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2019年07月22日 18:35:38来源:同城典范

And it seems to me that the first question我的看法是,is entirely a biology question,第一个问题完全是生物学的问题,and its extremely hard to answer.这是非常难回答。One has to be very speculative,一个人必须非常投机,and many of my colleagues would say that we should not do this speculation,和我的许多同事会说,我们不应该做这种推测,that we should simply keep our counsel until we know more.我们应该简单地保持沉默,直到我们了解更多。I say thats nonsense.我觉得这是一派胡言。I say we absolutely are irresponsible if we stay silent on this.保持沉默,绝对是不负责任的。We need to give our best guess as to the time frame,我们需要给我们最好的猜测有时间框架,in order to give people a sense of proportion以便使人们有个概念,so that they can assess their priorities.使他们能够评估他们的优先事项。So, I say that we have a 50/50 chance所以,我说,从我们应用强健老鼠再生的科技of reaching this RHR milestone,的十五年内,我们有百分之五十的机会robust human rejuvenation, within 15 years from the point实现强健人类再生科技that we get to robust mouse rejuvenation.这个重要的里程碑。15 years from the robust mouse.强健老鼠再生的科技应用的十五年内,The publics perception will probably be somewhat better than that.人们的看法可能会变好。The public tends to underestimate how difficult scientific things are.因为人们往往低估的科学进步的困难性。So theyll probably think its five years away.因此,他们很可能会认为只需五年。Theyll be wrong, but that actually wont matter too much.他们可能是错误的,但实际上这不太重要。And finally, of course, I think its fair to say最后,当然,我认为公众对于老龄化that a large part of the reason why the public is so ambivalent about aging now的看法这么的矛盾的主要原因,is the global trance I spoke about earlier, the coping strategy.是我刚才谈到的全球恍惚的应对策略。That will be history at this point,这将是历史性的一刻,because it will no longer be possible to believe that aging is inevitable in humans,因为公众将不再认为老化是人类不可避免的,since its been postponed so very effectively in mice.因为它已经非常有效地在小老鼠体内被推迟。So were likely to end up with a very strong change in peoples attitudes,因此,我们很可能会看到人们的观念有了巨大变化,and of course that has enormous implications.而这将会具有极大的影响。So in order to tell you now how were going to get these mice,为了现在要告诉你我们要如何得到这些老鼠,Im going to add a little bit to my description of aging.我要补充一点我对老化的描述。Im going to use this word ;damage;我会用“损害”这个词来表示to denote these intermediate things that are caused by metabolism所有由新陈代谢中阶段造成的东西,and that eventually cause pathology.而最终导致不可避免的死亡。Because the critical thing about this因为这个关键的是,is that even though the damage only eventually causes pathology,尽管这些损害只有在最终才会造成不可避免的死亡,the damage itself is caused ongoing-ly throughout life, starting before were born.它们是从我们出生之前就开始累积的东西,我们整个人生它们都不断累积。But it is not part of metabolism itself.但是这些损害不是新陈代谢的一部分,And this turns out to be useful.这一点对我们来说是有益的。Because we can re-draw our original diagram this way.因为这样我们可以重新绘制我们的原始图。We can say that, fundamentally, the difference between gerontology and geriatrics我们可以说,老年学和老年病学之间根本区别就是,is that gerontology tries to inhibit the rate老年学试图抑制新陈代谢,at which metabolism lays down this damage.这些“损害”累积的速度。And Im going to explain exactly what damage is我等一下会准确地解释我所谓in concrete biological terms in a moment.的“损害”在生物学里指的是什么。And geriatricians try to hold back the sands of time老年病学呢,就试图阻止by stopping the damage converting into pathology.这些“损害”所带来的的后果,And the reason its a losing battle比如说死亡。这是一个败仗,is because the damage is continuing to accumulate.因为损害只会继续积累。So theres a third approach, if we look at it this way.如果我们这样看的话,有第三种办法。We can call it the ;engineering approach,;我们可以把它叫做工程方法,and I claim that the engineering approach is within range.我声称工程方法是在人类的科技,技术范围之内。The engineering approach does not intervene in any processes.该工程方法不会干预任何过程。It does not intervene in this process or this one.它不会干预这个过程,也不干预这一个。And thats good because it means that its not a losing battle,这很好,因为这意味着这不是一个败仗,and its something that we are within range of being able to do,并且它是在我们现在的范围之内能够做到的事情,because it doesnt involve improving on evolution.因为它不涉及对人类进化改善。The engineering approach simply says,该工程方法只是表示,;Lets go and periodically repair all of these various types of damage --“我们定期修复所有的这些不同类型的损害 –not necessarily repair them completely, but repair them quite a lot,他们不一定完全修复,so that we keep the level of damage down below the threshold但修复的足以让我们继续避免that must exist, that causes it to be pathogenic.;一个会造成导致死亡或生病的程度。”We know that this threshold exists,我们知道这个门槛程度的存在,because we dont get age-related diseases until were in middle age,因为我们只有当我们在中年时才会得到与年龄有关的疾病,even though the damage has been accumulating since before we were born.即使损害已经从我们诞生时就开始累积了。Why do I say that were in range? Well, this is basically it.为什么我说,在人类近期的技术范围内呢?这基本上就是原因。The point about this slide is actually the bottom.这图片的重点在底部。If we try to say which bits of metabolism are important for aging,如果我们试图说新陈代谢的那个部分才是对老化过程有着重要的影响,we will be here all night, because basically all of metabolism那我们可能要在这里呆一整晚,is important for aging in one way or another.因为基本上新陈代谢的每个组件都对老化有影响。201508/392920。

  • This not only proved unfair, it also proved to be a poor business decision. The lack of women in management came to hurt Avon. Between 1975 and 1985, more than twelve and a half million women entered the ed States work force. These working women had to be served in new ways. But, at that time, Avons leadership team was still made up entirely of men. Womens voices werent heard as we planned our marketing strategy and as a result, sales in our largest market suffered.这不仅不公平,也是一个很糟糕的决策。没有女性参与的管理层开始给雅芳的业务带来损害。在1975年到1985年间,超过1250万妇女加入美国的就业大军。这些职业妇女需要新的务。但是,那时雅芳的领导团队还是全部由男性组成,我们规划市场战略时听不到女性的声音,结果便是我们在美国这个最大市场上的销售情况受到冲击。Fortunately, Avon learned to change. Men and women now work together as equal business partners. They learn from each other and respect each other. We still offer our male executives an outstanding career opportunity, but now women have an equal chance to succeed.幸运的是,雅芳学会了改变。男性和女性现在作为平等的商业搭档一起工作。他们互相学习,互相尊重。我们仍向男性高级管理者提供最佳的职业发展机会,但现在,女性有了同样的成功的可能性。Today, six out of eleven of Avons board of directors are women. My number two executive is a woman. Almost half of our management staff around the world are women. And importantly, we have put in place special programs to develop the next generation of women who are being trained and prepared to become General Managers in markets all over the world.今天,雅芳的11位董事会成员中有6位是女性,我的助手是一名女性,我们全球的管理层几乎一半是女性。重要的是,我们设立了专门的项目来培养下一代女性职员,准备把她们培养成全球各个市场的总经理。 /201303/232510。
  • While you are basking in the glow当你沉浸在你第一次of having won your first massively multiplayer thumb-wrestling game,赢得超级多人拇指摔跤比赛胜利的光荣中时lets do a quick recap on the positive emotions.我们来说说这当中的正面情绪So curiosity.好奇心I said ;massively multiplayer thumb-wrestling.;当我说超级多人拇指摔跤的时候You were like, ;What the hell is she talking about?;你大概会想:她到底在说什么?So I provoked a little curiosity.我引发了一些好奇心Creativity:创造力:it took creativity to solve the problem of getting all the thumbs into the node.把所有的拇指连结到一个节点,需要发挥创造力Im reaching around and Im reaching up.要和周遭以及上面的人连结So you used creativity. That was great.所以你们发挥了创造力,这样很好How about surprise? The actual feeling那惊喜呢?of trying to wrestle two thumbs at once is pretty surprising.同时用两个拇指摔跤,是很让人惊喜的事You heard that sound go up in the room.你听到了这个房间里的声音变大了We had excitement. As you started to wrestle,还有兴奋:当你开始摔跤的时候maybe youre starting to win or this persons, like, really into it,你也许觉得能够赢过那个人so you kind of get the excitement going.所以你开始感到兴奋We have relief. You got to stand up.我们得到了解脱:你得站起来Youve been sitting for awhile, so the physical relief, getting to shake it out.你们已经坐着好一阵子了,身体的舒缓把疲劳一扫而空We had joy. You were laughing, smiling.我们得到了喜悦。你们在大笑、微笑,Look at your faces. This room is full of joy.看看这些面孔。这个房间里充满了喜悦We had some contentment.我们感到很满足I didnt see anybody sending text messages or checking their email while we were playing,当我们在玩的时候,我没看到有人在传讯息,或是在看电子邮件so you were totally content to be playing.表示你们完全满足于玩这个游戏The most important three emotions,最重要的三个情绪、敬畏、以及惊讶awe and wonder, we had everybody connected physically for a minute.我们把所有人在生理上连结起来了一分钟When was the last time you were at TED你们上次在TED演说当中and you got to connect physically with every single person in the room?和在这房间里的每一个人,产生连结是什么时候?And its truly awesome and wondrous.这真是令人惊讶又奇妙And speaking of physical connection,说到生理上的连结you guys know I love the hormone oxytocin,我很喜欢催产素这个荷尔蒙you release oxytocin, you feel bonded to everyone in the room.当你分泌催产素时,你会感到跟这个房间里的所有人产生了连结You guys know that the best way to release oxytocin quickly快速分泌催产素的最好方法就是is to hold someone elses hand for at least six seconds.握住另一个人的手至少六秒You guys were all holding hands for way more than six seconds,你们都握了远远超过六秒so we are all now biochemically primed to love each other. That is great.所以我们现在正因为,生化反应的刺激而爱对方,这很棒And the last emotion of pride.最后一种情绪是骄傲How many people are like me. Just admit it.有多少人跟我一样,承认吧You lost both your thumbs.你两个拇指都输了It just didnt work out for you.那这个情绪就不适用在你身上Thats okay, because you learned a new skill today.但没关系,因为你今天学了一项新技能You learned, from scratch, a game you never knew before.你学到,从基础开始,一个你从来不知道的游戏Now you know how to play it.You can teach other people.现在你知道如何玩这个游戏,你可以教别人玩So congratulations.恭喜你How many of you won just won thumb?有多少人只有赢一个拇指?All right. I have very good news for you.好,我有个好消息告诉你们According to the official rules of massively multiplayer thumb-wrestling,根据多人拇指摔跤的正式规则this makes you a grandmaster of the game.这表示你是这个游戏的大师Because there arent that many people who know how to play,因为并没有很多人知道怎么玩we have to kind of accelerate the program more than a game like chess.我们必须让更多人认识这个游戏,让它变得比西洋棋还要热门So congratulations, grandmasters.恭喜,大师们Win one thumb once, you will become a grandmaster.赢一个拇指,就会让你成为一位大师Did anybody win both their thumbs?有人两个拇指都赢的吗?Yes. Awesome. Okay.有。大棒了。好Get y to update your Twitter or Facebook status.准备在Twitter或是Facebook上面更新状态吧You guys, according to the rules, are legendary grandmasters, so congratulations.根据规则,你们是传奇大师,恭喜I will just leave you with this tip,if you want to play again.如果你们还想再玩的话,让我告诉你们一个秘诀The best way to become a legendary grandmaster,youve got your two nodes going on.成为一位传奇大师最好的方法,要同时注意你的两个节点Pick off the one that looks easiest.选看起来比较容易的那个下手Theyre not paying attention. They look kind of weak.别人并不专心,他们看起来很弱Focus on that one and do something crazy with this arm.专注在那一边,并用这边的手臂做些疯狂事As soon as you win, suddenly stop.当你赢了之后,马上停止Everybody is thrown off. You go in for the kill.每个人都会被分心,你就进去大杀四方Thats how you become a legendary grandmaster of massively multiplayer thumb-wrestling.如此就能成为多人拇指摔跤的传奇大师Thank you for letting me teach you my favorite game.谢谢你们让我教你们我最喜欢的游戏201512/417980。
  • The first one is very simple: experience bars measuring progress首先看一个简单的:用经验值条量度进程something thats been talked about brilliantly by people like Jesse Schell earlier this year.它曾经被人精地讨论过,比如杰西谢尔,在今年的早些时候Its aly been done at the University of Indiana in the States, among other places.它已经被美国印第安纳大学做到了,也在其他的地方Its the simple idea that instead of grading people incrementally in little bits and pieces,这个朴素的理念是,取代用零碎的方式将人们逐步分级you give them one profile character avatar你给他们一个人物轮廓which is constantly progressing in tiny, tiny, tiny little increments which they feel are their own.一个可以不断进步的以非常,非常小的增量,一种他们感觉是自己的东西And everything comes towards that,然后所有事都向其发展and they watch it creeping up, and they own that as it goes along.他们看着其攀升,然后他们的自我也随之提升Second, multiple long and short-term aims第二点,长期与短期目标5,000 pies, boring, 15 pies, interesting.5000个馅饼,无趣,15个,有趣So, you give people lots and lots of different tasks.所以你给人们很多很多不同的任务You say, its about doing 10 of these questions,你说,这个是解决其中的10个问题but another task is turning up to 20 classes on time,但另一个任务是在规定时间里上升20个等级but another task is collaborating with other people,另一个任务是和其他人一起合作的another task is showing youre working five times,另一个任务要求你工作量提高五倍another task is hitting this particular target.还有一个任务是达到某个特定目标You break things down into these calibrated slices你把事情分成这些可计量的小部分that people can choose and do in parallel to keep them engaged人们可以选择然后同时进行以让他们持续参与and that you can use to point them towards individually beneficial activities.并将它们和个人的获利行为挂钩。Third, you reward effort.第三,奖励成就Its your 100 percent factor. Games are brilliant at this.这是你百分之百的要素,游戏在此很明确Every time you do something, you get credit; you get a credit for trying.每次你做一些事,你得到功劳,你因尽力而为获得认可You dont punish failure. You reward every little bit of effort你不惩罚失败,你奖励每一个小小的努力a little bit of gold, a little bit of credit. Youve done 20 questions,tick.你的一点金子,你的一点功劳--你解决了20个问题--打上勾It all feeds in as minute reinforcement.这些都是通过小小的鼓励实现的。Fourth, feedback.第四,反馈This is absolutely crucial, and virtuality is dazzling at delivering this.这绝对关键,虚拟世界以眼花缭乱的方式传递这一信息If you look at some of the most intractable problems in the world today如果你看看今天世界上一些最棘手的问题that weve been hearing amazing things about,我们所听到的一些惊人的事情its very, very hard for people to learn非常,非常难为人们所领会if they cannot link consequences to actions.如果他们不能把结果与行为连接起来Pollution, global warming, these things--the consequences are distant in time and space.污染,全球变暖,这些事情结果的产生在时间和空间上都是久远的Its very hard to learn, to feel a lesson.这非常难以学习或者体会经验But if you can model things for people,但是如果你能模拟东西给人们看if you can give things to people that they can manipulate如果你给予人们一些东西,他们可以操作and play with and where the feedback comes,可以演示,可以收集反馈then they can learn a lesson, they can see,人们就可以学到经验,他们能看they can move on, they can understand.他们能行动,他们能明白And fifth, the element of uncertainty.第五点,不确定性因素Now this is the neurological goldmine, if you like,现在这是个神经学金矿,如果你愿意的话because a known reward excites people,因为一个已知的奖励会激发人们but what really gets them going is the uncertain reward,但是真正能让他们前进下去的是未知的奖励the reward pitched at the right level of uncertainty,带着适当不确定性的奖励that they didnt quite know whether they were going to get it or not.也就是人们不知道是否能得到的奖励The 25 percent. This lights the brain up.比如25%的获奖机率,会使大脑兴奋And if you think about using this in testing,如果你想把它运用到测验中in just introducing control elements of randomness in all forms of testing and training,引入控制随机变量到任何形式的检测和训练里you can transform the levels of peoples engagement你能够改变人们的投入程度by tapping into this very powerful evolutionary mechanism.通过引进这种非常有力的进化机制When we dont quite predict something perfectly,当我们不能完全预测某事时we get really excited about it.我们为之十分兴奋We just want to go back and find out more.我们就想追溯出更多东西201511/411325。
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