。A chimp that scored highly for irritability, for example, was also likely to score highly for aggression and for jealousy, and to have low scores for calmness and relaxation.比如,一只黑猩猩在易怒一栏得分较高,那么在富有攻击性和嫉妒分栏中得分也较高,相反在稳定和缓和分栏得分较低。That let her apply a statistical technique called principal-component analysis to the data, to work out the dimensions of chimpanzee personality.从而弗里曼在数据整理中获得一项称之为优先分析部分的统计技术,提高界定黑猩猩性格维度的工作效率。It is analysis of this sort which showed that human personas have five dimensions.此类分析得出的人类性格有五个维度,Chimps personas, by contrast, seem to have six.但是黑猩猩性格维度似乎却达到六个。These are extroversion, agreeableness and openness, which match human dimensions, and reactivity, dominance and methodicalness, which do not.外向、易相处和继承性这三点能够对应人类性格特征,而条件反射、统治思维和使用工具却和人类相异。Reactivity is similar to the human dimension called neuroticism, though not similar enough, in Dr Freemans view, to justify the same label.条件反射与人类的神经反应类似,但在弗里曼看来,明确性格标签情况下,相似程度是有限的。And methodicalness, which measures the way animals approach things like using tools and making the nests they sleep in, resembles conscientiousness—though Dr Freemans raters found this difficult to assess because such activities are not much available to the chimps in Texas.动物利用外物的倾向性和建造窝巢统称为使用工具,这一点和人类善于动手是类似的,尽管17位性格划分人员发现很难去评价,因为这类行为在德克萨斯的黑猩猩身上是不常发生的。But there is, intriguingly, no human dimension that resembles chimpanzee dominance.有趣的地方是最后一点,统治思维,这在人类性格维度里毫无对应点。At the moment, it is possible to do little more than speculate about what all this means.此时此刻,也应该分析分析这一切的内在意义了。From a practical point of view it shows that it is probably not a good idea to put two animals with high dominance scores in the same enclosure—a discovery that addresses the question which started the research.从现实角度看,将两只在统治思维一栏中得分较高的黑猩猩放在一个屋檐下,不甚明智,这一问题在研究初始阶段就已经提出。From a theoretical point of view it provides a way to study the mental similarities and differences between chimpanzees and humans:从理论层面看,这给对于人类和黑猩猩之间的心理相似性和差异性研究提供了机会:what, in other words, is core anthropoid behaviour, and what is species-specific.换句话说,类人猿的核心行为是什么,还有不同种类的独有特征是什么? /201311/264837

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